Evolution - Intelligent Design
is a process in which something
passes by degrees to a different stage. (especially a more
advanced or mature stage)
events involved in the evolutionary development of a species or taxonomic
group of organisms
Evolution is about
Adaptation of Species
, because those are facts that can be
explained and understood by most people. Evolution does not
explain where species originate from, or how life starts
, that would be
. How did life
evolve from nonliving matter?
Believing in God does not mean that you can't believe in evolution, and
believing in evolution does not mean that you can't believe in God.
Believing in God does not excuse you from knowing the facts in the same
way that believing in evolution does not excuse you from knowing about
religion and what it's like to believe in a God.
Ignorance is the
only thing that divides us
. To assume that
you know the origin of life is the same thing as assuming that you know
who God is.Intelligent Design
, or confuse
. Though they are related in certain ways, those
are three different things with different definitions that are not 100
is to adjust
oneself to new or different conditions. Make fit for,
or change to suit a
is capable of or tending to
change in form or quality or nature.
is a changeable quality. The
property of flowing easily. A continuous, amorphous substance whose
molecules move freely past one another and that has the tendency to assume
the shape of its container.
capable of being changed so as to match or fit.
is to change or alter something
to work better or look better; adjusting to circumstances. Adjusting
something to match a standard. The process of adapting to something.
is capable of being changed. Able
to adjust readily to different conditions.
is to cause to change; make different; cause a
transformation. Make an alteration to.Revise
is to update
and improve something.
, or do or say something differently.
is a change. When something
becomes different. An event that occurs when something passes from one
state or phase to another.
is a trait with a current functional role in the
life of an organism that is maintained and evolved by means of
, which is the differential survival and reproduction of
individuals over time due to differences in phenotype, which is the
observable characteristics or traits, the expression of an organism's
is the process by which two or more species, genes or
phenotypic traits undergo adaptation as a pair or group. This occurs when
two or more interacting characteristics undergo natural selection together
in response to the same selective pressure or when selective pressures
alter one characteristic and consecutively alter the interactive
characteristic. These interacting characteristics are only beneficial when
together, sometimes leading to increased interdependence. Co-adaptation
and coevolution, although similar in process, are not the same;
co-adaptation refers to the interactions between two units, whereas
co-evolution refers to their evolutionary history. Co-adaptation and its
examples are often seen as evidence for co-evolution.Adaptive
that enables a person (usually used in the context of
children) to get along in his or her environment with greatest success and
least conflict with others. This is a term used in the areas of psychology
and special education. Adaptive behavior relates to every day skills or
tasks that the average person is able to complete, similar to the
.Life is a Learning Program -
How digital DNA could help you make better health choices
is the view that many physical and psychological traits of organisms are
Adapting to lower levels of Oxygen
Human species have adapted to lowland
environment where oxygen is generally abundant. But
people in Tibet, the Andes and Ethiopia have acquired the
ability to survive at extremely high altitudes
. While the
rest of human population would suffer serious health
consequences, these native inhabitants thrive well in the
highest parts of the world. Tibetans has become the fastest case
of human evolution in the scientific record, as it is estimated
to have occurred in less than 3,000 years.
the Arctic Circle are more adapted to cold and you can see them taking a
swim or a sunbath on the beach when temperatures are just above 10 degrees
C. Africans are more adapted to heat, but when temperature drops to 15
degrees C, you can see them wearing warm clothes. People around the Arctic
Circle are used to eat meat and animal fat, but when they move to a large
town, where their diet will consist mainly of vegetables, they get anemia.
Europeans are most adapted for consuming milk, while Chinese people, where
historically milk was not used for food, have a high percentage of lactose
intolerance. This is an adaptation made by the organisms of European
people for their food regime. People that remained around the contemned
zone in Chernobyl seem to have adapted to a certain level of radiation.
Adapting Genetically to Arsenic
Andean communities may have
evolved the ability to metabolize
a trait that could be the first documented example of a
toxic substance acting as an agent of natural selection in
humans, Arsenic exposure can be deadly, but high in the Andes,
drinking water laced with the chemical may have driven genetic
adaptation in local populations. In parts of Argentina, people
have been drinking poison—arsenic, to be specific—for thousands
of years. The river running through the Andean village of San
Antonio de los Cobres (SAC) has arsenic levels up to 80 times
the safe limit established by the World Health Organization. At
high doses, arsenic causes vomiting, convulsions and eventually
coma. At low, chronic exposure, the metal causes skin lesions,
liver damage and several types of cancers.
have found that
are able to edit their RNA, at the expense of evolution in
their genomic DNA
. In other words, they are able to
rapidly change on the cellular level to suit their environment, rather
than relying on the slow evolution of DNA to make changes.
is change in the heritable characteristics
of biological populations over successive generations. Evolutionary
processes give rise to
at every level of
, including the levels of species, individual
is evolution on a scale at or above the level of
species, in contrast with microevolution, which refers to smaller
evolutionary changes of allele frequencies within a species or population.
Macroevolution and microevolution describe fundamentally identical
processes on different time scales. Mutations
is the accumulation of differences
between groups, leading to the formation of new species.
is to evolve so as to
lead to a new species
in a way most suited to the environment.
Become distinct and acquire a different character. Made different
(especially in the course of development) or shown to be different.
Exhibiting biological specialization; adapted
to a specific function or environment. Become different during development
is the change in allele frequencies that occurs over time within a
population. This change is due to four different processes: mutation,
selection (natural and artificial), gene flow, and genetic drift. This
change happens over a relatively short (in evolutionary terms) amount of
time compared to the changes termed 'macroevolution' which is where
greater differences in the population occur.
is the subfield of biology that studies
the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth
starting from a single origin of life
. These processes include the descent of species, and
the origin of new species.
is a process in which organisms diversify rapidly
from an ancestral species into a multitude of new forms, particularly when
a change in the environment makes new resources available, creates new
challenges, or opens new environmental niches. Starting with a recent
single ancestor, this process results in the speciation and phenotypic
adaptation of an array of species exhibiting different morphological and
is the evolutionary process by which biological populations
evolve to become distinct species.
is the independent evolution of similar features
in species of different lineages. convergence is the tendency of unrelated
animals and plants to evolve superficially similar characteristics under
similar environmental conditions.
is the evolutionary process that led to the
emergence of anatomically modern humans
is coming to full
; becoming mature (biology), the
of an individual organism growing organically; A purely biological unfolding of events involved in an organism
changing gradually from a simple to a more complex level.
is the notion that species can revert into more "primitive" forms over
occurs when changes in at least two species' genetic
compositions reciprocally affect each other’s evolution.
is the change in heritable traits of a
population over time. Some life forms can adapt
other species die off. The differential survival and
reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
all populations of organisms.
- Pyramid of
composite of an organism's
observable characteristics or traits, such as
its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties,
phenology, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest). A
phenotype results from the expression
of an organism's genes as well as
the influence of environmental factors and the interactions between the
two. When two or more clearly different phenotypes exist in the same
population of a species, the species is called
, which the occurrence of two or more clearly different
, also referred to as alternative
, in the population of a species.
Tree of Life
is the part (DNA sequence
) of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore
of an organism or individual, which determines a specific characteristic
(phenotype) of that cell/organism/individual. Genotype is one of three
factors that determine phenotype, the other two being
, and non-inherited environmental factors.
is the set of all genes, or genetic information, in any
, usually of a
the change in the frequency of an existing gene variant (allele) in a
population due to
sampling of organisms. The alleles in the offspring are a sample of those
in the parents, and chance has a role in determining whether a given
individual survives and reproduces. A population's allele frequency is the
fraction of the copies of one gene that share a particular form. Genetic
drift may cause gene variants to disappear completely and thereby reduce
transfer of genetic variation from one
to another. If the
rate of gene flow is high enough, then two populations are considered to
have equivalent genetic diversity and therefore effectively a single
population. It has been shown that it takes only "One
migrant per generation
" to prevent population diverging due to drift.
Gene flow is an important mechanism for transferring genetic diversity
among populations. Migrants into or out of a population may result in a
change in allele frequencies (the proportion of members carrying a
particular variant of a gene), changing the distribution of genetic
diversity within the populations.
may also result in the addition of new genetic variants to the established
gene pool of a particular species or population. High rates of gene flow
can reduce the genetic differentiation between the two groups, increasing
homogeneity. For this reason, gene flow has been thought to constrain
speciation by combining the gene pools of the groups, and thus, preventing
the development of differences in genetic variation that would have led to
means that biological systems – individuals and populations
– are different over space. Each gene pool includes various alleles of
genes. The variation occurs both within and among populations, supported
by individual carriers of the variant genes.
is a variant
form of a given gene. Sometimes, different alleles can result in different
observable phenotypic traits, such as different pigmentation. A good
example of this trait of color variation is the work Gregor Mendel did
with the white and purple flower colors in pea plants; discovering that
each color was the result of a “pure line” trait which could be used as a
control for future experiments. However, most genetic variations result in
little or no observable variation.
is the relative frequency of an allele (variant of a gene) at a particular
locus in a population, expressed as a fraction or percentage.
