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Cancer

Pink Cancer Ribbon Knowledge and Information about Cancer. Some of the things you should know about Cancer.

Cancer kills 20,000 People a Day. 8 Million people a Year Die from Cancer. In 1900, 1 of 20 got cancer today it's 1 in 3 get cancer. 57 percent of cancer cases now occur in low and middle-income countries. 65 percent of cancer deaths worldwide occur in these countries. Despite all the pink ribbons and billions of dollars in research, another 246,000 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer this year. The Number Of Women Dying Of Cancer Could Double By 2030. Don't wait till you get cancer to start eating healthier. Most cancers are preventable.

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'An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure'


Immune System - Cancer Therapies - Skin Cancer

There will be 1,660,290 new cancer cases and 580,350 cancer deaths projected to occur in the U.S. in 2013. In 2016, an estimated 1,685,210 new cases of cancer will be diagnosed in the United States and 595,690 people will die from the disease. Cancer worldwide is expected to rise by 75 % over the next 20 years. In 2012 there were 14.1 million new cases of cancer around the globe. One in two men and one in three women will be diagnosed with cancer. Over 50 children in the age group of one month to 14 years die of cancer every day in India, In developed countries, more than 80% of children suffering with cancer are cured because of significant progress in treatment. the rate of mortality due to pediatric cancer in India at 37 per million every year. As many as 40 percent of cancer cases, and half of cancer deaths, come down to things people could easily change. Smoking causes 80 to 90 percent of lung cancer deaths. According to Cancer Research UK, 54% of men and 48% of women will get cancer at some point in their lives. Just 10 cancers — in eight organs, the blood and the lymphatic system — will account for more than 70 percent of new cancer cases in the United States this year in 2017, according to estimates from the American Cancer Society. Cancer Drug Spending tops $100 Billion in 2014, up 10% in a Year. Two-thirds of Americans diagnosed with cancer now live at least five years, versus just more than half in 1990. Living long enough to give drug companies more profits. War Profiteers

Cancer Screening aims to detect cancer before symptoms appear. This may involve blood tests, urine tests, other tests, or medical imaging. The benefits of screening in terms of cancer prevention, early detection and subsequent treatment must be weighed against any harms. 1800-4-CANCER or 1-800-422-6237 - NCI Cancer Information Service.

Early Cancer Detection (video) Jorge Soto

Test for Pancreatic Cancer (video) - 15-year-old Jack Andraka

New Device Accurately Identifies Cancer in Seconds MasSpec Pen rapidly and accurately detects cancer in humans during surgery, helping improve treatment and reduce the chances of cancer recurrence.

OnCoBlot Blood Serum Test helps identify up to 25 different cancers with a single test and it is 96% accurate?

Fecal Immunochemical Test is a screening test for colon cancer. It tests for hidden blood in the stool, which "could" be an early sign of cancer. Colorectal Cancer Incidence Patterns in the United States, 1974–2013. (FIT)

Liquid Biopsies is a Blood test to detect Circulating Tumor Cells, which are cells that have shed into the vasculature or lymphatics from a primary tumor and are carried around the body in the circulation. A simple new blood test that can catch cancer early.

Blood Test that detects Breast Cancer

Freenome aims to diagnose cancer from blood samples. It examines DNA fragments in the bloodstream that are spewed out by cells as they die. Using deep learning, it asks computers to find correlations between cell-free DNA and some cancers.

Cancer App - Cloud4Cancer Breast Cancer Detection

Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. Not all tumors are cancerous; benign tumors do not spread to other parts of the body. Possible signs and symptoms include a lump, abnormal bleeding, prolonged cough, unexplained weight loss and a change in bowel movements. While these symptoms may indicate cancer, they may have other causes. Over 100 cancers affect humans.
Cancer (gov)

Neoplasm, or Tumor, is an abnormal growth of tissue, and, when it also forms a mass, is commonly referred to as a tumor.
This abnormal growth (neoplasia) usually but not always forms a mass.

Malignancy is the tendency of a medical condition to become progressively worse.

Benign Tumor is a mass of cells (tumor) that lacks the ability to invade neighboring tissue or metastasize. These characteristics are required for a tumor to be defined as cancerous and therefore benign tumors are non-cancerous.

Metastasis is the spread of a cancer or other disease from one organ or part of the body to another without being directly connected with it. The new occurrences of disease thus generated are referred to as metastases (mets). Cancer occurs after a single cell in a tissue is progressively genetically damaged to produce cells with uncontrolled proliferation. This uncontrolled proliferation by mitosis produces a primary heterogeneic tumour. The cells which constitute the tumor eventually undergo metaplasia, followed by dysplasia then anaplasia, resulting in a malignant phenotype. This malignancy allows for invasion into the circulation, followed by invasion to a second site for tumorigenesis. Metastatic Cancer - Metastasize.

Carcinogenesis is the formation of a cancer, whereby normal cells are transformed into cancer cells. The process is characterized by changes at the cellular, genetic, and epigenetic levels and abnormal cell division, in some cancers forming a malignant mass. Cell division is a physiological process that occurs in almost all tissues and under many circumstances. Under normal circumstances, the balance between proliferation and programmed cell death, usually in the form of apoptosis, is maintained by regulation of both processes to ensure the integrity of tissues and organs.

Cell-Free Tumour DNA is tumour DNA circulating freely in the blood of a cancer patient. Analysis of the fraction of mutant-alleles from ctDNA compared to normal-alleles from the patients normal genome provides opportunities for minimally-invasive cancer diagnosis, prognosis and tumour monitoring. ctDNA originates from dying tumour cells and can be present in a wide range of cancers but at varying levels and mutant allele fractions. The ctDNA is highly fragmented to around 170 bp and is cleared rapidly after surgery to remove tumours or chemotherapeutic treatment.

Mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei. In general, mitosis (division of the nucleus) is preceded by the S stage of interphase (during which the DNA is replicated) and is often accompanied or followed by cytokinesis, which divides the cytoplasm, organelles and cell membrane into two new cells containing roughly equal shares of these cellular components. Inflammation

Tumour Heterogeneity describes the observation that different tumour cells can show distinct morphological and phenotypic profiles, including cellular morphology, gene expression, metabolism, motility, proliferation, and metastatic potential.

Glioblastoma Multiforme is the most aggressive cancer that begins within the brain.

Smoking Rates by State U.S. Map Carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that is an agent directly involved in causing cancer. This may be due to the ability to damage the genome or to the disruption of cellular metabolic processes. Several radioactive substances are considered carcinogens, but their carcinogenic activity is attributed to the radiation, for example gamma rays and alpha particles, which they emit. Common examples of non-radioactive carcinogens are inhaled asbestos, certain dioxins, and tobacco smoke. Although the public generally associates carcinogenicity with synthetic chemicals, it is equally likely to arise in both natural and synthetic substances. Carcinogens are not necessarily immediately toxic, thus their effect can be insidious.
List of IARC Group 2B Carcinogens (wiki)
Cellphones and Cancer

Mesothelioma is a rare, aggressive form of cancer that is caused by a person either inhaling or ingesting tiny asbestos fibers.

