Knowledge and Information about Cancer. Some of the things you should know about Cancer.
Cancer kills 20,000 People a Day
. 8 Million people a Year Die from Cancer.
In 1900, 1 of 20 got cancer today it's 1 in 3 get cancer.
57 percent of cancer cases now occur in low and middle-income
countries. 65 percent of
cancer deaths worldwide
occur in these countries.
Despite all the pink ribbons and billions of dollars in
research, another 246,000 women will be diagnosed with breast
cancer this year. The Number Of Women Dying Of Cancer Could
Double By 2030. Don't wait till you get cancer to
start eating healthier
. Most cancers are
'An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure'
- Cancer Therapies
There will be 1,660,290 new cancer cases and 580,350 cancer deaths projected to occur in the
U.S. in 2013. In 2016, an estimated 1,685,210 new cases of
cancer will be diagnosed in the United States and 595,690 people will die
from the disease. Cancer worldwide is expected to rise by 75 % over the next 20
. In 2012 there were 14.1 million new cases of cancer around the globe.
One in two men and one in three women will be diagnosed with
50 children in the age group of one month to 14 years die of cancer every
day in India,
In developed countries, more than 80% of children
suffering with cancer are cured because of significant progress in
treatment. the rate of mortality due to
in India at 37 per million every year. As many as 40
percent of cancer cases, and half of cancer deaths, come down to things
people could easily change
Smoking causes 80 to 90 percent of lung cancer deaths. According to
Cancer Research UK
, 54% of men and 48% of women will get cancer at
some point in their lives.
Just 10 cancers — in eight organs, the
will account for more than 70 percent of new cancer cases in the United
States this year in 2017, according to estimates from the
American Cancer Society
Cancer Drug Spending tops $100 Billion in 2014
, up 10% in a Year.
Two-thirds of Americans diagnosed with cancer now live at least
five years, versus just more than half in 1990. Living long
enough to give
aims to detect cancer before symptoms appear. This may involve blood tests, urine
tests, other tests, or medical imaging. The benefits of screening in terms
of cancer prevention, early detection and subsequent treatment must be
weighed against any harms. 1800-4-CANCER or 1-800-422-6237 - NCI Cancer
Early Cancer Detection
Test for Pancreatic Cancer
(video) - 15-year-old Jack Andraka
New Device Accurately Identifies Cancer in Seconds
MasSpec Pen rapidly
and accurately detects cancer in humans during surgery, helping improve
treatment and reduce the chances of cancer recurrence.
Blood Serum Test
helps identify up
to 25 different cancers with a single test
and it is 96% accurate?
Fecal Immunochemical Test
is a screening test for colon cancer.
It tests for hidden blood in the stool
, which "could" be an early sign of
Colorectal Cancer Incidence Patterns in the United States
Circulating Tumor Cells
which are cells that have shed into the vasculature or lymphatics from a
primary tumor and are carried around the body in the circulation.
A simple new blood test that can catch cancer early
Blood Test that
detects Breast CancerCancer
App - Cloud4Cancer Breast Cancer Detection
diagnose cancer from blood samples. It examines DNA
fragments in the bloodstream that are spewed out by cells as they die.
Using deep learning, it asks computers to find correlations between
cell-free DNA and some cancers.
Nanowire Device to Detect Cancer with a Urine Test
. After introducing
a urine sample onto the device, extracellular vesicles are captured by a
nanowire substrate via electrostatic forces. MicroRNAs can then be
directly extracted from the substrate. Cells communicate with each other
through a number of different mechanisms. In animals, for example,
predatory threats can drive the release of
hormone that travels through the bloodstream and triggers heart and muscle
cells to initiate a "fight-or-flight
" response. A
far less familiar mode of cellular transport is the
(EV). EVs can be
thought of as small "chunks" of a cell that are able to pinch off and
circulate throughout the body to deliver messenger cargo to other cells.
These messengers have become increasingly recognized as crucial mediators
of cell-to-cell communication.
Using the Swimming Power of Sperm to Ferry a Cancer Drug directly to a
- Tiny Machines
Cancer-Fighting Nanorobots programmed to seek and destroy and shrink
tumors by cutting off their blood supply
. Study shows first
applications of DNA origami for
Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells could serve as Cancer Vaccine
Gene Fusion shifts cell activity into high gear, causing some cancer
Researchers have discovered that a common fusion of two adjacent genes can
cause cancer by kicking mitochondria into overdrive, increasing the amount
of fuel available for rampant cell growth.
Molecule plays a big role in Reducing Cancer’s Spread
. Molecule that
helps regulate gene expression plays a big role in keeping us safe from
the machinations of cancer. In human lung cancer cells, they have shown
low levels of the microRNA,
, which enables the death of aberrant cells like cancer
cells, correlates with high levels of the protein
which is already associated with a poor prognosis in patients with cancer.
Conversely, when they decrease TIMP-1 levels in these highly lethal cancer
cells, tumor spread goes down while rates of cell death go up along with
expression of miR-125a-5p.
Tailoring cancer treatments to individual patients
help researchers design cancer models and predict treatments outcomes
based on patient-specific conditions.
is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential
to invade or spread to other parts of the body. Not all tumors are
cancerous; benign tumors do not spread to other parts of the body.
Possible signs and symptoms include a lump, abnormal bleeding, prolonged
cough, unexplained weight loss and a change in bowel movements. While
these symptoms may indicate cancer, they may have other causes. Over 100
cancers affect humans.
is a malignant skin tumor
is an abnormal growth of tissue,
and, when it also forms a mass, is commonly referred to as a tumor.
This abnormal growth (neoplasia) usually but not always forms a mass.
is an abnormal mass of tissue that
can harm organs in the body and cause death by swelling or causing
is the tendency of a medical condition to become progressively worse.
is a dangerous uncontrolled growth of a tumor that easily
spreads like an infection and is poisonous and harmful.
harmless and not malignant. (bih-nyn).
is a mass of cells (tumor)
that lacks the ability to invade neighboring tissue or metastasize. These
characteristics are required for a tumor to be defined as cancerous and
therefore benign tumors are non-cancerous.
spread of a cancer or other disease from one organ or part of the body to
another without being directly connected with it. The new occurrences of
disease thus generated are referred to as metastases (mets). Cancer occurs
after a single cell in a tissue is progressively genetically damaged to
produce cells with uncontrolled proliferation. This uncontrolled
proliferation by mitosis produces a primary heterogeneic tumour. The cells
which constitute the tumor eventually undergo metaplasia, followed by
dysplasia then anaplasia, resulting in a malignant phenotype. This
malignancy allows for invasion into the circulation, followed by invasion
to a second site for tumorigenesis. Metastasized
is the spread of cancer
to other areas in the
body by metastasis, which is the development of secondary malignant
growths at a distance from a primary site of cancer.
is the diffusion or accumulation (in a tissue
or cells) of foreign substances or in amounts in excess of the normal. The
material collected in those tissues or cells is called infiltrate. As part
of a disease process, infiltration is sometimes used to define the
invasion of cancer cells into the underlying matrix or the blood vessels.
Similarly, the term may describe the deposition of amyloid protein. During
leukocyte extravasation, white blood cells move in response to cytokines
from within the blood, into the diseased or infected tissues, usually in
the same direction as a chemical gradient, in a process called chemotaxis.