Specifically, it is the fraction of all chromosomes in the population that
carry that allele. Microevolution
is the change in
allele frequencies that occurs over time within a population.
is the science of
of biological organisms on the basis of shared
characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular:
taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank
can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a
taxonomic hierarchy. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the
father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as
for categorization of organisms
nomenclature for naming organisms. With the advent of such fields of study
as phylogenetics, cladistics, and systematics, the Linnaean system has
progressed to a system of modern biological classification based on the
evolutionary relationships between organisms, both living and extinct.
is a group of one
or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to
form a unit.
are cultivated varieties or cultivars of an animal species, achieved
through the process of selective breeding. When the lineage of a purebred
animal is recorded, that animal is said to be pedigreed.
are the descendants
is the use of DNA testing
in combination with
traditional genealogy and traditional genealogical and historical records
to infer relationships between individuals. Genetic genealogy involves the
use of genealogical DNA testing to determine the level and type of the
genetic relationship between individuals.
is the study of the evolutionary history and
relationships among individuals or groups of organisms.
also known as
, is the study of
families and the tracing of their
is a unilineal descent group that can
demonstrate their common descent from a known apical ancestor. Unilineal
lineages can be matrilineal or patrilineal, depending on whether they are
traced through mothers or fathers, respectively. Whether matrilineal or
patrilineal descent is considered most significant differs from
culture to culture
is a series of organisms, populations, cells, or
genes connected by a continuous line of descent from ancestor to
descendent. Lineages are subsets of the evolutionary tree of life.
Lineages are often determined by the techniques of molecular systematics.
is a series of mutations which connect an ancestral
genetic type (allele, haplotype, or haplogroup) to derivative type.
includes the data's origins, what happens to it and where it
moves over time.
is an informal rank in the taxonomic hierarchy, below
the level of subspecies. It has been used as a higher rank than strain,
with several strains making up one race. Various definitions exist. Races
may be genetically distinct phenotypic populations of interbreeding
individuals within the same species, or they may be defined in other ways,
e.g. geographically, or physiologically. Genetic isolation between races
is not complete, but genetic differences may have accumulated that are not
(yet) sufficient to separate species.Tree of
or foundation stock are animals that are the
progenitors, or foundation, of a new breed (or crossbreed or hybrid), or
of a given bloodline within such. Although usually applied to individual
animals, a group of animals may be referred to collectively as foundation
bloodstock when one distinct population (such a breed or a breed group)
provides part of the
underlying genetic base for a new distinct
describes a shift in the function of a trait during
evolution. For example, a trait can evolve because it served one
particular function, but subsequently it may come to serve another.
Exaptations are common in both anatomy and behaviour. Bird feathers are a
classic example: initially they may have evolved for temperature
regulation, but later were adapted for flight. Interest in exaptation
relates to both the process and products of evolution: the process that
creates complex traits and the products (functions, anatomical structures,
biochemicals, etc.) that may be imperfectly developed
refers to the capacity of intracellular parasites
to use host-cell proteins to complete their vital cycle. Viruses use this
mechanism, as their genome is small. It is also used in a different sense
to refer to characters that have been exapted.
is the philosophical study of nature by attempting to
describe things in terms of their apparent purpose, directive principle,
or goal. A purpose that is imposed by a human use, such as that of a fork,
is called extrinsic. Natural teleology, common in classical philosophy but
controversial today, contends that natural entities also have intrinsic
purposes, irrespective of human use or opinion. For instance, Aristotle
claimed that an acorn's intrinsic telos is to become a fully grown oak
is the use of scientific methods to evaluate anomalies (phenomena that
fall outside of current understanding), with the aim of finding a rational
is a theoretical approach in the social and
natural sciences that examines psychological structure from a modern
evolutionary perspective. It seeks to identify which human psychological
traits are evolved adaptations – that is, the functional products of
natural selection or sexual selection in human evolution. Adaptationist
thinking about physiological mechanisms, such as the heart, lungs, and
immune system, is common in evolutionary biology. Some evolutionary
psychologists apply the same thinking to psychology, arguing that the
modularity of mind is similar to that of the body and with different
modular adaptations serving different functions. Evolutionary
psychologists argue that much of human behavior is the output of
psychological adaptations that evolved to solve recurrent problems in
human ancestral environments.
the Universe and Earth
Homo Futurus -The
(youtube - 54 mins.)
is an unpaired bone of the neurocranium. It is situated
in the middle of the skull towards the front, in front of the temporal
bone and the basilar part of the occipital bone. The sphenoid bone is one
of the seven bones that articulate to form the orbit. Its shape somewhat
resembles that of a butterfly or bat with its wings extended.
is a gene involved in controlling the expression of one
or more other genes. Regulatory sequences, which encode regulatory genes,
are often 5' to the start site of transcription of the gene they regulate.
In addition , these sequences can also be found 3' to the transcription
start site. In both cases, whether the regulatory sequence occurs before
(5') or after (3') the gene it regulates, the sequence is often many
kilobases away from the transcription start site. A regulator gene may
encode a protein, or it may work at the level of RNA, as in the case of
genes encoding microRNAs. An example of a regulator gene is a gene that
codes for a repressor protein that inhibits the activity of an operator
gene (a gene which binds repressor proteins thus inhibiting the
translation of RNA to protein via RNA
thought to be part of the evolutionary process?
is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide
sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or
other genetic elements. Mutations result from errors during DNA
replication or other types of damage to DNA, which then may undergo
error-prone repair (especially microhomology-mediated end joining), or
cause an error during other forms of repair, or else may cause an error
during replication (translesion synthesis). Mutations may also result from
insertion or deletion of segments of DNA due to mobile genetic
elements. Mutations may or may not produce discernible changes in the
observable characteristics (phenotype) of an organism. Mutations play a
part in both normal and abnormal biological processes including:
evolution, cancer, and the development of the immune system, including
junctional diversity. Genetic Disorder
is a measure of the rate at which various types of
mutations occur over time. Mutation rates are typically given for a
specific class of mutation, for instance point mutations, small or large
scale insertions or deletions. The rate of substitutions can be further
subdivided into a mutation spectrum which describes the influence of
genetic context on the mutation rate.
Point Accepted Mutation
is the replacement of a single amino
acid in the primary structure of a protein with another single amino acid,
which is accepted by the processes of natural selection.
Nature Specials - Mutation - The Science of Survival
Spontaneous Gene Mutations
is the study of the form and structure of
organisms and their specific structural features.Genes
DNA mutation is less frequent, less than 1%, where a
is more frequent.
is the evolutionary
substitution of one base for another in an exon of a gene coding for a
protein, such that the produced amino acid sequence is not modified. This
is possible because the genetic code is "degenerate", meaning that some
amino acids are coded for by more than one three-base-pair codon; since
some of the codons for a given amino acid differ by just one base pair
from others coding for the same amino acid, a mutation that replaces the
"normal" base by one of the alternatives will result in incorporation of
the same amino acid into the growing polypeptide chain when the gene is
DNA is constantly subject to mutations
, accidental changes
in its code.
Mutations can lead to missing or malformed
proteins, and that can lead to disease.
Khan Academy: Different Types of Mutations
point mutations, frame shift mutation.
conservative mutation, non-conservative mutation.
is the argument that certain biological systems cannot evolve by
successive small modifications to pre-existing functional systems through
describes the DNA sequence variations introduced
by the improper joining of gene segments during the process of V(D)J
recombination. This process of V(D)J recombination has vital roles for the
vertebrate immune system, as it is able to generate a huge repertoire of
different T-cell receptor (TCR) and immunoglobulin molecules required for
recognition by T-cells and B cells, respectively. The
inaccuracies of joining provided by junctional diversity is estimated to
triple the diversity initially generated by these V(D)J recombinations.
is the production of offspring with combinations
of traits that differ from those found in either parent. In eukaryotes,
genetic recombination during meiosis can lead to a novel set of genetic
information that can be passed on from the parents to the offspring. Most
recombination is naturally occurring.
is the division of something into two branches or
parts. "You go that way and I will go this way".
is the mathematical study of changes in the qualitative or
topological structure of a given family, such as the integral curves of a
family of vector fields, and the solutions of a family of differential
equations. Most commonly applied to the mathematical study of dynamical
systems, a bifurcation occurs when a small smooth change made to the
parameter values (the bifurcation parameters) of a system causes a sudden
'qualitative' or topological change in its behaviour.