Oncogene is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer. In tumor cells, they are often mutated or expressed at high levels. Most normal cells will undergo a programmed form of rapid cell death (apoptosis) when critical functions are altered. Activated oncogenes can cause those cells designated for apoptosis to survive and proliferate instead. Most oncogenes require an additional step, such as mutations in another gene, or environmental factors, such as viral infection, to cause cancer. Since the 1970s, dozens of oncogenes have been identified in human cancer. Many cancer drugs target the proteins encoded by oncogenes.

Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cancer. A medical professional who practices oncology is an oncologist. The three components which have improved survival in cancer are: Prevention - This is by reduction of risk factors like tobacco and alcohol consumption. Early diagnosis - Screening of common cancers[4] and comprehensive diagnosis and staging. Treatment - Multimodality management by discussion in tumor board and treatment in a comprehensive cancer centre.

Oncology Database
US Oncology
Clinical Oncology
Oncology News

Childhood Cancer Organization
Understanding Cancer
mtDNA mutations increase tumorigenicity in prostate cancer.
Cancer Center
Cancer Research

Epstein-Barr Virus and Cancer (youtube)

Cytomegalovirus is a genus of viruses in the order Herpesvirales, in the family Herpesviridae, in the subfamily Betaherpesvirinae. Humans and monkeys serve as natural hosts.

Cancer Rates by State in US Cancer Clusters is a high number of cancer cases occurs in a group of people in a particular geographic area over a limited period of time. Historical examples of work-related cancer clusters are well documented in the medical literature.

Cancer Clusters

Cancer Incidence and Mortality Data (1999–2013)

Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention is a peer-reviewed medical journal devoted to research in the field of cancer epidemiology. Topics include descriptive, analytical, biochemical, and molecular epidemiology, the use of biomarkers to study the neoplastic and preneoplastic processes in humans, chemoprevention and other types of prevention trials, and the role of behavioral factors in cancer etiology and prevention.

Disease - Pollution - Toxins

Epidemiology of Cancer is the study of the factors affecting cancer, as a way to infer possible trends and causes. The study of cancer epidemiology uses epidemiological methods to find the cause of cancer and to identify and develop improved treatments. This area of study must contend with problems of lead time bias and length time bias.


Natural Defenses

Tumor Suppressor Gene is a gene that protects a cell from one step on the path to cancer. When this gene mutates to cause a loss or reduction in its function, the cell can progress to cancer, usually in combination with other genetic changes. The loss of these genes may be even more important than proto-oncogene/oncogene activation for the formation of many kinds of human cancer cells. Tumor suppressor genes can be grouped into categories including caretaker genes, gatekeeper genes, and landscaper genes; the classification schemes are evolving as medicine advances, learning from fields including molecular biology, genetics, and epigenetics.

Caretaker Gene encode products that stabilize the genome. Fundamentally, mutations in caretaker genes lead to genomic instability. Tumor cells arise from two distinct classes of genomic instability: mutational instability arising from changes in the nucleotide sequence of DNA and chromosomal instability arising from improper rearrangement of chromosomes. In contrast to caretaker genes, gatekeeper genes encode gene products that act to prevent growth of potential cancer cells and prevent accumulation of mutations that directly lead to increased cellular proliferation. The third classification of genes, the landscapers, encode products that, when mutated, contribute to the neoplastic growth of cells by fostering a stromal environment conducive to unregulated cell proliferation.

Neurogenesis

DNA Repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome. In human cells, both normal metabolic activities and environmental factors such as radiation can cause DNA damage, resulting in as many as 1 million individual molecular lesions per cell per day. Many of these lesions cause structural damage to the DNA molecule and can alter or eliminate the cell's ability to transcribe the gene that the affected DNA encodes. Other lesions induce potentially harmful mutations in the cell's genome, which affect the survival of its daughter cells after it undergoes mitosis. As a consequence, the DNA repair process is constantly active as it responds to damage in the DNA structure. When normal repair processes fail, and when cellular apoptosis does not occur, irreparable DNA damage may occur, including double-strand breaks and DNA crosslinkages (interstrand crosslinks or ICLs). This can eventually lead to malignant tumors, or cancer as per the two hit hypothesis. The rate of DNA repair is dependent on many factors, including the cell type, the age of the cell, and the extracellular environment. A cell that has accumulated a large amount of DNA damage, or one that no longer effectively repairs damage incurred to its DNA, can enter one of three possible states: An irreversible state of dormancy, known as senescence. Cell suicide, also known as apoptosis or programmed cell death. Unregulated cell division, which can lead to the formation of a tumor that is cancerous. The DNA repair ability of a cell is vital to the integrity of its genome and thus to the normal functionality of that organism. Many genes that were initially shown to influence life span have turned out to be involved in DNA damage repair and protection.

TP53 is any isoform of a protein encoded by homologous genes in various organisms, such as TP53 (humans) and Trp53 (mice). This homolog (originally thought to be, and often spoken of as, a single protein) is crucial in multicellular organisms, where it prevents cancer formation, thus, functions as a tumor suppressor. As such, p53 has been described as "the guardian of the genome" because of its role in conserving stability by preventing genome mutation. Hence TP53 is classified as a tumor suppressor gene.(Italics are used to denote the TP53 gene name and distinguish it from the protein it encodes).
P53 Tumor Suppressor Protein

Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres. Telomeres are specialized structures at the ends of the linear chromosomes. Their
maintenance is essential for the unlimited proliferation of cells due to the 3'-end erosion, a process intrinsic to the replication of linear chromosomes. Progressive telomere shortening in somatic cells can lead to the induction of senescence or apoptosis, thus acting as a barrier to unlimited proliferation and tumorigenesis, which is the production of a new tumor or tumors.

Tumor Antigen is an antigenic substance produced in tumor cells, i.e., it triggers an immune response in the host. Tumor antigens are useful tumor markers in identifying tumor cells with diagnostic tests and are potential candidates for use in cancer therapy. The field of cancer immunology studies such topics.

The Cancer Genome Atlas is a project, begun in 2005, to catalogue genetic mutations responsible for cancer, using genome sequencing and bioinformatics. TCGA applies high-throughput genome analysis techniques to improve our ability to diagnose, treat, and prevent cancer through a better understanding of the genetic basis of this disease.

Cancer Epigenetics is the study of epigenetic modifications to the genome of cancer cells that do not involve a change in the nucleotide sequence. Epigenetic alterations are as important as genetic mutations in a cell's transformation to cancer, and their manipulation holds great promise for cancer prevention, detection, and therapy.