The presence of lymphocytes in tissue in greater than normal numbers is
likewise called infiltration. As part of medical intervention, local
anaesthetics may be injected at more than one point so as to infiltrate an
area prior to a surgical procedure. However, the term may also apply to
unintended iatrogenic leakage of fluids from phlebotomy or intravenous
drug delivery procedures, a process also known as extravasation or "tissuing".
is the formation of a cancer, whereby normal
cells are transformed into cancer cells. The process is characterized by
changes at the cellular, genetic, and epigenetic levels and abnormal cell
division, in some cancers forming a malignant mass. Cell division is a
physiological process that occurs in almost all tissues and under many
circumstances. Under normal circumstances, the balance between
proliferation and programmed cell death
, usually in the form of apoptosis,
is maintained by regulation of both processes to ensure the integrity of
tissues and organs.
Cell-Free Tumour DNA
circulating freely in the blood of a cancer patient. Analysis of the
fraction of mutant-alleles from ctDNA compared to normal-alleles from the
patients normal genome provides opportunities for minimally-invasive
cancer diagnosis, prognosis and tumour monitoring. ctDNA originates from
dying tumour cells and can be present in a wide range of cancers but at
varying levels and mutant allele fractions. The ctDNA is highly fragmented
to around 170 bp and is cleared rapidly after surgery to remove tumours or
is a part of
the cell cycle
are separated into two new nuclei. In general, mitosis
(division of the nucleus) is preceded by the S stage of interphase (during
which the DNA is replicated) and is often accompanied or followed by
cytokinesis, which divides the cytoplasm, organelles and cell membrane
into two new cells containing roughly equal shares of these cellular
describes the observation that different tumour cells
can show distinct morphological
phenotypic profiles, including cellular morphology, gene expression,
metabolism, motility, proliferation, and metastatic potential.
is the most
aggressive cancer that begins within the
is any substance,
radionuclide, or radiation that is an agent directly involved in causing
cancer. This may be due to the ability to damage the genome or to the
disruption of cellular metabolic processes. Several radioactive substances
are considered carcinogens, but their carcinogenic activity is attributed
to the radiation, for example gamma rays and alpha particles, which they
emit. Common examples of non-radioactive carcinogens are inhaled asbestos,
the public generally associates carcinogenicity with
it is equally likely to arise in both natural and synthetic substances.
Carcinogens are not necessarily immediately toxic, thus their effect can
is something that is cancer-producing. (kar-sin-oh-jen-ik).
List of IARC Group 2B Carcinogens
Cellphones and Cancer
is a rare, aggressive form of cancer that is caused by a person either
inhaling or ingesting tiny
is a gene
that has the potential to cause cancer. In tumor cells, they are
often mutated or expressed at high levels. Most normal cells will undergo
a programmed form of rapid cell death (apoptosis) when critical functions
are altered. Activated oncogenes can cause those cells designated for
apoptosis to survive and proliferate instead. Most oncogenes require an
additional step, such as mutations in another gene, or environmental
factors, such as viral infection, to cause cancer. Since the 1970s, dozens
of oncogenes have been identified in human cancer. Many cancer drugs
target the proteins encoded by oncogenes.
is a branch of
medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of
cancer. A medical professional who practices oncology is an oncologist.
The three components which have improved survival in cancer are:
Prevention - This is by reduction of risk factors like tobacco and alcohol
consumption. Early diagnosis - Screening of common cancers and
comprehensive diagnosis and staging. Treatment - Multimodality management
by discussion in tumor board and treatment in a comprehensive cancer centre.
Childhood Cancer Organization
mtDNA mutations increase tumorigenicity in prostate cancer
Epstein-Barr Virus and Cancer
Cold climate increases Cancer Risk
Populations living in very low temperatures, like in Denmark and Norway,
had among the highest incidences of cancer in the world. Cell resistance
at low temperatures and at high altitude and diet
is a genus of
viruses in the order Herpesvirales, in the family Herpesviridae, in the
subfamily Betaherpesvirinae. Humans and monkeys serve as natural hosts.
is a high number of
cancer cases occurs in a group of people in a particular geographic area
over a limited period of time. Historical examples of work-related cancer
clusters are well documented in the medical literature.
Cancer Incidence and
Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
is a peer-reviewed medical
journal devoted to research in the field of cancer epidemiology. Topics
include descriptive, analytical, biochemical, and molecular epidemiology,
the use of biomarkers to study the neoplastic and preneoplastic
processes in humans, chemoprevention and other types of prevention trials,
and the role of behavioral factors in cancer etiology and prevention.
Deadly Type of Breast Cancer
. Limiting an amino acid called
in laboratory mice who had triple-negative breast cancer
could dramatically reduce the ability of the cancer to travel to distant
sites in the body.
Epidemiology of Cancer
is the study of the factors affecting cancer,
as a way to infer possible trends and causes. The study of cancer
epidemiology uses epidemiological methods to find the cause of cancer and
to identify and develop improved treatments. This area of study must
contend with problems of
lead time bias and length time bias
Tumor Suppressor Gene
is a gene that protects a cell from one step on
the path to cancer. When this gene mutates to cause a loss or
reduction in its function, the cell can progress to cancer, usually in
combination with other genetic changes. The loss of these genes may be
even more important than proto-oncogene/oncogene activation for the
formation of many kinds of human cancer cells. Tumor suppressor genes can
be grouped into categories including caretaker genes, gatekeeper genes,
and landscaper genes; the classification schemes are evolving as medicine
advances, learning from fields including molecular biology, genetics, and
encode products that stabilize the genome.
Fundamentally, mutations in caretaker genes lead to genomic instability.
Tumor cells arise from two distinct classes of genomic instability:
mutational instability arising from changes in the nucleotide sequence of
DNA and chromosomal instability arising from improper rearrangement of
. In contrast to caretaker genes, gatekeeper genes encode gene
products that act to prevent growth of potential cancer cells and prevent
accumulation of mutations that directly lead to increased cellular
proliferation. The third classification of genes, the landscapers, encode
products that, when mutated, contribute to the neoplastic growth of cells
by fostering a stromal environment conducive to unregulated cell
is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and
corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome. In human
cells, both normal metabolic activities and environmental factors such as
radiation can cause DNA damage, resulting in as many as 1 million
individual molecular lesions per cell per day. Many of these lesions cause
structural damage to the DNA molecule and can alter or eliminate the
cell's ability to transcribe the gene that the affected DNA
lesions induce potentially harmful mutations in the cell's genome, which
affect the survival of its daughter cells after it undergoes mitosis. As a
consequence, the DNA repair process is constantly active as it responds to
damage in the DNA structure. When normal repair processes fail, and when
cellular apoptosis does not occur, irreparable DNA damage may occur,
including double-strand breaks and DNA crosslinkages (interstrand
crosslinks or ICLs). This can eventually lead to malignant tumors, or
cancer as per the two hit hypothesis. The rate of DNA repair is dependent
on many factors, including the cell type, the age of the cell, and the
extracellular environment. A cell that has accumulated a large amount of
DNA damage, or one that no longer effectively repairs damage incurred to
its DNA, can enter one of three possible states: An irreversible state of
dormancy, known as senescence. Cell suicide
also known as apoptosis or programmed cell death. Unregulated cell
division, which can lead to the formation of a tumor that is cancerous.
The DNA repair ability of a cell is vital to the integrity of its genome
and thus to the normal functionality of that organism. Many genes that
were initially shown to influence life span have turned out to be involved
in DNA damage repair and protection.
any isoform of a protein encoded by homologous genes in various organisms,
such as TP53 (humans) and Trp53 (mice). This homolog (originally thought
to be, and often spoken of as, a single protein) is crucial in
multicellular organisms, where it prevents cancer formation, thus,
functions as a tumor suppressor. As such, p53 has been described as "the
guardian of the genome" because of its role in conserving stability by
preventing genome mutation. Hence TP53 is classified as a tumor
suppressor gene.(Italics are used to denote the TP53 gene name and
distinguish it from the protein it encodes).