Viruses revealed to be a major driver of human evolution
over millions of years yields insights
relevant to fighting today's
Tree of Life
is an evolutionary throwback, such as traits
reappearing that had disappeared generations before. Atavisms can occur in
several ways. One way is when genes for previously existing phenotypical
features are preserved in DNA, and these become expressed through a
mutation that either knocks out the overriding genes for the new traits or
makes the old traits override the new one. A number of traits can vary as
a result of shortening of the fetal development of a trait (neoteny) or by
prolongation of the same. In such a case, a shift in the time a trait is
allowed to develop before it is fixed can bring forth an ancestral
commonly referred to as the tailbone, is the final
segment of the vertebral column in humans and apes, and certain other
mammals such as horses. In animals with bony tails, it is known as
tailhead or dock, in bird anatomy as tailfan. It comprises three to five
separate or fused coccygeal vertebrae below the sacrum, attached to the
sacrum by a fibrocartilaginous joint, the sacrococcygeal symphysis, which
permits limited movement between the sacrum and the coccyx.
involves those traits (such as organs or
behaviors) occurring in humans that have lost all or most of their
original function through evolution. Although structures called vestigial
often appear functionless, a vestigial structure may retain lesser
functions or develop minor new ones. In some cases, structures once
identified as vestigial simply had an unrecognized function.
Chromosome 2 (human)
is one of the 23 pairs of
humans. People normally have two copies of this chromosome. Chromosome 2
is the second-largest human chromosome, spanning more than 242 million
base pairs (the building material of DNA) and representing almost 8% of
the total DNA in human cells.DNA
is a scientific discipline concerned
with the biological and behavioral aspects of human beings, their related
non-human primates and their extinct hominin ancestors. It is a subfield
a biological perspective to the systematic study of human beings.
are animals with bilateral symmetry, i.e., they have a head
("anterior") and a tail ("posterior") as well as a back ("dorsal") and a
belly ("ventral"); therefore they also have a left side and a right side.
In contrast, radially symmetrical animals like jellyfish have a topside
and a downside, but no identifiable front or back.UCLA
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
UC Museum of Paleontology - Understanding Evolution
Behaviour and Evolution Association
"Yes, humans are still animals, but humans
have an amazing
we either use it or lose it, now that's evolution."
Dollo's law of irreversibility
states that evolution is not
is the notion that species can revert into more
"primitive" forms over time.
measurement of the cranium (the main part of the skull), usually the human
cranium. It is a subset of cephalometry, measurement of the head, which in
humans is a subset of
, measurement of
the human body
is distinct from phrenology, the pseudoscience that tried to link
personality and character to head shape, and
, which tried the
same for facial features. However, these fields have all claimed the
ability to predict traits or intelligence.
Richard Dawkins: Why are there still Chimpanzees? - Nebraska
Richard Dawkins: Comparing the Human and Chimpanzee Genomes -
Nebraska Vignettes #3
2 million years ago, early humans were established and
had split into at least two species:
is a species of the tribe Hominini, during the
Gelasian and early Calabrian stages of the Pleistocene period, which lived
between roughly 2.1 and 1.5 million years ago.
is an extinct species of the Hominini tribe known only through a
handful of representative fossils, the first of which was discovered by
Bernard Ngeneo, a member of a team led by anthropologist Richard Leakey
and zoologist Meave Leakey in 1972, at Koobi Fora on the east side of Lake
Rudolf (now Lake Turkana) in Kenya.
Isochron Burial Dating uses Radioisotopes
skeletons ever dated at 3.67 million years old.
that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
Chimpanzee Human last Common Ancestor
is the last common
ancestor shared by the extant Homo (human) and Pan (chimpanzee) genera of
, 2 less then the common
are known as great apes or hominids,
are a taxonomic family of primates that includes seven extant
species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean and Sumatran
orangutan; Gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; Pan, the
common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, the human and
near-human ancestors and relatives (e.g., the Neanderthal).
is an endangered great ape and one of the two species making up the genus
Pan; the other is Pan troglodytes, or the common chimpanzee.
(5.5 million) is the binomial nomenclature (also known as the
scientific name) for the only extant human species.
(200,000) meaning "upright man", from the Latin ērigere, "to put
up, set upright") is still in existence species of hominid that
lived throughout most of the Pleistocene geological epoch.
are the only extant members of Hominina clade (or
human clade), a branch of the taxonomical tribe Hominini
belonging to the family of great apes.
is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair
of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
is the use of DNA
in combination with traditional genealogy and
traditional genealogical and historical records to infer
relationships between individuals.
arose from ancestors that lived in the trees of
tropical forests; many primate characteristics represent
adaptations to life in this challenging three-dimensional
environment. Most primate species remain at least partly
distinguished from reptiles and birds by the possession of a
neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones
and mammary glands.
include the largest animals on the
planet, the great whales, as well as some of the most
intelligent, such as elephants, primates and cetaceans.
Louise Leakey Digs for Humanity's Origins
of the Jaguar (Part 1/5)
are the closest relatives in the Homo genus,
they thrived for hundreds of thousands of years, only to die out
about 40,000 years ago. "The theory is that no one wanted to marry a
Neanderthal, so they went extinct."
How did Brains Evolve
is defined as the amount of brain mass
related to an animal's total body mass.
is a largely discredited biological
hypothesis that the development of the embryo of an animal, from
fertilization to gestation or hatching (ontogeny), goes through stages
resembling or representing successive stages in the evolution of the
animal's remote ancestors (phylogeny).
is what our current education system is doing.
“Change is not merely necessary to life
- it is life.”
"Knowing what you're made out of does
not explain how you were made....Knowing E=mc2 does not fully
explain what energy is, or does it explain what matter is, or
what light is. So what do we know?"
Yes we know animals evolve or adapt because we have evidence.
But you can’t prove that new species
evolve from other species. Why would a lizard want to evolve
into a horse? And why didn't
eventually grow brains within 160 million years?
Yes those are stupid questions, but that's where it all starts.
postulates that population lineages tend to increase in body
size over evolutionary time.
When something doesn't make
sense it means you don't have all the information, so what's
missing? Just because animals share the same
does not mean
that one animal evolved from the other animal, it simply means
that they share the same building blocks of
So what causes these little variations, like the variations we
see in humans? Is it a combination of a
Is evolution part
Evolution has a hard time proving
was the relatively short evolutionary event,
beginning around 541 million years ago in the
, during which most major animal phyla appeared, as indicated by
the fossil record. Lasting for about the next 20–25 million years, it
resulted in the divergence of most modern metazoan phyla. Additionally,
the event was accompanied by major diversification of other organisms.
Prior to the Cambrian explosion, most organisms were simple, composed of
individual cells occasionally organized into colonies. Over the following
70 to 80 million years, the rate of diversification accelerated by an
order of magnitude and the diversity of life began to resemble that of
today. Almost all the present phyla appeared during this period, with the
exception of Bryozoa, which made its earliest known appearance later, in
the Lower Ordovician. The
marked a profound change in life on Earth; prior to the Cambrian, the
majority of living organisms on the whole were small, unicellular and
simple; the Precambrian Charnia being exceptional. Complex, multicellular
organisms gradually became more common in the millions of years
immediately preceding the Cambrian, but it was not until this period that
mineralized—hence readily fossilized—organisms became common. The rapid
diversification of lifeforms in the Cambrian, known as the Cambrian
explosion, produced the first representatives of all modern animal phyla.
Phylogenetic analysis has supported the view that during the Cambrian
radiation, metazoa (animals) evolved monophyletically from a single common
ancestor: flagellated colonial protists similar to modern
choanoflagellates. Although diverse life forms prospered in the oceans,
the land was comparatively barren—with nothing more complex than a
microbial soil crust and a few molluscs that emerged to browse on the
microbial biofilm. Most of the continents were probably dry and rocky due
to a lack of vegetation. Shallow seas flanked the margins of several
continents created during the breakup of the supercontinent Pannotia. The
seas were relatively warm, and polar ice was absent for much of the
Why do we have some species staying the same
for millions of years while other species in the same time
period evolving or
Freak of Nature
Something's just seem to appear out of no
where, so where did they
originate from? And somehow, even through
still found a way to survive in some form. And after each
, life never returns in the same way that it was
before. So it doesn't look like a normal process of life, it
kind of looks like someone or something is trying something new,
like some form of Intelligence trying to define itself. There
are huge gaps of missing information. Both religious and
non-religious people love to fill those gaps with their beliefs.
But if I had a choice of filling the gap of missing
information with something, I would rather say that it was
then to say that it was nothing. Not that I would, but I do
understand why some people would say that.
I mean, who would
want to be considered just a
Freak of Nature
. I'm either a lucky
piece of sh*t or I'm here for a reason, I would like to
believe that I'm here for a
. If a
belief stops you from learning, then it's not a good belief to
hold. Being Biased
against new knowledge and new information leaves you vulnerable
and reduces your ability to adapt and to make good decisions. I
know that there is no guarantee of survival, but reducing my
odds to live makes no sense at all.
I like to believe that Human Ascended
instead of Descended.
Our ancestors where the
building blocks of life
, not the origin of life.
Last Universal Ancestor
(LUA), also called the last
universal common ancestor (LUCA), cenancestor, or progenote, is
the most recent organism from which all organisms now living on
Earth have a common descent. Thus, it is the most recent common
ancestor (MRCA) of all current life on Earth. As such, it should
not be assumed to be the first living organism. The LUA is
estimated to have lived some 3.5 to 3.8 billion years ago
(sometime in the Paleoarchean era). The earliest evidence for
life on Earth is biogenic graphite found in 3.7 billion-year-old
metamorphized sedimentary rocks discovered in Western Greenland
and microbial mat fossils found in 3.48 billion-year-old
sandstone discovered in Western Australia. A study in 2015 found
potentially biogenic carbon from 4.1 billion years ago in
ancient rocks in Western Australia. Such findings would indicate
the existence of different conditions on Earth during that
period than what is generally assumed today and point to an
earlier origination of life. In July 2016, scientists reported
identifying a set of 355 genes from the Last Universal Common
Ancestor (LUCA) of all life living on Earth.