Bone Morphogenetic Protein are a group of growth factors also known as cytokines and as metabologens. Originally discovered by their ability to induce the formation of bone and cartilage, BMPs are now considered to constitute a group of pivotal morphogenetic signals, orchestrating tissue architecture throughout the body. The important functioning of BMP signals in physiology is emphasized by the multitude of roles for dysregulated BMP signaling in pathological processes. Cancerous disease often involves misregulation of the BMP signaling system. Absence of BMP signaling is, for instance, an important factor in the progression of colon cancer, and conversely, over activation of BMP signaling following reflux-induced esophagitis provokes Barrett's esophagus and is thus instrumental in the development of adenocarcinoma in the proximal portion of the gastrointestinal tract.

A signaling pathway is a group of molecules in a cell that work together to control one or more cell functions. Like a cascade, after the first molecule in a pathway receives a signal, it activates another molecule and so forth until the cell function is carried out.

Cancer Survivor is a person with cancer of any type who is still living. Whether a person becomes a survivor at the time of diagnosis or after completing treatment, whether people who are actively dying are considered survivors, and whether healthy friends and family members of the cancer patient are also considered survivors, varies from group to group. Some people who have been diagnosed with cancer reject the term survivor or disagree with some definitions of it. How many people are cancer survivors depends on the definition used. About 11 million Americans alive today—one in 30 people–are either currently undergoing treatment for cancer or have done so in the past. Currently nearly 65% of adults diagnosed with cancer in the developed world are expected to live at least five years after the cancer is discovered.

Almost 15 percent of Lung Cancer Survivors are still smokers. Prevalence and correlates of smoking and cessation-related behavior among survivors of ten cancers.

While studying the underpinnings of multiple sclerosis, investigators came across important clues for how to treat cancer. Researchers describe an Anti-LAP Antibody that can precisely target regulatory T cells which in turn unleashes the immune system to kill cancer cells. The team reports that the antibody decreased tumor growth in models of melanoma, glioblastoma and colorectal carcinoma, making it an attractive candidate for cancer immunotherapy.


Immune System


Immune System is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease. To function properly, an immune system must detect a wide variety of agents, known as pathogens, from viruses to parasitic worms, and distinguish them from the organism's own healthy tissue. Aids

Immuno-Stimulant are substances (drugs and nutrients) that stimulate the immune system by inducing activation or increasing activity of any of its components. One notable example is the granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

Boost your Immune System (harvard)
Scientists stimulate immune system, stop cancer growth

Immunotherapy is the "treatment of disease by inducing, enhancing, or suppressing an immune response". Immunotherapies designed to elicit or amplify an immune response are classified as activation immunotherapies, while immunotherapies that reduce or suppress are classified as suppression immunotherapies. Immunomodulatory regimens often have fewer side effects than existing drugs, including less potential for creating resistance when treating microbial disease. Cell-based immunotherapies are effective for some cancers. Immune effector cells such as lymphocytes,macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells (NK Cell), cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), etc., work together to defend the body against cancer by targeting abnormal antigens expressed on the surface of tumor cells. Therapies such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), interferons, imiquimod and cellular membrane fractions from bacteria are licensed for medical use. Others including IL-2, IL-7, IL-12, various chemokines, synthetic cytosine phosphate-guanosine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides and glucans are involved in clinical and preclinical studies. DNA sensor plays critical role in cancer immunotherapy via response to unexpected DNA form.

Polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cell (PMN-MDSC) express high levels of a surface protein known as FAS-ligand, which induces T cell suicide when it binds its receptor on T cells. The researchers show that depleting PMN-MDSCs from
the tumors or blocking FAS-ligand binding to its receptor restored the ability of the T cells to kill induced tumors.

Lymphatic System is part of the circulatory system and a vital part of the immune system, comprising a network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph (from Latin, lympha meaning "water") directionally towards the heart.

CAR T-Cell Gene Therapy Kymriah (tisagenlecleucel) is a living drug that involves using genetically modified T-cells or immune cells from patients to attack their cancer. Kymriah is a genetically-modified autologous T-cell immunotherapy. The patient’s T-cells are collected and sent to a manufacturing center where they are genetically modified to include a new gene that contains a specific protein (a chimeric antigen receptor or CAR) that directs the T-cells to target and kill leukemia cells that have a specific antigen (CD19) on the surface. Once the cells are modified, they are infused back into the patient to kill the cancer cells. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia is a cancer of the bone marrow and blood, in which the body makes abnormal lymphocytes, which is a type of white blood cell.

Complement System is a part of the immune system that enhances (complements) the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells from an organism, promotes inflammation, and attacks the pathogen's plasma membrane. It is part of the innate immune system, which is not adaptable and does not change over the course of an individual's lifetime. It can be recruited and brought into action by the adaptive immune system.

Adaptive Immune System is a subsystem of the overall immune system that is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate pathogens or prevent their growth. The adaptive immune system is one of the two main immunity strategies found in vertebrates (the other being the innate immune system). Adaptive immunity creates immunological memory after an initial response to a specific pathogen, and leads to an enhanced response to subsequent encounters with that pathogen. This process of acquired immunity is the basis of vaccination. Like the innate system, the adaptive system includes both humoral immunity components and cell-mediated immunity components.

Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms.

Brain Immune System Link - Blood Brain Barrier

Fight cancer using  someone else's immune cells

Immunity is the balanced state of having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, and autoimmune diseases.

Immune Response is the immunological response originating from immune system activation by antigens, including immunity to pathogenic microorganisms and its products, as well as autoimmunity to self-antigens allergies, and graft ejections. In this process main cells involved are the T Cells, B cells of lymphocytes, and macrophagea. These cells produce lymphokines that influence the other host cells activities. B cells mature to produce immunoglobulins or antibodies, that react with antigens. At same time, macrophages are processing the antigens into immunogenic units which stimulate B lymphocites to differentiation into antibody secreting plasma cells, stimulating the T cells to realise lymphokines.

Allergy are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to something in the environment that usually causes little or no problem in most people. These diseases include hay fever, food allergies, atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma, and anaphylaxis. Symptoms may include red eyes, an itchy rash, sneezing, a runny nose, shortness of breath, or swelling. Food intolerances and food poisoning are separate conditions.

Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues. Any disease that results from such an aberrant immune response is termed an Autoimmune Disease.

Cargo-carrying Red Blood Cells alleviate Autoimmune Diseases in Mice Autoimmune Disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part. There are at least 80 types of autoimmune diseases. Nearly any body part can be involved. Common symptoms include low grade fever and feeling tired. Often symptoms come and go.
Cargo-carrying Red Blood Cells alleviate Autoimmune Diseases in Mice

Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID)
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

Pemphigus Vulgaris is a rare chronic blistering skin disease. It is classified as a type II hypersensitivity reaction, with the formation of antibodies against desmosomes, components of the skin that function to keep certain layers of skin bound to each other. As desmosomes are attacked, the layers of skin separate and the clinical picture resembles a blister. Over time the condition inevitably progresses without treatment: lesions increase in size and distribution throughout the body, behaving physiologically like a severe burn. Before the advent of modern treatments, mortality for the disease was close to 90%. Today, the mortality rate with treatment is between 5-15%.

Antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response on the part of the host organism, though sometimes antigens can be part of the host itself. In other words, an antigen is any substance that causes an immune system to produce antibodies against it. Each antibody is specifically produced by the immune system to match an antigen after cells in the immune system come into contact with it; this allows a precise identification of the antigen and the initiation of a tailored response. The antibody is said to "match" the antigen in the sense that it can bind to it thanks to adaptations performed to a region of the antibody; because of this, many different antibodies can be produced, with specificity to bind many different antigens while sharing the same basic structure. In most cases, an antibody can only bind one specific antigen; in some instances, however, antibodies may bind more than one antigen.

Neuroimmune System is a system of structures and processes involving the biochemical and electrophysiological interactions between the nervous system and immune system which protect neurons from pathogens. It serves to protect neurons against disease by maintaining selectively permeable barriers (e.g., the blood–brain barrier and blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier), mediating neuro-inflammation and wound healing in damaged neurons, and mobilizing host defenses against pathogens.

Immunodeficiency is a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease and cancer is compromised or entirely absent.

AIDS: Genetically-intact HIV hides in specific subsets of CD4+ T-cells. (effector memory T-cells). Specific immune memory T-cells where infectious HIV 'hides' in the human body to evade detection by the immune system.

Synthetic immunology: modulating the human immune system In synthetic immunology, biological devices are engineered to rationally modulate immune responses. Molecules derived from the immune system are modified to capture cytokines or cells Autologous immune cells are designed to cure immunodeficiencies or eradicate tumors.

Pattern Recognition Receptor are a primitive part of the immune system. They are proteins expressed by cells of the innate immune system to identify two classes of molecules: pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which are associated with microbial pathogens, and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which are associated with cell components that are released during cell damage or death. They are also called primitive pattern recognition receptors because they evolved before other parts of the immune system, particularly before adaptive immunity.

Cancer Immunology is a branch of immunology that studies interactions between the immune system and cancer cells (also called tumors or malignancies). It is a field of research that aims to discover cancer immunotherapies to treat and retard progression of the disease. The immune response, including the recognition of cancer-specific antigens, forms the basis of targeted therapy (such as vaccines and antibody therapies) and tumor marker-based diagnostic tests.

Cholesterol Byproduct Hijacks Immune Cells, lets Breast Cancer Spread
27-Hydroxycholesterol (wiki)

How to Help our Immune Cells to Recognize Cancer Cells.
What the Sugar Coating on your Cells is trying to tell you (video and interactive text)

Sialic Acid is a generic term for the N- or O-substituted derivatives of neuraminic acid, a monosaccharide with a nine-carbon backbone. It is also the name for the most common member of this group, N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac or NANA). Sialic acids are found widely distributed in animal tissues and to a lesser extent in other organisms, ranging from plants and fungi to yeasts and bacteria, mostly in glycoproteins and gangliosides (they occur at the end of sugar chains connected to the surfaces of cells and soluble proteins). (Blood Type) In humans the brain has the highest sialic acid concentration, where these acids play an important role in neural transmission and ganglioside structure in synaptogenesis. In general, the amino group bears either an acetyl or a glycolyl group, but other modifications have been described. These modifications along with linkages have shown to be tissue specific and developmentally regulated expressions, so some of them are only found on certain types of glycoconjugates in specific cells. The hydroxyl substituents may vary considerably; acetyl, lactyl, methyl, sulfate, and phosphate groups have been found.

Discovery of Brain-like activity in immune system promises better disease treatments. Human immune cells contain particles that have neurotransmitters including dopamine, which plays a crucial role in immune responses. Neurons rely on synaptic interactions and neurotransmitters such as dopamine, which are small molecules transmitted across synapses to deliver signals from one cell to another that play a major role in reward-motivated behaviour. Like neurons, specialised T cells transfer dopamine to B cells that provides additional 'motivation' for B cells to produce the best antibodies they can to help to clear up an infection.

Antibody is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as bacteria and viruses. The antibody recognizes a unique molecule of the harmful agent, called an antigen, via the Fab's variable region. Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody contains a paratope (analogous to a lock) that is specific for one particular epitope (similarly analogous to a key) on an antigen, allowing these two structures to bind together with precision. Using this binding mechanism, an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for attack by other parts of the immune system, or can neutralize its target directly (for example, by blocking a part of a microbe that is essential for its invasion and survival). Depending on the antigen, the binding may impede the biological process causing the disease or may activate macrophages to destroy the foreign substance. The ability of an antibody to communicate with the other components of the immune system is mediated via its Fc region (located at the base of the "Y"), which contains a conserved glycosylation site involved in these interactions. The production of antibodies is the main function of the humoral immune system. Also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), Antibodies are secreted by B cells of the adaptive immune system, mostly by differentiated B cells called plasma cells. Antibodies can occur in two physical forms, a soluble form that is secreted from the cell to be free in the blood plasma, and a membrane-bound form that is attached to the surface of a B cell and is referred to as the B-cell receptor (BCR). The BCR is found only on the surface of B cells and facilitates the activation of these cells and their subsequent differentiation into either antibody factories called plasma cells or memory B cells that will survive in the body and remember that same antigen so the B cells can respond faster upon future exposure. In most cases, interaction of the B cell with a T helper cell is necessary to produce full activation of the B cell and, therefore, antibody generation following antigen binding. Soluble antibodies are released into the blood and tissue fluids, as well as many secretions to continue to survey for invading microorganisms. Antibodies are glycoproteins belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily. They constitute most of the gamma globulin fraction of the blood proteins. They are typically made of basic structural units—each with two large heavy chains and two small light chains. There are several different types of antibody heavy chains that define the five different types of crystallisable fragments (Fc) that may be attached to the antigen-binding fragments. The five different types of Fc regions allow antibodies to be grouped into five isotypes. Each Fc region of a particular antibody isotype is able to bind to its specific Fc Receptor (except for IgD, which is essentially the BCR), thus allowing the antigen-antibody complex to mediate different roles depending on which FcR it binds. The ability of an antibody to bind to its corresponding FcR is further modulated by the structure of the glycan(s) present at conserved sites within its Fc region. The ability of antibodies to bind to FcRs helps to direct the appropriate immune response for each different type of foreign object they encounter. For example, IgE is responsible for an allergic response consisting of mast cell degranulation and histamine release. IgE's Fab paratope binds to allergic antigen, for example house dust mite particles, while its Fc region binds to Fc receptor ε. The allergen-IgE-FcRε interaction mediates allergic signal transduction to induce conditions such as asthma. Though the general structure of all antibodies is very similar, a small region at the tip of the protein is extremely variable, allowing millions of antibodies with slightly different tip structures, or antigen-binding sites, to exist. This region is known as the hypervariable region. Each of these variants can bind to a different antigen. This enormous diversity of antibody paratopes on the antigen-binding fragments allows the immune system to recognize an equally wide variety of antigens. The large and diverse population of antibody paratope is generated by random recombination events of a set of gene segments that encode different antigen-binding sites (or paratopes), followed by random mutations in this area of the antibody gene, which create further diversity. This recombinational process that produces clonal antibody paratope diversity is called V(D)J or VJ recombination. Basically, the antibody paratope is polygenic, made up of three genes, V, D, and J. Each paratope locus is also polymorphic, such that during antibody production, one allele of V, one of D, and one of J is chosen. These gene segments are then joined together using random genetic recombination to produce the paratope. The regions where the genes are randomly recombined together is the hyper variable region used to recognise different antigens on a clonal basis. Antibody genes also re-organize in a process called class switching that changes the one type of heavy chain Fc fragment to another, creating a different isotype of the antibody that retains the antigen-specific variable region. This allows a single antibody to be used by different types of Fc receptors, expressed on different parts of the immune system.