P53 Tumor Suppressor Protein
Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres
are specialized structures at the ends of the linear
chromosomes. Their maintenance is essential for the unlimited
proliferation of cells due to the 3'-end erosion, a process intrinsic to
the replication of linear chromosomes
Progressive telomere shortening in somatic cells can lead to the induction
of senescence or apoptosis, thus acting as a barrier to unlimited
proliferation and tumorigenesis
, which is
the production of a new tumor or tumors.
is an antigenic substance produced in tumor cells, i.e.,
it triggers an immune response
in the host. Tumor antigens are useful
tumor markers in identifying tumor cells with diagnostic tests and are
potential candidates for use in cancer therapy. The field of cancer
immunology studies such topics.
The Cancer Genome Atlas
is a project,
begun in 2005, to catalogue genetic mutations responsible for cancer,
using genome sequencing and bioinformatics. TCGA applies high-throughput
genome analysis techniques to improve our ability to diagnose, treat, and
prevent cancer through a better understanding of the genetic basis of this
is the study of
modifications to the genome
of cancer cells that do not involve a change in the nucleotide sequence.
Epigenetic alterations are as important as genetic
in a cell's
transformation to cancer, and their manipulation holds great promise for
cancer prevention, detection, and therapy.
Bone Morphogenetic Protein
are a group of growth factors also known as
cytokines and as metabologens. Originally discovered by their ability to
induce the formation of bone and cartilage, BMPs are now considered to
constitute a group of pivotal morphogenetic signals, orchestrating tissue
architecture throughout the body. The important functioning of BMP signals
in physiology is emphasized by the multitude of roles for dysregulated BMP
signaling in pathological processes. Cancerous disease often involves
misregulation of the BMP signaling system. Absence of BMP signaling is,
for instance, an important factor in the progression of colon cancer, and
conversely, over activation of BMP signaling following reflux-induced
esophagitis provokes Barrett's esophagus and is thus instrumental in the
development of adenocarcinoma in the proximal portion of the
gastrointestinal tract.A signaling pathway
is a group of molecules in a cell that work together to control one or
more cell functions. Like a cascade, after the first molecule in a pathway
receives a signal
, it activates another molecule and so forth until the
cell function is carried out.
is a person with cancer of any type who is
still living. Whether a person becomes a survivor at the time of diagnosis
or after completing treatment, whether people who are actively dying are
considered survivors, and whether healthy friends and family members of
the cancer patient are also considered survivors, varies from group to
group. Some people who have been diagnosed with cancer reject the term
survivor or disagree with some definitions of it. How many people are
cancer survivors depends on the definition used. About 11 million
Americans alive today—one in 30 people–are either currently undergoing
treatment for cancer or have done so in the past. Currently nearly 65% of
adults diagnosed with cancer in the developed world are expected to live
at least five years after the cancer is discovered.
Almost 15 percent of Lung Cancer Survivors are still smokers
. Prevalence and correlates of smoking and cessation-related behavior among
survivors of ten cancers.
While studying the underpinnings of
multiple sclerosis, investigators came across important clues for how to
treat cancer. Researchers describe an Anti-LAP Antibody that can precisely
target regulatory T cells which in turn unleashes the immune system to
kill cancer cells. The team reports that the antibody decreased tumor
growth in models of melanoma, glioblastoma and colorectal carcinoma,
making it an attractive candidate for cancer immunotherapy.
is a host defense system
comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism
that protects against disease. To function properly, an immune system must
detect a wide variety of agents, known as
, from viruses to
parasitic worms, and distinguish them from the organism's own healthy
are substances (drugs and nutrients) that
stimulate the immune system by inducing activation or increasing activity
of any of its components. One notable example is the granulocyte
macrophage colony-stimulating factor.
Boost your Immune System
Scientists stimulate immune system, stop cancer growth
is the "treatment of disease by inducing,
enhancing, or suppressing an immune response".
elicit or amplify an immune response are classified as activation
immunotherapies, while immunotherapies that reduce or suppress are
classified as suppression immunotherapies. Immunomodulatory regimens often
have fewer side effects than existing drugs, including less potential for
creating resistance when treating microbial disease. Cell-based
immunotherapies are effective for some cancers. Immune effector cells such
,macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells (NK
Cell), cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), etc., work together to defend the
body against cancer by targeting abnormal antigens expressed on the
surface of tumor cells. Therapies such as granulocyte colony-stimulating
factor (G-CSF), interferons, imiquimod and cellular membrane fractions
from bacteria are licensed for medical use. Others including IL-2, IL-7,
IL-12, various chemokines, synthetic cytosine phosphate-guanosine (CpG)
oligodeoxynucleotides and glucans are involved in clinical and preclinical
DNA sensor plays critical role in cancer immunotherapy via response to
unexpected DNA form
Cancer ‘vaccine’ eliminates tumors in mice by Activating T cells in Tumors
Injecting microgram amounts of two immune-stimulating agents directly into
solid tumors (A microgram is one-millionth of a gram). One, a short
stretch of DNA called a
, works with other nearby immune cells to amplify
the expression of an activating receptor called OX40 on the surface of the
T cells. The other, an antibody that binds to OX40, activates the
to lead the charge against the cancer cells.
Because the two agents are injected directly into the tumor, only T cells
that have infiltrated it are activated. In effect, these T cells are
“prescreened” by the body to recognize only cancer-specific proteins.
Polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cell (PMN-MDSC)
high levels of a surface protein known as FAS-ligand, which induces T cell
suicide when it binds its receptor on T cells. The researchers show that
depleting PMN-MDSCs from the tumors or blocking
binding to its receptor restored the ability of the
to kill induced tumors.
is part of the
and a vital part of the immune system, comprising a
network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph (from
Latin, lympha meaning "water") directionally towards the
CAR T-Cell Gene Therapy Kymriah
(tisagenlecleucel) is a living drug
that involves using genetically modified T-cells or immune cells from
patients to attack their cancer. Kymriah is a genetically-modified
autologous T-cell immunotherapy. The patient’s T-cells are collected and
sent to a manufacturing center where they are genetically modified to
include a new gene that contains a specific protein (a
chimeric antigen receptor or CAR
) that directs the T-cells
and kill leukemia cells that have a specific antigen (CD19) on the
surface. Once the cells are modified, they are infused back into the
patient to kill the cancer cells. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia is a cancer
of the bone marrow and blood, in which the body makes abnormal
lymphocytes, which is a type of
white blood cell
Researchers have cracked a code in T-cells that could make autoimmune
diseases and organ transplant rejection a thing of the past.
scientists have identified a critical switch that controls T-cell function
and dysfunction and have discovered a pathway to target it. Their study
reveals targeting the IRF4 molecule in T-cells is the key to potentially
curing most autoimmune diseases and eliminating
is a part of the
immune system that enhances (complements) the ability of antibodies and
phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells from an organism,
promotes inflammation, and attacks the pathogen's plasma membrane. It is
part of the innate immune system, which is not adaptable and does not
change over the course of an individual's lifetime. It can be recruited
and brought into action by the adaptive immune system.