Most Recent Common Ancestor
(MRCA) of any set of organisms
is the most recent individual from which all organisms in a
group, for example a haplogroup, are directly descended. The
term is often applied to human genealogy.
because you can’t explain something now, doesn’t mean that you
. Believing you know the answer is different from
actually knowing the answer. Plus we only have one planet that
we know of where life exists.
So from a science point of view, having only one example of life
can never be hard evidence, and that this is just the normal process
of life. To me this is a silly argument and I take no sides in
this discussion. Both sides have good claims, good points and
good theories. Even though this is a healthy discussion that
needs more looking into, I can’t help to know that we have more
important and more urgent problems that need to be addressed.
This is a distraction, but we will come back to this, just
"Adaptation can be dangerous,
especially when you become adapted to something that is slowly killing
you. Adaptation only buys you some time, it does not guarantee you
survival. Only humans have the ability to over come this vulnerability,
that's why we are here. So we can't f*ck this up, if we do, we're dead,
like all other animal species before us. I don't want to become bacteria
again, that would suck, it's not the life that I want, or want for anyone
just another form of
some form of intelligence that we are unable to comprehend.
Maybe evolution is Gods work? Who else could have figured out that the only way
you can have a sustaining planet is to give plants and animals
the ability to evolve, adapt and to flourish. If you don’t adapt
you die. And that is exactly where humans are today. Evolution
has given all of us some extremely valuable information that
Cause and Effect
is real and that Cause and Effect
should not be ignored. Everyone should just stick with the
facts. Evolution does not explain everything and
not explain everything, so why are we so threatened by
someone else's beliefs?
As long as no one ever stops asking
questions, no one should ever fear or feel threatened by other
peoples beliefs. The most important thing is that we keep
sharing information and keep documenting our world. You should
never claim that you have all the answers. If you are stubborn
and selfish with your beliefs then the message you are trying to
convey will only distort information and confuse people into
believing that there are no more questions to ask. And that is
simply a crime against humanity. A good documentary to watch is
War on Science
. People are overreacting in this film but
I understand their passion. Another example of people
overreacting is in a film called “The
Shape of Life
” from PBS. This film has great information but
it's kind of ruined because they pretend to know the answers of
evolution. These are the kinds of things we need to stop doing
if we are going to educate people and secure our species
survival. A better film to watch is
. To me it seems that a single cell is intelligent
life. How and why? I don't know.
Humans are 90%
. So I guess if you want to survive on a planet you
better find a way to have a symbiotic relationship with a
planets natural life forms, life forms that have lived and
survived on this planet for billions of years. I guess that is
how we will
survive on another planet
, by finding out what has lived and
survived there the longest, and then learn how to have a
symbiotic relationship with those organisms.
So what's wrong with saying "I don't know?
evolution is not bad, what's bad is
how you teach evolution
how it's understood by people. The same thing with religion,
teaching religion is not bad, it's how you teach
and how it's
understood." If evolution is information evolving, and if
, then I guess you're both right.
This is just another Human Transition, maybe evolution and
intelligent design are the same thing?....Can I go now?
"You can't prove that God does not
exist, or can you prove that God does exist. We should stick
with the things that we can prove and save the things that we
cannot prove for later time. Because if we don't solve our
greatest problems, that we all face, we will never live to see
God, or live to see if there isn't a God."
It is difficult to understand how anyone
can believe that the
, particularly the
, could have been
produced by evolutionary randomness and selection. We have
barely touched on some of the electrical design present in the
rest of the body. The truth is that scientists are always
discovering more about its workings, since its complexity, which
far surpasses anything produced by man, is nothing short of a
miracle. Truly we can say with David, “I will praise You, for I
am fearfully and wonderfully made; Your works are marvelous and
my soul knows it very well” (Psalm 139:14). (Craig Savige)
"Whether you believe that evolution or
God designed our brain
doesn't really matter, what matters is
that you never ignore the human brains enormous potential, and
its weaknesses. The knowledge that we have acquired about
is invaluable. So knowing who or what made it
will not be as important as learning how the brain works and
learning how effectively we can use its power. So when we
finally do figure out who or what made us, it will not come to
us as some big surprise, because after all, we have brains."
"Thank God my brain is smarter then I am."
"God has reasons for doing things, and
evolution has reasons too, and if God created evolution, then
evolution can't be wrong."
"I couldn't even imagine being anything
else but human. Human to me is the greatest way to experience
life. And when we imagine what other life from other planets
looks like, that makes me even prouder, because the human form
to me is the most enjoyable machine a person could ever design.
I couldn't even dream of a better human. Some people would say a
human with wings, or a human with superman powers. But we
already have those because of the machines that we will built."
If you didn't have what you needed to know
what you were missing, then how would you evolve into it? I know
information is some form of intelligence, what I don't know is
how did information see when it didn't have what was needed to
see what it didn't have?
I think that humans take for granted
that our way of seeing through the eyes is the only form of
"I'm the evolutionary result of a seed that was born thousands of years ago, and yet it feels like the
first time being alive."
Some people believe that 10 million years ago that some of the monkeys changed their
diet just enough to evolve into humans. Though I fully understand
the importance of nutrition
and how diet can improve
appearance and health, I'm having a little trouble understanding
just what nutritional substances can cause a species body to
change and grow a better brain? I'm positive we can repeat this
theory. We just need to start feeding monkeys better food and
lets see what happens. Of course it will take many life times to
see the results, but we should start seeing some changes, maybe
is a hypothetical chimpanzee/human hybrid. An
unsuccessful attempt to breed such a hybrid was made by Ilya Ivanovich
Ivanov in the 1920s. There have been occasional reports of
human-chimpanzee hybridization, notably regarding a performing chimp named
Oliver during the 1970s, but none of them have been confirmed. There has
been what people think to be a sighting of a humanzee in July of 2012 in
Colorado. Similarly, the possibility of a chimpanzee–gorilla hybrid, known
as koolakamba, also remains unsubstantiated. Devolution
We know the about the negative effects from a poor nutritional
, children are smaller and less developed, just
like early man. Does that mean that only a man can grow into
man. Humans evolved from humans? This is like finding out that
your father is not your real father. Welcome to the party.
Ilya Ivanovich Ivanov
World's Smartest Apes
And since we have evidence and experience in knowing that
can actually be explained, we still have to keep trying to
understand our world. We have enough evidence to prove that our
increased understanding of the world has benefited us in many
ways. Not to say that it was
, But at least we are
definitely more aware of our possibilities and of our human
"It's not the strongest of species
that survives, nor the most intelligent, but the one most
adaptable to change."
was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist,
best known for his contributions to the science of evolution. He
that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors.
(12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882). Charles wrote the 1859 book the
Origin of Species
, which introduced the scientific theory that
over the course of generations through a process of
. It presented a body of evidence that
the diversity of life
arose by common descent through a branching pattern
of evolution. Darwin included evidence that he had gathered on the
in the 1830s and his subsequent findings from
research, correspondence, and experimentation.
Michael Archer: How we'll Resurrect the Gastric Brooding Frog
the Tasmanian Tiger
People didn't have enough
information and knowledge years ago that was needed in order to
explain complex ideas and concepts. But now we do, and we can be
more precise. Not that we can fully explain all knowledge
correctly to all people, but at least we know now that the
acquisition of more knowledge is always needed to further our
understanding and also to help to explain knowledge so that more
people can understand. The mistake that most people make is that
they believed that all knowledge is known, so they make
assumptions instead of realizing that more knowledge,
information and research is needed. So not only do we have more
knowledge and information today, we also have the intelligence
to know that more knowledge and information is always needed. So
we can now make less assumptions, make less mistakes, and we
never assume that we know everything, thus we keep learning.
"I wouldn't want to
assume that life started on this planet. I'm just saying that
life had to start somewhere. Where and how, I don't know? But I
hope we find out, because that would be an incredible story. We
galaxy was not the first galaxy born
in our universe. So we
may have brothers and sisters, some we may never know? But my
guess is, that we will find our siblings, because everything
usually leaves some kind of a trace."
just detectable amount. An indication that something has been
present. A visible mark (as a footprint) left by the passage of
person or animal or vehicle. Discover traces of. Follow,
discover, or ascertain the course of development of something.