Antibiotics

Monoclonal Antibody are antibodies that are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell. Monoclonal antibodies can have monovalent affinity, in that they bind to the same epitope (the part of an antigen that is recognized by the antibody).

Cells

Plasma Cell are white blood cells that secrete large volumes of antibodies. They are transported by the blood plasma and the lymphatic system. Plasma cells originate in the bone marrow; B cells differentiate into plasma cells that produce antibody molecules closely modeled after the receptors of the precursor B cell. Once released into the blood and lymph, these antibody molecules bind to the target antigen (foreign substance) and initiate its neutralization or destruction. Cells

B Cell are a type of white blood cell of the lymphocyte subtype. They function in the humoral immunity component of the adaptive immune system by secreting antibodies. Additionally, B cells present antigen (they are also classified as professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs)) and secrete cytokines.

Memory B Cell are a B cell sub-type that are formed within germinal centers following primary infection and are important in generating an accelerated and more robust antibody-mediated immune response in the case of re-infection (also known as a secondary immune response).

T Cell is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity. T cells can be distinguished from other lymphocytes, such as B cells and natural killer cells, by the presence of a T-cell receptor on the cell surface. They are called T cells because they mature in the thymus from thymocytes (although some also mature in the tonsils). The several subsets of T cells each have a distinct function. The majority of human T cells rearrange their alpha and beta chains on the cell receptor and are termed alpha beta T cells (αβ T cells) and are part of the adaptive immune system. Specialized gamma delta T cells, (a small minority of T cells in the human body, more frequent in ruminants), have invariant T cell receptors with limited diversity, that can effectively present antigens to other T cells and are considered to be part of the innate immune system.

Memory T Cell are the cells in the body that 'remember' previous infections and how to defeat them. These are the cells that provide life-long immunity to infections such as measles or chicken pox. Memory T Cells are a subset of infection- as well as potentially cancer-fighting T cells (also known as a T lymphocyte) that have previously encountered and responded to their cognate antigen; thus, the term antigen-experienced T cell is often applied. Such T cells can recognize foreign invaders, such as bacteria or viruses, as well as cancer cells. Memory T cells have become "experienced" by having encountered antigen during a prior infection, encounter with cancer, or previous vaccination. At a second encounter with the invader, memory T cells can reproduce to mount a faster and stronger immune response than the first time the immune system responded to the invader. This behavior is utilized in T lymphocyte proliferation assays, which can reveal exposure to specific antigens.

G.M. T Cell Therapy

Cytotoxic T Cell is a T lymphocyte (a type of white blood cell) that kills cancer cells, cells that are infected (particularly with viruses), or cells that are damaged in other ways.

T Helper Cell are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in the adaptive immune system. They help the activity of other immune cells by releasing T cell cytokines. These cells help suppress or regulate immune responses. They are essential in B cell antibody class switching, in the activation and growth of cytotoxic T cells, and in maximizing bactericidal activity of phagocytes such as macrophages.

Sunlight Energizes Infection Fighting T Cells

Thymus is a specialized primary lymphoid organ of the immune system. Within the thymus, T cells or T lymphocytes mature. T cells are critical to the adaptive immune system, where the body adapts specifically to foreign invaders. The thymus is composed of two identical lobes and is located anatomically in the anterior superior mediastinum, in front of the heart and behind the sternum.

Ipilimumab

Natural Killer Cell are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical to the innate immune system. The role NK cells play is analogous to that of cytotoxic T cells in the vertebrate adaptive immune response. NK cells provide rapid responses to viral-infected cells, acting at around 3 days after infection, and respond to tumor formation. Typically, immune cells detect major histocompatibility complex (MHC) presented on infected cell surfaces, triggering cytokine release, causing lysis or apoptosis. NK cells are unique, however, as they have the ability to recognize stressed cells in the absence of antibodies and MHC, allowing for a much faster immune reaction. They were named "natural killers" because of the initial notion that they do not require activation to kill cells that are missing "self" markers of MHC class 1. This role is especially important because harmful cells that are missing MHC I markers cannot be detected and destroyed by other immune cells, such as T lymphocyte cells.

Natural Killer T Cell are a heterogeneous group of T cells that share properties of both T cells and natural killer cells. Many of these cells recognize the non-polymorphic CD1d molecule, an antigen-presenting molecule that binds self and foreign lipids and glycolipids. They constitute only approximately 0.1% of all peripheral blood T cells. Natural killer T cells should not be confused with natural killer cells.

Stem Cells

Psychoneuroimmunology is the study of the interaction between psychological processes and the nervous and immune systems of the human body. PNI takes an interdisciplinary approach, incorporating psychology, neuroscience, immunology, physiology, genetics, pharmacology, molecular biology, psychiatry, behavioral medicine, infectious diseases, endocrinology, and rheumatology.

Polysaccharide are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides. They range in structure from linear to highly branched. Examples include storage polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen, and structural polysaccharides such as cellulose and chitin.

Properdin is the only known positive regulator of complement activation that stabilizes the alternative pathway convertases. It is found in the blood serum of more complex animals.

Phagocyte are cells that protect the body by ingesting (phagocytosing) harmful foreign particles, bacteria, and dead or dying cells.

Lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system. Lymphocytes include natural killer cells (NK cells) (which function in cell-mediated, cytotoxic innate immunity), T cells (for cell-mediated, cytotoxic adaptive immunity), and B cells (for humoral, antibody-driven adaptive immunity). They are the main type of cell found in lymph, which prompted the name "lymphocyte".

Cytokine Storm is a potentially fatal immune reaction consisting of a positive feedback loop between cytokines and white blood cells, with highly elevated levels of various cytokines.

Cytokine are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling. Their release has an effect on the behavior of cells around them.