Adaptive Immune System
is a subsystem of
the overall immune system that is composed of highly specialized, systemic
cells and processes that eliminate pathogens or prevent their growth. The
adaptive immune system is one of the two main immunity strategies found in
vertebrates (the other being the innate immune system). Adaptive immunity
creates immunological memory after an initial response to a specific
pathogen, and leads to an enhanced response to subsequent encounters with
that pathogen. This process of acquired immunity is the basis of
vaccination. Like the innate system, the adaptive system includes both
humoral immunity components and cell-mediated immunity components.
is a branch of
that covers the study of
immune systems in all organisms
Brain Immune System Link
Blood Brain Barrier
Fight cancer using someone else's
is the balanced state of having
adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other
unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid
allergy, and autoimmune diseases.
is the immunological response originating from immune system activation by
, including immunity to pathogenic microorganisms and its
products, as well as autoimmunity to self-antigens allergies, and graft
ejections. In this process main cells involved are the T
, B cells of
lymphocytes, and macrophagea. These cells produce lymphokines that
influence the other host cells activities. B cells mature to produce
immunoglobulins or antibodies, that react with antigens. At same time,
macrophages are processing the antigens into immunogenic units which
stimulate B lymphocites to differentiation into antibody secreting plasma
cells, stimulating the T cells to realise lymphokines.
are a number
of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to something
in the environment that usually causes little or no problem in most
people. These diseases include hay fever, food allergies, atopic
dermatitis, allergic asthma, and anaphylaxis. Symptoms may include red
eyes, an itchy rash, sneezing, a runny nose, shortness of breath, or
swelling. Food intolerances
and food poisoning
is the system of immune
responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues. Any
disease that results from such an aberrant immune response is termed an
is a condition arising from an abnormal
to a normal body part. There are at least 80 types of
autoimmune diseases. Nearly any body part can be involved. Common symptoms
include low grade fever and feeling tired. Often symptoms come and go.
Cargo-carrying Red Blood Cells alleviate Autoimmune Diseases in Mice
Experimental Therapy Restores Nerve Insulation Damaged by Autoimmune
Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID)
National Institute of
Allergy and Infectious Diseases.
is a rare chronic blistering skin disease. It is classified as a type II
hypersensitivity reaction, with the formation of antibodies against
desmosomes, components of the skin that function to keep certain layers of
skin bound to each other. As desmosomes are attacked, the layers of skin
separate and the clinical picture resembles a blister. Over time the
condition inevitably progresses without treatment: lesions increase in
size and distribution throughout the body, behaving physiologically like a
severe burn. Before the advent of modern treatments, mortality for the
disease was close to 90%. Today, the mortality rate with treatment is
is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response
on the part of the
host organism, though sometimes antigens can be part of the host itself.
In other words, an antigen is any substance that causes an immune system
to produce antibodies against it. Each antibody is specifically produced
by the immune system to match an antigen after cells in the immune system
come into contact with it; this allows a precise identification of the
antigen and the initiation of a tailored response. The antibody is said to
"match" the antigen in the sense that it can bind to it thanks to
adaptations performed to a region of the antibody
; because of this, many
different antibodies can be produced, with specificity to bind many
different antigens while sharing the same basic structure. In most cases,
an antibody can only bind one specific antigen; in some instances,
however, antibodies may bind more than one antigen.
is a system of
structures and processes involving the biochemical and
electrophysiological interactions between the
immune system which protect
from pathogens. It serves to protect neurons against disease
by maintaining selectively permeable barriers (e.g., the
blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier), mediating neuro-inflammation and wound
healing in damaged neurons, and mobilizing host defenses against
is a state
in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease and
cancer is compromised or entirely absent.
hides in specific subsets of CD4+ T-cells. (effector
). Specific immune memory T-cells where infectious HIV
'hides' in the human body to evade detection by the
or Human immunodeficiency virus
infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), is a
spectrum of conditions caused by
with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Following
initial infection, a person may not notice any symptoms or may experience
a brief period of influenza-like illness
Typically, this is followed by a prolonged period with no symptoms. As the
infection progresses, it interferes more with the immune system,
increasing the risk of common infections like tuberculosis, as well as
other opportunistic infections, and tumors that rarely affect people who
have working immune systems. These late symptoms of infection are referred
to as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This stage is often also
associated with weight loss.
Management of HIV-AIDS
the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV
infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on
different stages of the HIV life-cycle. The use of multiple drugs that act
on different viral targets is known as highly active antiretroviral
therapy (HAART). HAART decreases the patient's total burden of HIV,
maintains function of the immune system, and prevents opportunistic
infections that often lead to death.
New approach for AIDS:
Lock HIV in reservoir cells
The Dangerous Evolution of HIV: Edsel Salvaña 2017
(video and text)
Gene Therapy using CAR T-cells could provide long-term protection against
. Through gene therapy, researchers engineered blood-forming stem
cells (hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, or HSPCs) to carry chimeric
antigen receptor (CAR) genes to make cells that can detect and destroy
HIV-infected cells. These engineered cells not only destroyed the infected
cells, they persisted for more than two years, suggesting the potential to
create long-term immunity from the virus that causes AIDS. Because HIV
uses CD4 to infect cells, the researchers used a CAR molecule that hijacks
the essential interaction between HIV and the cell surface molecule CD4 to
make stem cell-derived T-cells target infected cells. When the CD4 on the
CAR molecule binds to HIV, other regions of the CAR molecule signal the
cell to become activated and kill the HIV infected cell. The researchers
found that, in test animals, modification of the blood-forming stem cells
resulted in more than two years of stable production of CAR-expressing
cells without any adverse effects. In addition, these cells were widely
distributed throughout the lymphoid tissues and gastrointestinal tract,
which are major anatomic sites for HIV replication and persistence in
infected people. Most important, engineered CAR T-cells showed
efficacy in attacking and killing HIV-infected cells.
Synthetic immunology: modulating the human
In synthetic immunology,
biological devices are engineered to
rationally modulate immune responses.
Molecules derived from the immune system are
modified to capture cytokines or cells
Autologous immune cells
are designed to
or eradicate tumors.
Pattern Recognition Receptor
are a primitive part of the immune
system. They are proteins expressed by cells of the innate immune system
to identify two classes of molecules: pathogen-associated molecular
patterns (PAMPs), which are associated with microbial pathogens, and
damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which are associated with
cell components that are released during cell damage or death. They are
also called primitive pattern recognition receptors because they evolved
before other parts of the immune system, particularly before adaptive
is a branch of
immunology that studies interactions between the immune system and cancer
cells (also called tumors or malignancies). It is a field of research that
aims to discover cancer immunotherapies to treat and retard progression of
the disease. The immune response, including the recognition of
cancer-specific antigens, forms the basis of targeted therapy (such as
vaccines and antibody therapies) and tumor marker-based diagnostic tests.
Cholesterol Byproduct Hijacks Immune Cells, lets Breast Cancer Spread
How to Help our Immune Cells to Recognize
What the Sugar Coating on your Cells is trying to tell you
is a generic term for the N- or O-substituted derivatives of
neuraminic acid, a monosaccharide with a nine-carbon backbone. It is also
the name for the most common member of this group, N-acetylneuraminic acid
(Neu5Ac or NANA). Sialic acids are found widely distributed in animal
tissues and to a lesser extent in other organisms, ranging from plants and
fungi to yeasts and bacteria, mostly in glycoproteins and gangliosides
(they occur at the end of sugar chains connected
to the surfaces of cells
) In humans the brain has the highest sialic acid concentration,
where these acids play an important role in
ganglioside structure in synaptogenesis. In general, the amino group bears
either an acetyl or a glycolyl group, but other modifications have been
described. These modifications along with linkages have shown to be tissue
specific and developmentally regulated expressions, so some of them are
only found on certain types of glycoconjugates in specific cells. The
hydroxyl substituents may vary considerably; acetyl, lactyl, methyl,
sulfate, and phosphate groups have been found.