To go back over again. Pursue or chase relentlessly.
is to discover or determine the
existence, presence, or fact of.
is a datum about some
physical state that is presented to a user by a meter or similar instrument.
is the view that "certain features
of the universe and of living things are best explained by an intelligent
cause, not an undirected process such as natural selection
We can't say that "Things just
" or "This looks to amazing to be just some natural sequence of
events, because first you need to define what natural is, which you can't because
this is everyone's first time here
, thus, we have nothing to
to, nothing."...So we need to start over, this time everyone needs to have
an open mind. Are we just
in the process of
is the production of new living organisms or
organelles. The hypothesis of biogenesis, attributed to Louis Pasteur,
states that complex living things come only from other living things
reproduction (e.g. a spider lays eggs, which develop into spiders). That
is, modern life does not arise from non-living material, which was the
position held by
the biological process
an organism to develop its shape.
Star Trek III The Search for Spock
is the process of deliberately modifying a planets atmosphere,
temperature, surface topography or ecology to be similar to the
environment of Earth to make it habitable by Earth-like life.
Bioforming is the opposite conception to terraforming. While
terraforming requires the transformation of a celestial body (planet or
moon) into a place where humans and other Earth-like life forms can exist,
bioforming requires to transform us and other
Earth-like bioforms into something that can survive on an untransformed
planet. An intermediary concept is terrabioforming.
Planetary Engineering is the application of technology for the purpose
of influencing the global environments of a planet. Its objectives usually
involve increasing the habitability of other worlds or mitigating
decreases in habitability to Earth. Perhaps the best-known type of
planetary engineering is terraforming, by which a planet's surface
conditions are altered to be more like those of Earth. Planetary
engineering is largely the realm of science fiction at present, although
recent climate change on Earth shows that human technology can cause
change on a global scale.
Paraterraforming involves the construction of a habitable enclosure on
a planet which eventually grows to encompass most of the planet's usable
area. The enclosure would consist of a transparent roof held one or more
kilometers above the surface, pressurized with a breathable atmosphere,
and anchored with tension towers and cables at regular intervals.
Proponents claim worldhouses can be constructed with technology known
since the 1960s. The Biosphere 2 project built a dome on Earth that
contained a habitable environment. The project encountered difficulties in
operation, including unexpected population explosions of some plants and
animals, and a lower than anticipated production of oxygen by plants,
requiring extra oxygen to be pumped in. i(also known as the "worldhouse"
concept, or domes in smaller versions).
Megascale Engineering is a form of
concerned with the construction of structures on an enormous scale.
Typically these structures are at least 1,000 kilometers in length—in
other words, at least 1 megameter, hence the name. Such large-scale
structures are termed megastructures. In addition to large-scale
structures, megascale engineering is also defined as including the
transformation of entire planets into a human-habitable environment, a
process known as terraforming or planetary engineering. This might also
include transformation of the surface conditions, changes in the planetary
orbit, and structures in orbit intended to modify the energy balance.
Astroengineering is the extension of megascale engineering to
megastructures on a stellar scale or larger, such as Dyson spheres,
Ringworlds, and Alderson disks. (macro-engineering).
Exogenesis or Panspermia, is the hypothesis that
throughout the Universe, distributed by
planetoids, and also by spacecraft in the form of unintended contamination
by microorganisms. Panspermia is a hypothesis proposing that
life forms that can survive the effects of space, such as extremophiles,
become trapped in debris that is ejected into space after collisions
between planets and small Solar System bodies that harbor life. Some
organisms may travel dormant for an extended amount of time before
colliding randomly with other planets or intermingling with protoplanetary
disks. If met with ideal conditions on a new planet's surfaces, the
organisms become active and the process of evolution begins. Panspermia is
not meant to address how life began, just the method that may cause its
distribution in the Universe.
Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution,
distribution, and future of Life in the universe: extraterrestrial life
and life on Earth. Astrobiology addresses the question of whether life
exists beyond Earth, and how humans can detect it if it does (the term
exobiology is similar but more specific—it covers the search for life
beyond Earth, and the effects of extraterrestrial environments on living
is the philosophical consideration that observations of the
Universe must be compatible with the conscious and sapient life that
observes it. Some proponents of the anthropic principle reason that it
explains why this universe has the age and the fundamental physical
constants necessary to accommodate conscious life. As a result, they
believe it is unremarkable that this universe has fundamental constants
that happen to fall within the narrow range thought to be compatible with
Cosmological Constant fine-tuned to 120 decimal places.
Cellular Automaton is a discrete model studied in computability
theory, mathematics, physics, complexity science, theoretical biology and
microstructure modeling. A cellular automaton consists of a regular grid
of cells, each in one of a finite number of states, such as on and off (in
contrast to a coupled map lattice). The grid can be in any finite number
of dimensions. For each cell, a set of cells called its neighborhood is
defined relative to the specified cell. An initial state (time t = 0) is
selected by assigning a state for each cell. A new generation is created
(advancing t by 1), according to some fixed rule (generally, a
mathematical function) that determines the new state of each cell in terms
of the current state of the cell and the states of the cells in its
neighborhood. Typically, the rule for updating the state of cells is the
same for each cell and does not change over time, and is applied to the
whole grid simultaneously, though exceptions are known, such as the
stochastic cellular automaton and asynchronous cellular automaton.
Conway's Game of Life is a cellular automaton devised by the British
mathematician John Horton Conway in 1970. The "game" is a zero-player
game, meaning that its evolution is determined by its initial state,
requiring no further input. One interacts with the Game of Life by
creating an initial configuration and observing how it evolves, or, for
advanced "players", by creating patterns with particular properties. The
universe of the Game of Life is an infinite two-dimensional orthogonal
grid of square cells, each of which is in one of two possible states,
alive or dead, or "populated" or "unpopulated". Every cell interacts with
its eight neighbours, which are the cells that are horizontally,
vertically, or diagonally adjacent. At each step in time, the following
transitions occur: Any live cell with fewer than two live neighbours dies,
as if caused by underpopulation. Any live cell with two or three live
neighbours lives on to the next generation. Any live cell with more than
three live neighbours dies, as if by overpopulation. Any dead cell with
exactly three live neighbours becomes a live cell, as if by reproduction.
The initial pattern constitutes the seed of the system. The first
generation is created by applying the above rules simultaneously to every
cell in the seed—births and deaths occur simultaneously, and the discrete
moment at which this happens is sometimes called a tick (in other words,
each generation is a pure function of the preceding one). The rules
continue to be applied repeatedly to create further generations.
Zero-Player Game is a game that has no sentient players. In computer
games, the term refers to programs that use artificial intelligence rather
than human players.
is the religious belief that the universe
originated "from specific acts of
," as opposed to
the scientific reasons that they came about through natural processes.
or informally, the origin of life, is the
natural process by which life arises from non-living matter, such as
simple organic compounds. It is thought to have occurred on Earth between
3.8 and 4.1 billion years ago
Abiogenesis is studied through a combination of laboratory experiments and
extrapolation from the characteristics of modern organisms, and aims to
determine how pre-life chemical reactions gave rise to life on Earth.
is an obsolete body of thought on the
ordinary formation of living organisms without descent from similar
organisms. Typically, the idea was that certain forms such as fleas could
arise from inanimate matter such as dust, or that maggots could arise from
dead flesh. A variant idea was that of equivocal generation, in which
species such as tapeworms arose from unrelated living organisms, now
understood to be their hosts. Doctrines supporting such processes of
generation held that these processes are commonplace and regular. Such
ideas are in contradiction to that of univocal generation: effectively
exclusive reproduction from genetically related parent(s), generally of
the same species.
Artificial Magnetic Shield Could Help In Terraforming Mars
Coordinated Modeling Center
is a taxon that disappears for one or more
periods from the fossil record, only to appear again later. Likewise in
conservation biology and ecology, it can refer to species or populations
that were thought to be extinct, and are rediscovered. The term refers to
the story in the Christian biblical Gospel of John, in which Jesus Christ
raised Lazarus from the dead.
is the ecological state of a species being unique
to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or
other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a
place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere. The extreme
opposite of endemism is cosmopolitan distribution. An alternative term for
a species that is endemic is precinctive, which applies to species (and
subspecific categories) that are restricted to a defined geographical
area.Life is not a process of evolution, evolution is a
process of life
. First comes life then comes evolution. Evolution
does not create life. Life creates evolution. How did life get here? Is
there another dimension
invisible landscape that allows life to travel any where in the universe?
Life may sense where life can exist, so life goes to that planet and
adapts to the environment of that planet, so that life can evolve and
develop using the chemical building blocks that are available. There can
only be life where life has existed before. What
came first the chicken or the egg?
Of course we may never know
where life truly originated from. Life certainly did not originate from
this planet. Our planet was not the first planet or will it be the last
planet to support life.
- Divergent Evolution
The Universe is not perfect
or finely tuned
But the Universe does have
stabilities and order
, most likely by design, why else?
also by Design
or is it just Meaningful Coincidences
The fact is that nothing lasts forever
do last for an
extremely long time that seems to be
, (10^35 years). Planets and stars do have limited life spans
on the average of around 10 billion years, which seems to be plenty of
time to enjoy Life
, and also, plenty of time to find a new home when that
time comes. The Universe looks like someone had an
how they wanted
to create a universe, and then
and learned along the way
to find out which processes
the best. Earth
seems to be
the only successful result that we know of from all those different
experiments that the universe is still currently experimenting with. The
is chaotic, stars
exploding, planets dying, radiation, and asteroids destroying planets causing
. Then on earth you have
, wars, crimes
and lots of natural disasters
. You can't say that all those horrible
things that happen to people are by design or from God.