Cell Death

Probiotics - Microbiology
Hygiene - Vaccines
Vitamins - Nutrition - Garlic


Nutrition - Food


Exercise Rates by State U.S. Map Food and Nutrition Knowledge
The Gerson Miracle (youtube)
Vegetable Smoothies
Modified Gerson Approach
Dr. William Li (youtube)
Mina Bissell (video)
Burzynski Clinic

Angiogenesis is the physiological process through which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels. In precise usage this is distinct from vasculogenesis, which is the de novo formation of endothelial cells from mesoderm cell precursors, and from neovascularization, although discussions are not always precise (especially in older texts). The first vessels in the developing embryo form through vasculogenesis, after which angiogenesis is responsible for most, if not all, blood vessel growth during development and in disease. Angiogenesis is a normal and vital process in growth and development, as well as in wound healing and in the formation of granulation tissue. However, it is also a fundamental step in the transition of tumors from a benign state to a malignant one, leading to the use of angiogenesis inhibitors in the treatment of cancer. The essential role of angiogenesis in tumor growth was first proposed in 1971 by Judah Folkman, who described tumors as "hot and bloody," illustrating that, at least for many tumor types, flush perfusion and even hyperemia are characteristic.

Angiogenesis Foundation

Proteins Restricts Tumor Growth (PDF)

Breast Cancer Linked to Bacterial Imbalances - Gut Microbes

Cannabis - Medical Marijuana

Longevity Diets (benefits of eating healthier)

Trophoblast are cells forming the outer layer of a blastocyst, which provide nutrients to the embryo and develop into a large part of the placenta. They are formed during the first stage of pregnancy and are the first cells to differentiate from the fertilized egg. This layer of trophoblasts is also collectively referred to as "the trophoblast", or, after gastrulation, the trophectoderm, as it is then contiguous with the ectoderm of the embryo.

Mistletoe is the common name for most obligate hemiparasitic plants in the order Santalales. Mistletoes attach to and penetrate the branches of a tree or shrub by a structure called the haustorium, through which they absorb water and nutrients from the host plant.

Amygdalin is a poisonous cyanogenic glycoside found in many plants, but most notably in the seeds (kernels) of apricot, bitter almonds, apple, peach, and plum. B-17

Ketosis is a metabolic state in which some of the body's energy supply comes from ketone bodies in the blood, in contrast to a state of glycolysis in which blood glucose provides most of the energy.

Starving Cancer Cells using a key nutrient Amino Acids, slows Tumor Growth

Serine is an amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

TP53 is any isoform of a protein encoded by homologous genes in various organisms, such as TP53 (humans) and Trp53 (mice).

Ketogenic Diet is a high-fat, adequate-protein, low-carbohydrate diet that in medicine is used primarily to treat difficult-to-control (refractory) epilepsy in children. The diet forces the body to burn fats rather than carbohydrates. Normally, the carbohydrates contained in food are converted into glucose, which is then transported around the body and is particularly important in fueling brain-function. However, if there is very little carbohydrate in the diet, the liver converts fat into fatty acids and ketone bodies. The ketone bodies pass into the brain and replace glucose as an energy source. An elevated level of ketone bodies in the blood, a state known as ketosis, leads to a reduction in the frequency of epileptic seizures.

Ketone Bodies are three water-soluble molecules (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and their spontaneous breakdown product, acetone) that are produced by the liver from fatty acids during periods of low food intake (fasting), carbohydrate restrictive diets, starvation, prolonged intense exercise, or in untreated (or inadequately treated) type 1 diabetes mellitus. These ketone bodies are readily picked up by the extra-hepatic tissues, and converted into acetyl-CoA which then enters the citric acid cycle and is oxidized in the mitochondria for energy. In the brain, ketone bodies are also used to make acetyl-CoA into long-chain fatty acids.

Metabolic Therapy believe that each person has a unique Metabolism, and that the proportion of macromolecules (proteins, carbohydrates and fats) which are optimal for one person may not be for a second, and could even be detrimental to them.

Links between Metabolism and Cancer

Lipid Metabolism is the synthesis and degradation of lipids in cells. Lipid metabolism is the break down or storage of fats for energy; these fats are obtained from consuming food and absorbing them or they are synthesized by an animal's liver. Aberrant Lipid Metabolism in the Forebrain Niche Suppresses Adult Neural Stem Cell Proliferation in an Animal Model of Alzheimer’s Disease.

Growing Evidence Points to a Specific Diet That Can Starve Cancer Cells of Their Prime Fuels. The Metabolic Approach to Cancer: Integrating Deep Nutrition, the Ketogenic Diet, and Nontoxic Bio-Individualized Therapies.

Cancer: The Forbidden Cures (youtube)

Extracellular Matrix is a collection of extracellular molecules secreted by cells that provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells. Because multicellularity evolved independently in different multicellular lineages, the composition of ECM varies between multicellular structures; however, cell adhesion, cell-to-cell communication and differentiation are common functions of the ECM.

Essiac is an herbal tea promoted as an alternative treatment for cancer and other illnesses. There is no evidence it is beneficial to health, and it may be harmful.
Essiac Info

Organic Health
Laetrile
Laetrile Research Film

Podophyllum or Mayapple, all the parts of the plant are poisonous, including the green fruit, but once the fruit has turned yellow, it can be safely eaten with the seeds removed.

Queensland Berry cancer-fighting berry on tree that only grows in Far North Queensland. EBC-46

Endothelium is a type of epithelium that lines the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. It is a thin layer of simple squamous cells called endothelial cells. Endothelial cells in direct contact with blood are called vascular endothelial cells, whereas those in direct contact with lymph are known as lymphatic endothelial cells. Vascular endothelial cells line the entire circulatory system, from the heart to the smallest capillaries. These cells have unique functions in vascular biology. These functions include fluid filtration, such as in the glomerulus of the kidney, blood vessel tone, hemostasis, neutrophil recruitment, and hormone trafficking. Endothelium of the interior surfaces of the heart chambers is called endocardium.

Psilocybin Mushrooms are mushrooms that contain the psychedelic compounds psilocybin and psilocin. Common colloquial terms include magic mushrooms and shrooms. They are used mainly as an entheogen and recreational drug whose effects can include euphoria, altered thinking processes, closed and open-eye visuals, synesthesia, an altered sense of time and spiritual experiences. Biological genera containing psilocybin mushrooms include Copelandia, Galerina, Gymnopilus, Inocybe, Mycena, Panaeolus, Pholiotina, Pluteus, and Psilocybe. Over 100 species are classified in the genus Psilocybe. Psilocybin mushrooms may have been used since prehistoric times. They are possibly depicted in Stone Age rock art in Europe and Africa, and have a history of use in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica. Many cultures have used these mushrooms in their religious rites and ceremonie. News

Candida Fungus is a genus of yeasts and is the most common cause of fungal infections worldwide. Many species are harmless commensals or endosymbionts of hosts including humans; however, when mucosal barriers are disrupted or the immune system is compromised they can invade and cause disease. Candida albicans is the most commonly isolated species, and can cause infections (candidiasis or thrush) in humans and other animals. In winemaking, some species of Candida can potentially spoil wines.

Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin is a large, multisubunit, oxygen-carrying, metalloprotein that is found in the hemolymph of the giant keyhole limpet, Megathura crenulata, a species of keyhole limpet that lives off the coast of California, from Monterey Bay to Isla Asuncion off Baja California.

Antineoplaston Therapy
Caris Life Sciences
Cancer Tutor

Peptides are biologically occurring short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.