Discovery of Brain-like activity in immune system promises better disease
. Human immune cells contain particles that have
neurotransmitters including dopamine, which plays a crucial role in immune
responses. Neurons rely on synaptic interactions and neurotransmitters
such as dopamine, which are small molecules transmitted across synapses to
deliver signals from one cell to another that play a major role in
reward-motivated behaviour. Like neurons, specialised T cells transfer
to B cells
that provides additional 'motivation' for
to produce the
best antibodies they can to help to clear up an infection.
is a large, Y-shaped protein
produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to
neutralize pathogens such as bacteria and viruses. The antibody recognizes
a unique molecule of the harmful agent, called an antigen, via the Fab's
variable region. Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody contains a paratope
(analogous to a lock) that is specific for one particular epitope
(similarly analogous to a key) on an antigen, allowing these two
structures to bind together with precision. Using this binding mechanism,
an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for attack by other
parts of the immune system, or can neutralize its target directly (for
example, by blocking a part of a microbe that is essential for its
invasion and survival). Depending on the antigen, the binding may impede
the biological process causing the disease or may activate macrophages to
destroy the foreign substance. The ability of an antibody to communicate
with the other components of the immune system is mediated via its Fc
region (located at the base of the "Y"), which contains a conserved
glycosylation site involved in these interactions. The production of
antibodies is the main function of the humoral immune system. Also known
as an immunoglobulin (Ig), Antibodies are secreted by B cells of the
adaptive immune system, mostly by differentiated B cells called plasma
cells. Antibodies can occur in two physical forms, a soluble form that is
secreted from the cell to be free in the blood plasma, and a
membrane-bound form that is attached to the surface of a B cell and is
referred to as the B-cell receptor (BCR). The BCR is found only on the
surface of B cells and facilitates the activation of these cells and their
subsequent differentiation into either antibody factories called plasma
cells or memory B cells that will survive in the body and remember that
same antigen so the B cells can respond faster upon future exposure. In
most cases, interaction of the B cell with a T helper cell is necessary to
produce full activation of the B cell and, therefore, antibody generation
following antigen binding. Soluble antibodies are released into the blood
and tissue fluids, as well as many secretions to continue to survey for
invading microorganisms. Antibodies are glycoproteins belonging to the
immunoglobulin superfamily. They constitute most of the gamma globulin
fraction of the blood proteins. They are typically made of basic
structural units—each with two large heavy chains and two small light
chains. There are several different types of antibody heavy chains that
define the five different types of crystallisable fragments (Fc) that may
be attached to the antigen-binding fragments. The five different types of
Fc regions allow antibodies to be grouped into five isotypes. Each Fc
region of a particular antibody isotype is able to bind to its specific Fc
Receptor (except for IgD, which is essentially the BCR), thus allowing the
antigen-antibody complex to mediate different roles depending on which FcR
it binds. The ability of an antibody to bind to its corresponding FcR is
further modulated by the structure of the glycan(s) present at conserved
sites within its Fc region. The ability of antibodies to bind to FcRs
helps to direct the appropriate immune response for each different type of
foreign object they encounter. For example, IgE is responsible for an
allergic response consisting of mast cell degranulation and histamine
release. IgE's Fab paratope binds to allergic antigen, for example house
dust mite particles, while its Fc region binds to Fc receptor ε. The
allergen-IgE-FcRε interaction mediates allergic signal transduction to
induce conditions such as asthma. Though the general structure of all
antibodies is very similar, a small region at the tip of the protein is
extremely variable, allowing millions of antibodies with slightly
different tip structures, or antigen-binding sites, to exist. This region
is known as the hypervariable region. Each of these variants can bind to a
different antigen. This enormous diversity of antibody paratopes on the
antigen-binding fragments allows the immune system to recognize an equally
wide variety of antigens. The large and diverse population of antibody
paratope is generated by random recombination events of a set of gene
segments that encode different antigen-binding sites (or paratopes),
followed by random mutations in this area of the antibody gene, which
create further diversity. This recombinational process that produces
clonal antibody paratope diversity is called V(D)J or VJ recombination.
Basically, the antibody paratope is polygenic, made up of three genes, V,
D, and J. Each paratope locus is also polymorphic, such that during
antibody production, one allele of V, one of D, and one of J is chosen.
These gene segments are then joined together using random genetic
recombination to produce the paratope. The regions where the genes are
randomly recombined together is the hyper variable region used to
recognise different antigens on a clonal basis. Antibody genes also
re-organize in a process called class switching that changes the one type
of heavy chain Fc fragment to another, creating a different isotype of the
antibody that retains the antigen-specific variable region. This allows a
single antibody to be used by different types of Fc receptors, expressed
on different parts of the immune system.
are antibodies that
are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent
cell. Monoclonal antibodies can have monovalent affinity, in that they
bind to the same epitope (the part of an antigen that is recognized by the
white blood cells
secrete large volumes of antibodies. They are transported by the blood
plasma and the lymphatic system. Plasma cells originate in the bone
marrow; B cells differentiate into plasma cells that produce antibody
molecules closely modeled after the receptors of the precursor B cell.
Once released into the blood and lymph, these antibody molecules bind to
the target antigen (foreign substance) and initiate its neutralization or
are a type of
white blood cell of the lymphocyte subtype. They function in the humoral
immunity component of the adaptive immune system by secreting antibodies.
Additionally, B cells present antigen (they are also classified as
professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs)) and secrete cytokines.
Memory B Cell
are a B cell sub-type that
are formed within germinal centers following primary infection and are
important in generating an accelerated and more robust antibody-mediated
immune response in the case of re-infection (also known as a secondary
immune response).T Cell
is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of
white blood cell
) that plays a
central role in cell-mediated immunity. T cells can be distinguished from
other lymphocytes, such as B cells and natural killer cells, by the
presence of a T-cell receptor on the cell surface. They are called T cells
because they mature in the thymus from thymocytes (although some also
mature in the tonsils). The several subsets of T cells each have a
distinct function. The majority of human T cells rearrange their alpha and
beta chains on the cell receptor and are termed alpha beta T cells (αβ T
cells) and are part of the adaptive immune system. Specialized gamma delta
T cells, (a small minority of T cells in the human body, more frequent in
ruminants), have invariant T cell receptors with limited diversity, that
can effectively present antigens to other T cells and are considered to be
part of the innate immune system
Memory T Cell
are the cells in the body that 'remember'
previous infections and how to defeat them
. These are the cells
that provide life-long immunity to
such as measles or chicken pox.
Memory T Cells are a subset of infection-
as well as potentially cancer-fighting T cells (also known as a T
lymphocyte) that have previously encountered and responded to their
cognate antigen; thus, the term antigen-experienced T cell is often
applied. Such T cells can recognize foreign invaders, such as bacteria or
viruses, as well as cancer cells. Memory T cells have become "experienced"
by having encountered antigen during a prior infection, encounter with
cancer, or previous vaccination. At a second encounter with the invader,
memory T cells can reproduce to mount a faster and stronger immune
response than the first time the immune system responded to the invader.
This behavior is utilized in T lymphocyte proliferation assays, which can
reveal exposure to specific antigens
G.M. T Cell Therapy
Cytotoxic T Cell
is a T lymphocyte (a
type of white blood cell) that kills cancer cells
cells that are infected (particularly with viruses), or cells that are
damaged in other ways.