No one in their
right mind would design a world like that on purpose
, so it must be the
current limits of our reality, a set of rules that we must learn to
understand and work within. So maybe all these things that
kill life are all part of the process of learning
and trying to figure out
how to make life flourish. Life and the Universe
looks like one big experiment
. Life is trying to figure out what
works best. So of course we still have some work to do, and so does God.
And I would rather help God
succeed then work against God. I really think
that God is on to something. Intelligent design is work in progress. So
this is more about persistence. And
is something that humans are
born with. Look at any child and you can see
the human spirit is alive and well
Life is a work in progress
, it's not all by design or from evolution, but by
And we will survive.
I Will Survive -
Gloria Gaynor (1978)
This song is about how she no longer needs
in her life. So the man she sings about represents ignorance.
What does Life need in order to exist?
Creator, Space, Atoms, Electricity and Magnetism, Heat and Cold, Light and Dark,
Environment, Chemical Reactions, Molecules,
DNA, Cells, Metabolism, Reproduction, Adaptation, and Some Luck.
are the basic structural
and functional unit of
all organisms; they may exist as independent units of life (as in monads)
or may form colonies or tissues as in higher
The Cell Map
Building Blocks of Life
The Human Cell
The largest cell in the human body is the
, and the smallest cell is the
, 500 Million from Ejaculation.
Immune System Cells
Cells and Longevity
is the basic structural,
functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. A cell is
the smallest unit of life that can replicate independently, and cells are
often called the "Building Blocks of Life
". The study of cells is called
. Cells consist of cytoplasm enclosed within a membrane, which
contains many biomolecules such as
can be classified as unicellular (consisting of a single cell; including
) or multicellular (including plants and animals). While the
number of cells in plants and animals varies from species to species,
humans contain more than 10 trillion (1012) cells. Most plant and animal
cells are visible only under a microscope, with dimensions between 1 and
is a double membrane-bound
organelle found in all eukaryotic organisms. Some cells in some
multicellular organisms may however lack them (for example, mature
mammalian red blood cells). A number of unicellular organisms, such as
microsporidia, parabasalids, and diplomonads, have also reduced or
transformed their mitochondria into other structures. To date, only one
eukaryote, Monocercomonoides, is known to have completely lost its
mitochondria. The word mitochondrion comes from the Greek μίτος, mitos,
"thread", and χονδρίον, chondrion, "granule" or "grain-like". Mitochondria
generate most of the cell's supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), used
as a source of chemical energy. Mitochondria are commonly between 0.75 and
3 μm in diameter but vary considerably in size and structure. Unless
specifically stained, they are not visible. In addition to supplying
cellular energy, mitochondria are involved in other tasks, such as
signaling, cellular differentiation, and cell death, as well as
maintaining control of the cell cycle and cell growth. Mitochondrial
biogenesis is in turn temporally coordinated with these cellular
processes. Mitochondria have been implicated in several human diseases,
including mitochondrial disorders, cardiac dysfunction, heart failure and
autism. The number of mitochondria in a cell can vary widely by organism,
tissue, and cell type. For instance, red blood cells have no mitochondria,
whereas liver cells can have more than 2000; The organelle is composed of
compartments that carry out specialized functions. These compartments or
regions include the outer membrane, the intermembrane space, the inner
membrane, and the cristae and matrix. Although most of a cell's DNA is
contained in the cell nucleus, the mitochondrion has its own independent
genome that shows substantial similarity to bacterial genomes.
Mitochondrial proteins (proteins transcribed from mitochondrial
) vary depending on the tissue and the species.
In humans, 615 distinct types of protein have been identified from cardiac
mitochondria, whereas in rats, 940 proteins have been reported. The
mitochondrial proteome is thought to be dynamically regulated.
is a complex molecular machine
, found within all living
cells, that serves as the site of biological
link amino acids together in the order specified by messenger
(mRNA) molecules. Ribosomes consist of two
major components: the small ribosomal subunit, which reads the RNA, and
the large subunit, which joins amino acids to form a
Each subunit is composed of one or more ribosomal RNA (rRNA) molecules and
a variety of ribosomal proteins. The ribosomes and associated molecules
are also known as the translational apparatus. Ribosome is a minute
particle consisting of RNA and associated proteins, found in large numbers
in the cytoplasm of living cells. They bind messenger RNA and transfer RNA
to synthesize polypeptides and
is an organic compound consisting entirely of
, and thus are group 14 hydrides. Hydrocarbons from which one
hydrogen atom has been removed are functional groups, called hydrocarbyls.
Aromatic hydrocarbons (arenes), alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes and
alkyne-based compounds are different types of hydrocarbons.
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon
are hydrocarbons—organic compounds
containing only carbon and hydrogen—that are composed of multiple aromatic
rings (organic rings in which the electrons are delocalized).
comprise a group
of naturally occurring molecules that include fats, waxes, sterols,
fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides,
diglycerides, triglycerides, phospholipids, and others. The main
biological functions of lipids include storing
, signaling, and acting as
structural components of cell membranes.
biologically important organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and
carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side-chain (R group)
specific to each amino acid
. The key elements of an amino acid are carbon,
, and nitrogen, though other elements are found in the
side-chains of certain amino acids. About 500 amino acids are known
(though only 20 appear in the genetic code) and can be classified in many
is an organic compound, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of
several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.
Cellulose is an important structural component of the primary cell wall of
green plants, many forms of algae and the oomycetes. Some species of
bacteria secrete it to form biofilms. Cellulose is the most abundant
organic polymer on Earth. The cellulose content of cotton fiber is 90%,
that of wood is 40–50% and that of dried hemp is approximately 57%.
is the event of a biological cell ceasing to carry out its functions. This
may be the result of the natural process of old cells dying and being
replaced by new ones, or may result from such factors as disease,
localized injury, or the death of the organism of which the cells are
Programmed Cell Death
is cell death mediated by an intracellular
program. PCD is carried out in a regulated process, which usually confers
advantage during an organism's life-cycle. For example, the
differentiation of fingers and toes in a developing human embryo occurs
because cells between the fingers apoptose; the result is that the digits
are separate. PCD serves fundamental functions during both plant and
metazoa (multicellular animals) tissue development.
process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Biochemical events lead to characteristic cell changes (morphology) and
death. These changes include blebbing, cell shrinkage, nuclear
fragmentation, chromatin condensation, chromosomal DNA
fragmentation, and global mRNA decay. Between 50
and 70 billion cells die each day
due to apoptosis in the average
human adult.[a] For an average child between the ages of 8 and 14,
approximately 20 billion to 30 billion cells die a day.
refers to a mechanism of delayed mitotic-linked cell
death, a sequence of events resulting from premature or inappropriate
entry of cells into mitosis that can be caused by chemical or
is the inhibition of
cell growth and multiplication
Cytostatic refers to a cellular component or medicine that inhibits cell
growth. Cytostasis is an important prerequisite for structured
multicellular organisms. Without regulation of cell growth and division
only unorganized heaps of cells would be possible. Chemotherapy of cancer,
treatment of skin diseases and treatment of infections are common use
cases of cytostatic drugs. Active hygienic products generally contain
cytostatic substances. Cytostatic mechanisms and drugs generally occur
together with cytotoxic ones.
is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take
place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical
from nutrients into
adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products. The
reactions involved in respiration are
reactions, which break large molecules into smaller ones,
in the process,
as weak so-called "high-energy" bonds are replaced by stronger bonds in
the products. Respiration is one of the key ways a cell releases
to fuel cellular
activity. Cellular respiration is considered an exothermic redox reaction
which releases heat
. The overall
reaction occurs in a series of biochemical steps, most of which are redox
reactions themselves. Although technically, cellular respiration is a
combustion reaction, it clearly does not resemble one when it occurs in a
living cell because of the slow release of energy from the series of
reactions. Nutrients that are commonly used by animal and plant cells in
respiration include sugar, amino acids and fatty acids, and the most
common oxidizing agent (electron acceptor) is molecular oxygen (O2). The
chemical energy stored in ATP (its third phosphate group is weakly bonded
to the rest of the molecule and is cheaply broken allowing stronger
bonds to form, thereby transferring energy for use by the cell) can then
be used to drive processes requiring energy, including biosynthesis,
locomotion or transportation of molecules across cell membranes.
can occur as a result of an
adverse stimulus which disrupts the normal homeostasis of affected cells.
Among other causes, this can be due to physical, chemical, infectious,
biological, nutritional or immunological factors. Cell damage can be
reversible or irreversible. Depending on the extent of injury, the
cellular response may be adaptive and where possible, homeostasis is
restored. Cell death occurs when the severity of the injury exceeds the
cell’s ability to repair itself. Cell death is relative to both the length
of exposure to a harmful stimulus and the severity of the damage caused.