Reactive Oxygen species are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen. Examples include peroxides, superoxide, hydroxyl radical, and singlet oxygen.

Allergies
Wellness

Chimera is a single organism composed of cells from different zygotes. This can result in male and female organs, two blood types, or subtle variations in form. Animal chimeras are produced by the merger of multiple fertilized eggs.

Keytruda


Therapies


Cell Therapy is therapy in which cellular material is injected into a patient; this generally means intact, living cells. For example, T cells capable of fighting cancer cells via cell-mediated immunity may be injected in the course of immunotherapy.

Gene Therapy is the therapeutic delivery of nucleic acid polymers into a patient's cells as a drug to treat disease.

Pembrolizumab is a humanized antibody used in cancer immunotherapy. It destroys a protective mechanism on cancer cells, and allows the immune system to destroy those cancer cells. It targets the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) receptor. The drug was initially used in treating metastatic melanoma.

Personalized Cell Therapies

Juno Therapeutics engineers immune cells that can detect proteins and target cancer cells specifically.

City of Hope
Sloan Kettering
Cancer Research
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Molecular Cancer
International Agency for Research on Cancer
Cancer Genes Turned Off

Intravenous Immunoglobulin is the use of a mixture of antibodies (immunoglobulins) to treat a number of health conditions.

Staphylococcus Lugdunensis is a coagulase-negative member of the genus Staphylococcus, consisting of Gram-positive bacteria with spherical cells that appear in clusters.

Engineered Liposomes Sequester Bacterial Exotoxins

Liposome is a spherical vesicle having at least one lipid bilayer. The liposome can be used as a vehicle for administration of nutrients and pharmaceutical drugs. Liposomes can be prepared by disrupting biological membranes (such as by sonication).

Exotoxin is a toxin secreted by bacteria. An exotoxin can cause damage to the host by destroying cells or disrupting normal cellular metabolism. They are highly potent and can cause major damage to the host. Exotoxins may be secreted, or, similar to endotoxins, may be released during lysis of the cell. Gram negative pathogens may secrete outer membrane vesicles containing lipopolysaccharide endotoxin and some virulence proteins in the bounding membrane along with some other toxins as intra-vesicular contents, thus adding a previously unforeseen dimension to the well-known eukaryote process of membrane vesicle trafficking, which is quite active at the host-pathogen interface.

Sipuleucel-T is a cell-based cancer immunotherapy for prostate cancer (CaP). It is a personalized treatment that works by programming each patient's immune system to seek out cancer and attack it as if it were foreign.

Platelet-Rich Plasma is blood plasma that has been enriched with platelets. As a concentrated source of autologous platelets, PRP contains several different growth factors and other cytokines that can stimulate healing of soft tissue. Platelet-rich plasma therapy is an old therapy and used extensively in specialities of dermatology, orthopedics and dentistry. Platelet rich plasma therapy utilizes growth factors present in alpha granules of platelets in an autologous manner. Main indications in dermatology for PRP are androgenetic alopecia, wound healing, face rejuvenation etc. For preparation of PRP, various protocols are used and no standard protocol exists but main principles essentially involve concentrating platlets in a concentration of 3–5 times the physiological value and then injecting this concentrated plasma in the tissue where healing or effect is desired. As of 2016, no large-scale randomized controlled trials have confirmed the efficacy of PRP as a treatment for musculoskeletal or nerve injuries, the accelerated healing of bone grafts, or the reduction of androgenic hair loss.

Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) Therapy
Transfusion Cellular Therapies

Offering abiraterone (Zytiga) up-front with standard hormone treatment extends survival in men whose prostate cancer has spread

Combined immunotherapy could help control melanoma that has spread to the brain

Stimulating defense mechanisms

Naturally occurring molecule enhances defense mechanisms in neurodegenerative diseases

N-Acetylglucosamine is a monosaccharide and a derivative of glucose. It is an amide between glucosamine and acetic acid.

Hexosamine Pathway Metabolites Enhance Protein Quality Control and Prolong Life.

Telomere is a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes.

Rare byproduct of marine bacteria lomaiviticin A kills cancer cells by snipping their DNA

Alternative Cancer Treatments are alternative or complementary treatments for cancer that have not been approved by the government agencies responsible for the regulation of therapeutic goods.

Tumor Treating Fields is a type of electromagnetic field therapy using low-intensity electrical fields to treat cancer.

Alternating Electric Field Therapy is a type of electromagnetic field therapy using low-intensity electrical fields to treat cancer. A TTF-generating device manufactured by the Israeli company Novocure is approved in the United States and Europe for the treatment of newly diagnosed and recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), and is undergoing clinical trials for several other tumor types. Despite earning regulatory approval, the efficacy of this technology remains controversial among medical experts. Sometimes called tumor treating fields TTF or TTFields.

Electromagnetic Therapy refers to therapy involving the use of magnets or electromagnets. Types include: Bioelectromagnetics, the study of how electromagnetic fields interact with and influence biological processes. Electrotherapy, the use of electrical or electromagnetic energy in medicine; Electromagnetic therapy (alternative medicine), the use of electromagnetic radiation to treat disease. Evidence of efficacy is lacking. Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy, or PEMF, the use of weak electromagnetic fields to initiate osteogenesis. Alternating electric field therapy, also known as "Tumor Treating Fields", the use of electric fields as an anti-mitotic therapy for cancer patients.

Electric Fields (youtube)

Fake Cancer Cures

Bogus Cancer Treatments (youtube)

Ernst T. Krebs was an American biochemist. He is known for promoting various substances as alternative cures for cancer.

Hoxsey Therapy is an alternative medical treatment promoted as a cure for cancer.

Ryke Geerd Hamer is a German former physician, a system of pseudo-medicine that purports to be able to cure cancer.

Cancer Misdiagnosis Guide

Witch Doctor is a type of healer who treated ailments believed to be caused by witchcraft, which is the practice of, and belief in, magical skills and abilities that are able to be exercised by individuals and certain social groups.

Placebos

Testing Treatments critical thinking about treatment claims.

Effects of the Informed Health Choices podcast on the ability of parents of primary school children in Uganda to assess claims about treatment effects: a randomised controlled trial.

Chemo

Chemotherapy is a category of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.

Chemotherapy Regimen is a regimen for chemotherapy, defining the drugs to be used, their dosage, the frequency and duration of treatments, and other considerations. In modern oncology, many regimens combine several chemotherapy drugs in combination chemotherapy. The majority of drugs used in cancer chemotherapy are cytostatic, many via cytotoxicity.

Cytostasis is the inhibition of cell growth and multiplication.

Cell Division

Cytotoxicity is the quality of being toxic to cells.