T Helper Cell
are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system,
particularly in the adaptive immune system. They help the activity of
other immune cells by releasing T cell cytokines. These cells help
suppress or regulate immune responses. They are essential in B cell
antibody class switching, in the activation and growth of cytotoxic T
cells, and in maximizing bactericidal activity of phagocytes such as
Sunlight Energizes Infection Fighting T
is a specialized primary lymphoid organ of the immune system. Within the
thymus, T cells or T lymphocytes mature. T cells are critical to the
adaptive immune system, where the body adapts specifically to foreign
invaders. The thymus is composed of two identical lobes and is located
anatomically in the anterior superior mediastinum, in front of the heart
and behind the sternum.
are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical to the innate immune
system. The role NK cells play is analogous to that of cytotoxic T cells
in the vertebrate adaptive immune response. NK cells provide rapid
responses to viral-infected cells, acting at around 3 days after
infection, and respond to tumor formation. Typically, immune
detect major histocompatibility
complex (MHC) presented on infected cell surfaces, triggering cytokine
release, causing lysis or apoptosis. NK cells are unique, however, as they
have the ability to recognize stressed cells in the absence of antibodies
and MHC, allowing for a much faster immune reaction. They were named
"natural killers" because of the initial notion that they do not require
activation to kill cells that are missing "self" markers of MHC class 1.
This role is especially important because harmful cells that are missing
MHC I markers cannot be detected and destroyed by other immune cells, such
as T lymphocyte cells.
Killer T Cell
are a heterogeneous group of T cells that share
properties of both T cells and natural killer cells. Many of these
cells recognize the non-polymorphic CD1d molecule, an antigen-presenting
molecule that binds self and foreign lipids and glycolipids. They
constitute only approximately 0.1% of all peripheral blood T cells.
Natural killer T cells should not be confused with natural killer cells.
is the study of the interaction between
psychological processes and the nervous and immune systems of the human
body. PNI takes an interdisciplinary approach, incorporating psychology,
neuroscience, immunology, physiology, genetics, pharmacology, molecular
biology, psychiatry, behavioral medicine, infectious diseases,
endocrinology, and rheumatology.
are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of
monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages and on
hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides. They
range in structure from linear to highly branched. Examples include
storage polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen, and structural
polysaccharides such as cellulose and chitin.
is the only known positive
regulator of complement activation that stabilizes the alternative pathway
convertases. It is found in the blood serum of more complex animals.
are cells that protect the
body by ingesting (phagocytosing) harmful foreign particles, bacteria, and
dead or dying cells.
is one of the subtypes of
white blood cell
vertebrate's immune system. Lymphocytes include natural killer cells (NK
cells) (which function in cell-mediated, cytotoxic innate immunity), T
cells (for cell-mediated, cytotoxic adaptive immunity), and B cells (for
humoral, antibody-driven adaptive immunity). They are the main type of
cell found in lymph, which prompted the name "lymphocyte".
is a potentially fatal
immune reaction consisting of a positive feedback loop between cytokines
and white blood cells, with highly elevated levels of various cytokines.
are a broad and loose category
of small proteins
that are important in cell signaling. Their release has an effect on the
behavior of cells around them.
Nutrition - Food
Modified Gerson Approach
Dr. William Li
is the physiological
process through which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels. In
precise usage this is distinct from vasculogenesis, which is the de novo
formation of endothelial cells from mesoderm cell precursors, and from
neovascularization, although discussions are not always precise
(especially in older texts). The first vessels in the developing embryo
form through vasculogenesis, after which angiogenesis is responsible for
most, if not all, blood vessel growth during development and in disease.
Angiogenesis is a normal and vital process in growth and development, as
well as in wound healing and in the formation of granulation tissue.
However, it is also a fundamental step in the transition of tumors from a
benign state to a malignant one, leading to the use of angiogenesis
inhibitors in the treatment of cancer. The essential role of angiogenesis
in tumor growth was first proposed in 1971 by Judah Folkman, who described
tumors as "hot and bloody," illustrating that, at least for many tumor
types, flush perfusion and even hyperemia are characteristic.
Proteins Restricts Tumor Growth
Breast Cancer Linked to Bacterial Imbalances
- Medical Marijuana
(benefits of eating
are cells forming the outer
layer of a blastocyst, which provide nutrients to the embryo and develop
into a large part of the placenta. They are formed during the first stage
of pregnancy and are the first cells to differentiate from the fertilized
egg. This layer of trophoblasts is also collectively referred to as "the
trophoblast", or, after gastrulation, the trophectoderm, as it is then
contiguous with the ectoderm of the embryo.
is the common name for most
obligate hemiparasitic plants in the order Santalales. Mistletoes attach
to and penetrate the branches of a tree or shrub by a structure called the
haustorium, through which they absorb water and nutrients from the host
is a poisonous cyanogenic
glycoside found in many plants, but most notably in the seeds (kernels) of
apricot, bitter almonds, apple, peach, and plum.
is a metabolic
state in which some of the body's energy supply comes from ketone bodies
in the blood, in contrast to a state of glycolysis in which blood glucose
provides most of the energy.
Starving Cancer Cells using a key nutrient Amino Acids, slows Tumor
is an amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
any isoform of a protein encoded by homologous genes in various organisms,
such as TP53 (humans) and Trp53 (mice).
is a high-fat, adequate-protein, low-carbohydrate diet that in medicine is
used primarily to treat difficult-to-control (refractory) epilepsy in
children. The diet forces the body to burn fats rather than carbohydrates.
Normally, the carbohydrates
contained in food are converted into glucose,
which is then transported around the body and is particularly important in
. However, if there is very little carbohydrate in
the diet, the liver converts fat into fatty acids and ketone bodies. The
ketone bodies pass into the brain and replace glucose as an energy source.
An elevated level of ketone bodies in the blood, a state known as ketosis,
leads to a reduction in the frequency of epileptic seizures.
are three water-soluble molecules (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and
their spontaneous breakdown product, acetone) that are produced by the
liver from fatty acids during periods of low food intake (fasting),
carbohydrate restrictive diets, starvation, prolonged intense exercise, or
in untreated (or inadequately treated) type 1 diabetes mellitus. These
ketone bodies are readily picked up by the extra-hepatic tissues, and
converted into acetyl-CoA which then enters the citric acid cycle and is
oxidized in the mitochondria for energy. In the
, ketone bodies are also used to
make acetyl-CoA into long-chain
believe that each person has a unique
, and that the proportion of
macromolecules (proteins, carbohydrates and fats) which are optimal for
one person may not be for a second, and could even be detrimental to them.
Links between Metabolism and Cancer
is the synthesis and
degradation of lipids in cells. Lipid metabolism is the break down or
storage of fats for energy; these fats are obtained from consuming food
and absorbing them or they are synthesized by an animal's liver. Aberrant Lipid Metabolism in the
Forebrain Niche Suppresses
Proliferation in an Animal Model of
Evidence Points to a Specific Diet That Can Starve Cancer Cells of Their
Prime Fuels. The Metabolic Approach to Cancer: Integrating Deep Nutrition,
the Ketogenic Diet, and Nontoxic Bio-Individualized Therapies.
Cancer: The Forbidden Cures
is a collection of
extracellular molecules secreted by cells that provides structural and
biochemical support to the surrounding cells. Because multicellularity
evolved independently in different multicellular lineages, the composition
of ECM varies between multicellular structures; however, cell adhesion,
cell-to-cell communication and differentiation are common functions of the
is an herbal tea promoted as an
alternative treatment for cancer and other illnesses. There is no evidence
it is beneficial to health, and it may be harmful.