Cell death may occur by necrosis or apoptosis.
Cellular Waste Product
are formed as a by-product of cellular
respiration, a series of processes and reactions that generate energy for
the cell, in the form of ATP. Two examples of cellular respiration
creating cellular waste products are aerobic respiration and anaerobic
is a form of cell injury which
results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by
, which is known as self-digestion, refers to the destruction
of a cell through the action of its own enzymes. It may also refer to the
digestion of an enzyme by another molecule of the same enzyme.
is the series of events that
take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its
(DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells. In bacteria, which lack a
cell nucleus, the cell cycle is divided into the B, C, and D periods. The
B period extends from the end of cell division to the beginning of DNA
replication. DNA replication occurs during the C period. The D period
refers to the stage between the end of DNA replication and the splitting
of the bacterial cell into two daughter cells.
is a single organism composed of
cells from different
This can result in male and female organs, two blood types, or subtle
variations in form.
is the process by which a
parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells. Cell division usually
occurs as part of a larger cell cycle. In eukaryotes, there are two
distinct types of cell division: a vegetative division, whereby each
daughter cell is genetically identical to the parent cell (mitosis), and a
reproductive cell division, whereby the number of chromosomes in the
daughter cells is reduced by half to produce haploid gametes (meiosis).
Meiosis results in four haploid daughter cells by undergoing one round of
DNA replication followed by two divisions: homologous
separated in the first division, and sister chromatids are separated in
the second division. Both of these cell division cycles are used in
organisms at some point in their life cycle, and both
are believed to be present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor.
Prokaryotes also undergo a vegetative cell division known as binary
fission, where their genetic material is segregated equally into two
daughter cells. All cell divisions, regardless of organism, are preceded
by a single round of DNA Replication
Cells divide at least a billion times in the average person, usually
without any problem
. However, when cell division goes wrong, it can
lead to a range of diseases.
is part of any
process that governs basic
activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions. The ability of cells
to perceive and correctly respond to their microenvironment is the basis
of development, tissue repair, and immunity
as well as normal tissue
homeostasis. Errors in signaling interactions and cellular information
are responsible for diseases such as cancer, autoimmunity, and
diabetes. By understanding cell signaling, diseases may be treated more
effectively and, theoretically, artificial tissues may be created.
Neuron Brain Signals
is the process by which a chemical or physical
signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most
commonly protein phosphorylation catalysed by protein kinases, which
ultimately results in a cellular response. Proteins responsible for
detecting stimuli are generally termed receptors, although in some cases
the term sensor is used. The changes elicited by ligand binding (or signal
sensing) in a receptor give rise to a
cascade, which is a chain
of biochemical events along a signaling pathway. When signaling pathways
interact with one another they form networks, which allow cellular
responses to be coordinated, often by combinatorial signaling events. At
the molecular level, such responses include changes in the transcription
or translation of genes, and post-translational and conformational changes
in proteins, as well as changes in their location. These molecular events
are the basic mechanisms controlling cell growth, proliferation,
metabolism and many other processes. In multicellular organisms, signal
transduction pathways have evolved to regulate cell communication in a
wide variety of ways. Each component (or node) of a signaling pathway is
classified according to the role it plays with respect to the initial
stimulus. Ligands are termed first messengers, while receptors are the
signal transducers, which then activate primary effectors. Such effectors
are often linked to second messengers, which can activate secondary
effectors, and so on. Depending on the efficiency of the nodes, a signal
can be amplified (a concept known as signal gain), so that one signaling
molecule can generate a response involving hundreds to millions of
molecules. As with other signals, the transduction of biological signals
is characterised by delay, noise, signal feedback and feedforward and
interference, which can range from negligible to pathological. With the
advent of computational biology, the analysis of signaling pathways and
networks has become an essential tool to understand cellular functions and
disease, including signaling rewiring mechanisms underlying responses to
acquired drug resistance.
is a system of stimuli
and response correlated to population density. Quorum sensing (QS) enables
bacteria to restrict the expression
of specific genes to the high cell densities at which the resulting
phenotypes will be most beneficial. Many species of
use quorum sensing to
coordinate gene expression according to the density of their local
population. In similar fashion, some social insects use quorum sensing to
determine where to nest. In addition to its function in biological
systems, quorum sensing has several useful applications for computing and
robotics. Quorum sensing can function as a decision-making process in any
decentralized system, as long as individual components have: (a) a means
of assessing the number of other components they interact with and (b) a
standard response once a threshold number of components is detected.
is the intelligence shown by
. The concept encompasses complex
adaptive behaviour shown by single cells, and altruistic or cooperative
behavior in populations of like or unlike cells mediated by chemical
signalling that induces physiological or behavioral changes in cells and
influences colony structures.
are the most widely distributed type of ion channel
and are found in virtually all living organisms. They form
potassium-selective pores that span cell membranes. Furthermore potassium
channels are found in most cell types and control a wide variety of cell
cell's ability to differentiate into other cell types. The more cell types
a cell can differentiate into, the greater its potency. Potency is also
described as the gene activation potential within a cell which like a
continuum begins with totipotency to designate a cell with the most
differentiation potential, pluripotency, multipotency, oligopotency and
finally unipotency. Potency is taken from the Latin term "potens" which
means "having power".
is a eukaryotic cell formed by a
between two gametes.
Scientists turn skin cells into heart cells and brain cells using drugs
Studies represent first purely chemical cellular reprogramming, changing a
cell's identity without adding external genes.
is a structure formed in the early development of mammals.
It possesses an inner cell mass (ICM) which subsequently forms the
The outer layer of the blastocyst consists of cells collectively called
the trophoblast. This layer surrounds the inner cell mass and a
fluid-filled cavity known as the blastocoele. The trophoblast gives rise
to the placenta.
are cells that multiply
constantly throughout life. The cells are alive for only a short period of
time. Due to this, they can end up reproducing new
replace functional cells
. Especially if the
cells become injured through a process called necrosis, or even if the
cells go through apoptosis. The way these cells regenerate and replace
themselves is quite unique. While going through cell division, one of the
two daughter cells actually becomes a new stem cell. This occurs so then
that daughter cell can end up restoring the population of the stem cells
that were lost. The other daughter cell separates itself into a functional
cell in order to replace the lost, or injured cells during this process.
Labile cells are one type of the cells that are involved in the division
of cells. The other two types that are involved include stable cells and
permanent cells. Each of these type of cells respond to injuries of the
cells they occupy differently. Hepatocytes of the liver are thought to be
a form of a labile cell because they can regenerate after they become
injured. An example of this kind of regeneration can consist of performing
a pediatric liver transplant. In which it consists of taking a piece of an
adult's liver to replace a child's whole liver. Then the adult liver that
was transplanted for the child's, would regenerate very quickly to around
a normal size liver. Other cell types that are thought to be cells that
are constantly dividing include skin cells, cells in the gastrointestinal
tract, and blood cells in the bone marrow. Acting as stem cells for these
cell types. In labile cells, it is not a speed-up in the segments of the
cell cycle (i.e. G1 phase, S phase, G2 phase and M phase), but rather a
short or absent G0 phase that is responsible for the cells' constant
are cells that multiply only
when needed. They spend most of the time in the quiescent G0 phase of the
cell cycle, but can be stimulated to enter the cell cycle when needed.
Examples include: the liver, the proximal tubules of the kidney, and
are cells that are
incapable of regeneration. These cells are considered to be terminally
differentiated and non proliferative in postnatal life. This includes
brain cells, neurons, heart cells, skeletal muscle cells and RBCs.
is the division of a single entity into two or more
parts and the regeneration of those parts into separate entities
resembling the original. The object experiencing fission is usually a
cell, but the term may also refer to how organisms, bodies, populations,
or species split into discrete parts. The fission may be binary fission,
in which a single entity produces two parts, or multiple fission, in which
a single entity produces multiple parts.
is the complete set of metabolic and physical
processes that determine the physiological and biochemical properties
of a cell. As such, these networks comprise the chemical reactions of
metabolism, the metabolic pathways, as well as the regulatory interactions
that guide these reactions. With the sequencing of complete genomes, it is
now possible to reconstruct the network of biochemical reactions in many
organisms, from bacteria to human.