MOPP Chemotherapy is a combination chemotherapy regimen used to treat Hodgkin's disease. The acronym is derived from the component drugs of the regimen:(M)ustargen (also known as mechlorethamine, chlormethine, mustine, nitrogen mustard, or MSD). (O)ncovin (also known as Vincristine or VCR). (P)rocarbazine (also known as Matulane or Natulan). (P)rednisone (also known as Deltasone or Orasone). The treatment is usually administered in four week cycles, often for six cycles. MSD and VCR are administered intravenously, while procarbazine and prednisone are pills taken orally. A newer Hodgkin's lymphoma treatment is ABVD. C-MOPP involves switching the nitrogen mustard from mechlorethamine to cyclophosphamide. C-MOPP is thus very similar to COPP, using the same 4 agents and differing at most in dosages and timing.

Chemo Brain describes the cognitive impairment that can result from chemotherapy treatment. Approximately 20–30% of people who undergo chemotherapy experience some level of post-chemotherapy cognitive impairment. The phenomenon first came to light because of the large number of breast cancer survivors who complained of changes in memory, fluency, and other cognitive abilities that impeded their ability to function as they had pre-chemotherapy.

Fatigue

Over Saturation Warnings from Medications

Radiation Therapy is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator. Radiation therapy may be curative in a number of types of cancer if they are localized to one area of the body. It may also be used as part of adjuvant therapy, to prevent tumor recurrence after surgery to remove a primary malignant tumor (for example, early stages of breast cancer). Radiation therapy is synergistic with chemotherapy, and has been used before, during, and after chemotherapy in susceptible cancers.

Hypoxia-Inducible Factors are transcription factors that respond to decreases in available oxygen in the cellular environment, or hypoxia.

Dimethyloxalylglycine
DMOG Treatment

Focused Ultrasound to Dissolve Tumors. (HIFU)

High Intensity Focused Ultrasound is an early stage medical technology that is in various stages of development worldwide to treat a range of disorders. The mechanism is similar to using a magnifying glass to focus sunlight. Focused ultrasound uses an acoustic lens to concentrate multiple intersecting beams of ultrasound on a target. Each individual beam passes through tissue with little effect but at the focal point where the beams converge, the energy can have useful thermal or mechanical effects. HIFU is typically performed with real-time imaging via ultrasound or MRI to enable treatment targeting and monitoring (including thermal tracking with MRI).

Chemoreceptor is a specialized cell which acts as a sensory receptor which transduces (responds to) a chemical substance and generates a biological signal. This signal may be in the form of an action potential if the chemoreceptor is a neuron (nerve cell), or in the form of a neurotransmitter that can activate a nearby nerve fiber if the chemosensor is a specialized sensory cell, such as a sensory cell in a taste bud or in an internal chemoreceptor such as the carotid body. In more general terms, a chemosensor detects chemicals in the internal or external environment and transmits that information to the nervous system.

Peripheral Chemoreceptors  are so named because they are sensory extensions of the peripheral nervous system into blood vessels where they detect changes in chemical concentrations. As transducers of patterns of variability in the surrounding environment, carotid and aortic bodies count as ‘sensors’ in a similar way as taste buds and photoreceptors. However, because carotid and aortic bodies detect variation within the body’s internal organs, they are considered interoceptors. Taste buds, olfactory bulbs, photoreceptors, and other receptors associated with the five traditional sensory modalities, by contrast, are exteroceptors in that they respond to stimuli outside the body. The body also contains proprioceptors, which respond to the amount of stretch within the organ, usually muscle, that they occupy.

Pathwork Molecular Diagnostics
Nano-Medicine

Alternating Electric Field Therapy is a type of electromagnetic field therapy using low-intensity electrical fields to treat cancer.

Experimental Cancer Treatment are medical therapies intended or claimed to treat cancer (see also tumor) by improving on, supplementing or replacing conventional methods (surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, and immunotherapy).

Antibiotics
Allergies
Viruses

You need to do a lot of research when seeking out cancer treatments. And don't believe that Doctors are looking out for your best interest because sadly too many Doctors are corrupted by money.

Questioning (skeptic)

Informed Consent


Skin Cancer


Holy Mole-e T-Shirt for Skin Cancer Awareness Skin Cancer are cancers that arise from the Skin. They are due to the development of abnormal cells that have the ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

There are 3 Main Types of Skin Cancers

1. Basal-Cell Skin Cancer is the most common skin cancer.

2. Squamous-Cell skin Cancer is cancer that begins from squamous cells, a type of skin cell.

3. Melanoma is a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes, which are melanin-producing neural-crest derived cells located in the bottom layer (the stratum basale) of the skin's epidermis, the middle layer of the eye (the uvea), the inner ear, meninges, bones, and heart.

Melanin is the pigment primarily responsible for skin color. Once synthesised, melanin is contained in a special organelle called a melanosome and moved along arm-like structures called dendrites, so as to reach the keratinocytes.

Approximately 5.4 million basal and squamous cell skin cancers are diagnosed each year.

Carcinoma is a type of cancer that develops from epithelial cells. Specifically, a carcinoma is a cancer that begins in a tissue that lines the inner or outer surfaces of the body, and that generally arises from cells originating in the endodermal or ectodermal germ layer during embryogenesis. Carcinomas occur when the DNA of a cell is damaged or altered and the cell begins to grow uncontrollably and become malignant. It is from the Greek καρκίνωμα 'karkinoma' meaning sore, ulcer, or cancer, itself derived from karkinos 'crab.

Deep learning algorithm does as well as dermatologists in identifying skin cancer

USC Viterbi researchers invent waterproof patch to monitor UV ray exposure Color-changing smart material sensor will alert user that it’s time to get out of the sun.

Skin Cancer
Skin Cancer
Skin Cancer

Moles (images)

Wart or a Mole?

Promising new drug stops spread of melanoma by 90 percent

Scleroderma is a long term autoimmune disease that results in hardening of the skin. In the more severe form, it also affects internal organs. The cause is unknown. The underlying mechanism involves the body's immune system attacking healthy tissues. There is a strong association with certain mutations in HLA genes. Environmental factors have also been implicated.

Myocardin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYOCD gene. Myocardin is a smooth muscle and cardiac muscle-specific transcriptional coactivator of serum response factor. When expressed ectopically in nonmuscle cells, myocardin can induce smooth muscle differentiation by its association with serum response factor (SRF; MIM 600589).[supplied by OMIM].


Photoprotection is the biochemical process that helps organisms cope with molecular damage caused by sunlight. Plants and other oxygenic phototrophs have developed a suite of photoprotective mechanisms to prevent photoinhibition and oxidative stress caused by excess or fluctuating light conditions. Humans and other animals have also developed photoprotective mechanisms to avoid UV photodamage to the skin, prevent DNA damage, and minimize the downstream effects of oxidative stress.

Principles and Practice of Photoprotection. Summarizes the beneficial roles of photoprotection in relation to skin cancers, photoaging, photodermatoses, autoimmune and other skin conditions.


How the Sun affects your Skin

Chemicals in Sunscreen


Cancer in Pets

Not only do humans get abused by cancer and the cost of cancer treatments, but our pets do as well.
Dogs and Cancer
Cancer in Cats: Types, symptoms, prevention and treatments
Cancer in Pets
Signs of Cancer in Pets
Pet Cancer



The Thinker Man