Laetrile Research Film
or Mayapple, all the parts
of the plant are poisonous, including the green fruit, but once the fruit
has turned yellow, it can be safely eaten with the seeds removed.
on tree that only grows in Far North Queensland.
is a type of epithelium that lines the
interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an
interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of
the vessel wall. It is a thin layer of simple squamous cells called
endothelial cells. Endothelial cells in direct contact with blood are
called vascular endothelial cells, whereas those in direct contact with
lymph are known as lymphatic endothelial cells. Vascular endothelial cells
line the entire circulatory system, from the heart to the smallest
capillaries. These cells have unique functions in vascular biology. These
functions include fluid filtration, such as in the glomerulus of the
kidney, blood vessel tone, hemostasis, neutrophil recruitment, and hormone
trafficking. Endothelium of the interior surfaces of the heart chambers is
that contain the psychedelic compounds psilocybin and psilocin. Common
colloquial terms include magic mushrooms and shrooms. They are used mainly
as an entheogen and recreational drug whose effects can include euphoria,
altered thinking processes, closed and open-eye visuals, synesthesia, an
altered sense of time and spiritual experiences. Biological genera
containing psilocybin mushrooms include Copelandia, Galerina, Gymnopilus,
Inocybe, Mycena, Panaeolus, Pholiotina, Pluteus, and Psilocybe. Over 100
species are classified in the genus Psilocybe. Psilocybin mushrooms may
have been used since prehistoric times. They are possibly depicted in
Stone Age rock art in Europe and Africa, and have a history of use in
pre-Columbian Mesoamerica. Many cultures have used these mushrooms in
their religious rites and ceremonie.
is a genus of yeasts and is the most common
cause of fungal infections worldwide. Many species are harmless commensals
or endosymbionts of hosts including humans; however, when mucosal barriers
are disrupted or the immune system is compromised they can invade and
cause disease. Candida albicans is the most commonly isolated species, and
can cause infections (candidiasis or thrush) in humans and other animals.
In winemaking, some species of Candida can potentially spoil wines.
Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin
is a large,
multisubunit, oxygen-carrying, metalloprotein that is found in the
hemolymph of the giant keyhole limpet, Megathura crenulata, a species of
keyhole limpet that lives off the coast of California, from Monterey Bay
to Isla Asuncion off Baja California.
Caris Life Sciences
are biologically occurring short chains of
amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
Reactive Oxygen species
reactive chemical species containing
. Examples include peroxides, superoxide, hydroxyl radical, and
is a single organism composed of
cells from different zygotes. This can result in male and female organs,
two blood types, or subtle variations in form. Animal chimeras are
produced by the merger of multiple fertilized eggs.
is therapy in which cellular material is injected into a patient; this
generally means intact, living cells
. For example, T cells capable of
fighting cancer cells via cell-mediated immunity may be injected in the
course of immunotherapy.
is the therapeutic delivery of nucleic acid polymers into a patient's
cells as a drug to treat disease.
is a humanized
used in cancer immunotherapy
. It destroys a protective mechanism on cancer
cells, and allows the immune system to destroy those cancer cells. It
targets the programmed cell death
1 (PD-1) receptor. The drug was
initially used in treating metastatic melanoma.
Personalized Cell Therapies
engineers immune cells
can detect proteins and target cancer cells specifically.
City of Hope
International Agency for Research on Cancer
Cancer Genes Turned Off
is the use of
a mixture of antibodies (immunoglobulins) to treat a number of health
coagulase-negative member of the genus Staphylococcus, consisting of
Gram-positive bacteria with spherical cells that appear in clusters.
Engineered Liposomes Sequester Bacterial
is a spherical vesicle having
at least one lipid bilayer. The liposome can be used as a vehicle for
administration of nutrients and pharmaceutical drugs. Liposomes can be
prepared by disrupting biological membranes (such as by sonication).
is a toxin secreted by
bacteria. An exotoxin can cause damage to the host by destroying cells or
disrupting normal cellular metabolism. They are highly potent and can
cause major damage to the host. Exotoxins may be secreted, or, similar to
endotoxins, may be released during lysis of the cell. Gram negative
pathogens may secrete outer membrane vesicles containing
lipopolysaccharide endotoxin and some virulence proteins in the bounding
membrane along with some other toxins as intra-vesicular contents, thus
adding a previously unforeseen dimension to the well-known eukaryote
process of membrane vesicle trafficking, which is quite active at the
is a cell-based cancer immunotherapy for
prostate cancer (CaP). It is a personalized treatment that works by
programming each patient's immune system to seek out cancer and attack it
as if it were foreign.
is blood plasma
that has been enriched with platelets. As a concentrated source of
autologous platelets, PRP contains several different growth factors and
other cytokines that can stimulate healing of soft tissue. Platelet-rich
plasma therapy is an old therapy and used extensively in specialities of
dermatology, orthopedics and dentistry. Platelet rich plasma therapy
utilizes growth factors present in alpha granules of platelets in an
autologous manner. Main indications in dermatology for PRP are
androgenetic alopecia, wound healing, face rejuvenation etc. For
preparation of PRP, various protocols are used and no standard protocol
exists but main principles essentially involve concentrating platlets in a
concentration of 3–5 times the physiological value and then injecting this
concentrated plasma in the tissue where healing or effect is desired.
As of 2016, no large-scale randomized controlled trials have confirmed the
efficacy of PRP as a treatment for musculoskeletal or nerve injuries, the
accelerated healing of bone grafts, or the reduction of androgenic hair
Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) Therapy
Transfusion Cellular Therapies
Offering abiraterone (Zytiga) up-front with standard hormone treatment
extends survival in men whose prostate cancer has spread
Combined immunotherapy could help control melanoma that has spread to the
brainStimulating defense mechanisms
Naturally occurring molecule enhances
defense mechanisms in neurodegenerative
is a monosaccharide
and a derivative of glucose. It is an amide between glucosamine and acetic
Protein Quality Control and
is a region of repetitive
nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome, which protects the end
of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring
Rare byproduct of marine bacteria
kills cancer cells by
Alternative Cancer Treatments
are alternative or complementary treatments
for cancer that have not been approved by the government agencies
responsible for the regulation of therapeutic goods.
Tumor Treating Fields
is a type of
electromagnetic field therapy using low-intensity electrical fields
Alternating Electric Field Therapy
is a type of electromagnetic field
therapy using low-intensity electrical fields to treat cancer. A TTF-generating
device manufactured by the Israeli company Novocure is approved in the
United States and Europe for the treatment of newly diagnosed and
recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), and is undergoing clinical trials
for several other tumor types. Despite earning regulatory approval, the
efficacy of this technology remains controversial among medical experts.
Sometimes called tumor treating fields TTF or TTFields.
refers to therapy involving the use of
magnets or electromagnets
include: Bioelectromagnetics, the study of how electromagnetic fields
interact with and influence biological processes. Electrotherapy, the use
of electrical or electromagnetic energy in medicine; Electromagnetic
therapy (alternative medicine), the use of
to treat disease. Evidence of efficacy is lacking. Pulsed Electromagnetic
Field Therapy, or PEMF, the use of weak electromagnetic fields to initiate
osteogenesis. Alternating electric field therapy, also known as "Tumor
Treating Fields", the use of electric fields as an anti-mitotic therapy
for cancer patients.
Fake Cancer Cures
Bogus Cancer Treatments
Ernst T. Krebs
was an American biochemist. He is known for promoting
various substances as alternative cures for cancer.
is an alternative medical
treatment promoted as a cure for cancer.
Ryke Geerd Hamer
is a German former physician, a system of
purports to be able to cure cancer
Cancer Misdiagnosis Guide
is a type of healer who
treated ailments believed to be caused by
, which is the practice of, and belief in, magical skills
and abilities that are able to be exercised by individuals and certain
critical thinking about treatment claims.
Effects of the Informed Health Choices
podcast on the ability of
parents of primary school children in Uganda to assess claims about
treatment effects: a randomised controlled trial.
category of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs
(chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
is a regimen for chemotherapy, defining the drugs to be used,
their dosage, the frequency and duration of treatments, and other
considerations. In modern oncology, many regimens combine several
chemotherapy drugs in combination chemotherapy. The majority of drugs used
in cancer chemotherapy are cytostatic, many via cytotoxicity.
inhibition of cell growth and multiplication.
the quality of being toxic to cells.
is a combination
chemotherapy regimen used to treat Hodgkin's disease. The acronym is
derived from the component drugs of the regimen:(M)ustargen (also known as
mechlorethamine, chlormethine, mustine, nitrogen mustard, or MSD). (O)ncovin
(also known as Vincristine or VCR). (P)rocarbazine (also known as Matulane
or Natulan). (P)rednisone (also known as Deltasone or Orasone). The
treatment is usually administered in four week cycles, often for six
cycles. MSD and VCR are administered intravenously, while procarbazine and
prednisone are pills taken orally. A newer Hodgkin's lymphoma treatment is
ABVD. C-MOPP involves switching the nitrogen mustard from mechlorethamine
to cyclophosphamide. C-MOPP is thus very similar to COPP, using the same 4
agents and differing at most in dosages and timing.
describes the cognitive
impairment that can result from chemotherapy treatment. Approximately
20–30% of people who undergo chemotherapy experience some level of
post-chemotherapy cognitive impairment. The phenomenon first came to light
because of the large number of breast cancer survivors who complained of
changes in memory, fluency, and other
their ability to function as they had pre-chemotherapy.
Warnings from Medications
is therapy using
ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or
kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
Radiation therapy may be curative in a number of types of cancer if they
are localized to one area of the body. It may also be used as part of
adjuvant therapy, to prevent tumor recurrence after surgery to remove a
primary malignant tumor (for example, early stages of breast cancer).
Radiation therapy is synergistic with chemotherapy, and has been used
before, during, and after chemotherapy in susceptible cancers.
transcription factors that respond to decreases in available
in the cellular
environment, or hypoxia.
Focused Ultrasound to Dissolve Tumors.
High Intensity Focused Ultrasound
is an early stage medical technology that is
in various stages of development worldwide to treat a range of disorders.
The mechanism is similar to using a magnifying glass to focus sunlight.
Focused ultrasound uses an acoustic lens to concentrate multiple
intersecting beams of ultrasound on a target. Each individual beam passes
through tissue with little effect but at the focal point where the beams
converge, the energy can have useful thermal or mechanical effects. HIFU
is typically performed with real-time imaging via ultrasound or MRI to
enable treatment targeting and monitoring (including thermal tracking with
is a specialized cell which acts as a
sensory receptor which transduces (responds to) a chemical substance and
generates a biological signal. This signal may be in the form of an action
potential if the chemoreceptor is a neuron (nerve cell), or in the form of
a neurotransmitter that can activate a nearby nerve fiber if the
chemosensor is a specialized sensory cell, such as a sensory cell in a
taste bud or in an internal chemoreceptor such as the carotid body. In
more general terms, a chemosensor detects chemicals in the internal or
external environment and transmits that information to the nervous system.
named because they are sensory extensions of the peripheral nervous system
into blood vessels where they detect changes in chemical concentrations.
As transducers of patterns of variability in the surrounding environment,
carotid and aortic bodies count as ‘sensors’ in a similar way as taste
buds and photoreceptors. However, because carotid and aortic bodies detect
variation within the body’s internal organs, they are considered
interoceptors. Taste buds, olfactory bulbs, photoreceptors, and other
receptors associated with the five traditional sensory modalities, by
contrast, are exteroceptors in that they respond to stimuli outside the
body. The body also contains proprioceptors, which respond to the amount
of stretch within the organ, usually muscle, that they occupy.
Pathwork Molecular Diagnostics
Alternating Electric Field Therapy
is a type of
therapy using low-intensity electrical fields to treat cancer.
Experimental Cancer Treatment
medical therapies intended or claimed to treat cancer (see also tumor) by
improving on, supplementing or replacing conventional methods (surgery,
chemotherapy, radiation, and immunotherapy).
You need to do a lot of research when seeking out cancer
. And don't believe that Doctors are looking out for
your best interest because sadly too many Doctors are corrupted
are cancers that arise from the
. They are due to the development of abnormal
that have the
ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
There are 3 Main Types of Skin Cancers
Basal-Cell Skin Cancer
is the most common skin cancer.
Squamous-Cell skin Cancer
is cancer that begins from
, a type of skin cell.
is a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-containing cells
, which are melanin-producing neural-crest derived cells
located in the bottom layer (the stratum basale) of the skin's epidermis,
the middle layer of the eye (the uvea), the inner ear, meninges, bones,
and heart. Melanin
is the pigment primarily responsible for skin color.
Once synthesised, melanin is contained in a special organelle called a
melanosome and moved along arm-like structures called dendrites, so as to
reach the keratinocytes.
Approximately 5.4 million basal and squamous cell skin
cancers are diagnosed each year.
is a type
of cancer that develops from
. Specifically, a carcinoma is a cancer that begins in
a tissue that lines the inner or outer surfaces of the body, and that
generally arises from cells originating in the
germ layer during embryogenesis. Carcinomas occur when the
DNA of a cell is damaged or altered and the cell begins to grow
uncontrollably and become malignant. It is from the Greek καρκίνωμα 'karkinoma'
meaning sore, ulcer, or cancer, itself derived from karkinos 'crab.
Deep learning algorithm does as well as dermatologists in identifying skin
USC Viterbi researchers invent waterproof patch to monitor UV ray exposure
Color-changing smart material sensor will alert user that it’s time to get
out of the sun.
Wart or a Mole
Promising new drug stops spread of melanoma by 90 percent
long term autoimmune disease that results in hardening of the skin. In the
more severe form, it also affects internal organs. The cause is unknown.
The underlying mechanism involves the body's immune system attacking
healthy tissues. There is a strong association with certain mutations in
HLA genes. Environmental factors have also been implicated.
protein that in humans is encoded by the MYOCD gene. Myocardin is a smooth
muscle and cardiac muscle-specific transcriptional coactivator of serum
response factor. When expressed ectopically in nonmuscle cells, myocardin
can induce smooth muscle differentiation by its association with serum
response factor (SRF; MIM 600589).[supplied by OMIM].
is the biochemical process that helps organisms cope with molecular damage
caused by sunlight
. Plants and
other oxygenic phototrophs have developed a suite of photoprotective
mechanisms to prevent photoinhibition and oxidative stress caused by
excess or fluctuating light conditions. Humans and other animals have also
developed photoprotective mechanisms to avoid
photodamage to the skin,
prevent DNA damage, and minimize the downstream effects of oxidative
Principles and Practice of Photoprotection
. Summarizes the beneficial
roles of photoprotection in relation to skin cancers, photoaging,
photodermatoses, autoimmune and other skin
Cancer in Pets
Not only do humans get abused by cancer and the cost of cancer treatments, but our pets do as well.
Dogs and Cancer
Cancer in Cats: Types, symptoms, prevention and treatments
Cancer in Pets
Signs of Cancer in Pets