Metabolic Network Modelling
allows for an in-depth insight into the
molecular mechanisms of a particular organism. In particular, these models
correlate the genome with molecular physiology. A reconstruction breaks
down metabolic pathways (such as glycolysis and the Citric acid cycle)
into their respective reactions and enzymes, and analyzes them within the
perspective of the entire network. In simplified terms, a reconstruction
collects all of the relevant metabolic information of an organism and
compiles it in a mathematical model. Validation and analysis of
reconstructions can allow identification of key features of
such as growth yield, resource distribution, network robustness, and gene
essentiality. This knowledge can then be applied to create novel
biotechnology. In general, the process to build a reconstruction is as
follows: Draft a reconstruction. Refine the model. Convert model into a
mathematical/computational representation. Evaluate and debug model
is the material or protoplasm within a living cell,
excluding the cell nucleus. It comprises cytosol (the gel-like substance
enclosed within the cell membrane) and the organelles – the cell's
internal sub-structures. All of the contents of the cells of prokaryote
organisms (such as bacteria, which lack a cell nucleus) are contained
within the cytoplasm. Within the cells of eukaryote organisms the contents
of the cell nucleus are separated from the cytoplasm, and are then called
the nucleoplasm. The cytoplasm is about 80% water and usually colorless.
are a component of the cytoskeleton, found
throughout the cytoplasm.
is present in all cells of all domains of life (archaea,
bacteria, eukaryotes). It is a complex network of interlinking filaments
and tubules that extend throughout the cytoplasm, from the nucleus to the
plasma membrane. The cytoskeletal systems of different organisms are
composed of similar proteins. In eukaryotes, the cytoskeletal matrix is a
dynamic structure composed of three main proteins, which are capable of
rapid growth or disassembly dependent on the cell's requirements at a
certain period of time.
are undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into
specialized cells and can divide (through mitosis) to produce more stem cells.
They are found in multicellular organisms. In mammals, there are two broad types of stem
cells: embryonic stem cells, which are isolated from the inner cell mass
of blastocysts, and adult stem cells, which are found in various tissues.
In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system
for the body, replenishing adult tissues. In a developing embryo, stem
cells can differentiate into all the specialized cells—ectoderm, endoderm
and mesoderm (see induced pluripotent stem cells)—but also maintain the
normal turnover of regenerative organs, such as blood, skin, or intestinal
tissues. There are three known accessible sources of autologous adult stem
cells in humans: Bone marrow, which requires extraction by harvesting,
that is, drilling into bone (typically the femur or iliac crest). Adipose
tissue (lipid cells), which requires extraction by liposuction. Blood,
which requires extraction through apheresis, wherein blood is drawn from
the donor (similar to a blood donation), and passed through a machine that
extracts the stem cells and returns other portions of the blood to the
donor. Stem cells can also be taken from umbilical cord blood just after
birth. Of all stem cell types, autologous harvesting involves the least
risk. By definition, autologous cells are obtained from one's own body,
just as one may bank his or her own blood for elective surgical
procedures. Adult stem cells are frequently used in various medical
therapies (e.g., bone marrow transplantation). Stem cells can now be
artificially grown and transformed (differentiated) into specialized cell
types with characteristics consistent with cells of various tissues such
as muscles or nerves. Embryonic cell lines and autologous embryonic stem
cells generated through somatic cell nuclear transfer or dedifferentiation
have also been proposed as promising candidates for future therapies.
Adult Stem Cell
cells, found throughout the body after development, that multiply by cell
division to replenish dying cells and regenerate damaged tissues. More
accurately known as somatic stem cells (from Greek Σωματικóς, meaning of
the body), because they are usually more plentiful in juvenile (child)
than in adult animal and human bodies
Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell
are a type of pluripotent stem cell that
can be generated directly from adult cells.
Embryonic Stem Cell
are pluripotent stem
cells derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst, an early-stage
preimplantation embryo. Human embryos reach the blastocyst stage 4–5 days
post fertilization, at which time they consist of 50–150 cells. Isolating
the embryoblast or inner cell mass (ICM) results in destruction of the
blastocyst, which raises ethical issues, including whether or not embryos
at the pre-implantation stage should be considered to have the same moral
or legal status as more developed human beings.
Mesenchymal Stem Cell
stromal cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types,
including: osteoblasts (bone cells), chondrocytes (cartilage cells),
myocytes (muscle cells) and adipocytes (fat cells). This phenomenon has
been documented in specific cells and tissues in living animals and their
counterparts growing in tissue culture.
Stem Cell Research
is a type of tissue
characterized by loosely associated cells that lack polarity and are
surrounded by a large extracellular matrix.
are connective tissue cells
of any organ, for example in the uterine mucosa (endometrium), prostate,
bone marrow, lymph node and the ovary. They are cells that support the
function of the parenchymal cells of that organ. Fibroblasts and pericytes
are among the most common types of stromal cells.
are a type of cell found in
the pancreatic islets of the pancreas. They make up 65-80% of the cells in
is a biological cell that, like a stem cell, has a
tendency to differentiate into a specific type of cell, but is already
more specific than a stem cell and is pushed to differentiate into its
"target" cell. The most important difference between stem cells and
progenitor cells is that stem cells can replicate indefinitely, whereas
progenitor cells can divide only a limited number of times. Controversy
about the exact definition remains and the concept is still evolving. The
terms "progenitor cell" and "stem cell" are sometimes equated.
is the process where a cell changes from one
cell type to another. Most commonly the cell changes to a more specialized
Stem Cell Information
Stem Cell Research
Susan Lim Stem Cells
Method of accelerating the maturation of stem cells to form neurons
. Hydrogel can be used as a scaffold for engineering
artificial brain tissue and promotes the development of
New technology to manipulate cells could one day help treat Parkinson's,
arthritis, other diseases
. DNA strands in materials act like traffic
signals to start, stop cell activity or regenerate tissue. One of the
findings is the possibility of using the synthetic material to signal
neural stem cells to proliferate, then at a specific time selected by the
operator, trigger their differentiation into neurons and then return the
stem cells back to a proliferative state on demand. Spinal cord neural
stem cells, initially grouped into structures known as “neurospheres,” can
be driven to spread out and differentiate using a signal. But when this
signal is switched off, the cells spontaneously re-group themselves into
Stem Cell Therapy
is the use of stem cells to treat or prevent a disease or condition.
Scientists have created Expanded Potential Stem Cells (EPSCs)
for the first time, can produce all three types of blastocyst stem cells -
embryo, placenta and yolk sac.
New stem cell method produces millions of human brain and muscle cells in
. The new platform technology, OPTi-OX, optimizes the way of
switching on genes in human stem cells.
is a branch of
translational research in tissue engineering and molecular biology which
deals with the "process of replacing, engineering or regenerating human
cells, tissues or organs to restore or establish normal function". This
field holds the promise of engineering damaged tissues and organs by
stimulating the body's own repair mechanisms to functionally heal
previously irreparable tissues or organs. Regenerative medicine also
includes the possibility of growing tissues and organs in the laboratory
and implanting them when the body cannot heal itself. If a regenerated
organ's cells would be derived from the patient's own tissue or cells,
this would potentially solve the problem of the shortage of organs
available for donation, and the problem of
A Universal Solution for Regenerative Medicine
developed at Northwestern could make it possible to repair
any part of the body.
Cardiac Stem Cells from Young Hearts could Rejuvenate Old Hearts
Researchers Develop Regenerative Medicine Breakthrough
device heals organs with a single touch. Device instantly delivers new DNA
or RNA into living skin cells to change their function. Tissue
Nanotransfection (TNT), injects genetic code into skin cells, turning
those skin cells into other types of cells required for treating diseased
conditions. Researchers were able to reprogram skin cells to become
vascular cells in badly injured legs that lacked blood flow. Within one
week, active blood vessels appeared in the injured leg, and by the second
week, the leg was saved.
Thermo-Responsive Poly-Diolcitrate-Gelatin Scaffold
and delivery system
mediates effective bone formation from BMP9-transduced mesenchymal stem
New Material Regrows Bone
is the process of renewal,
restoration, and growth that makes genomes, cells, organisms, and
ecosystems resilient to natural fluctuations or events that cause
disturbance or damage. Every species is capable of regeneration, from
bacteria to humans. Regeneration can either be complete where the new
tissue is the same as the lost tissue, or incomplete where after the
necrotic tissue comes fibrosis. At its most elementary level, regeneration
is mediated by the molecular processes of gene regulation. Regeneration in
biology, however, mainly refers to the morphogenic processes that
characterize the phenotypic plasticity of traits allowing multi-cellular
organisms to repair and maintain the integrity of their physiological and
morphological states. Above the genetic level, regeneration is
fundamentally regulated by asexual cellular processes. Regeneration is
different from reproduction. For example, hydra perform regeneration but
reproduce by the method of budding.
transforming human Scar Cells into Blood Vessel
is a type of epithelium that
lines the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming
an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest
of the vessel wall. It is a thin layer of simple squamous cells called
endothelial cells. Endothelial cells in direct contact with blood are
called vascular endothelial cells, whereas those in direct contact with
lymph are known as lymphatic endothelial cells. Vascular endothelial cells
line the entire circulatory system, from the heart to the smallest
capillaries. These cells have unique functions in vascular biology. These
functions include fluid filtration, such as in the glomerulus of the
kidney, blood vessel tone, hemostasis, neutrophil recruitment, and hormone
trafficking. Endothelium of the interior surfaces of the heart chambers is
called endocardium.Adipose Tissue
cells are a temporary group
of cells unique to vertebrates that arise from the embryonic ectoderm cell
layer, and in turn give rise to a diverse cell lineage—including
melanocytes, craniofacial cartilage and bone, smooth muscle, peripheral
and enteric neurons and glia.
A Cellular Biologic Scaffold
Activating the innate immune system
up the DNA
," said Cooke, the study's senior author.
" This open state enhances the formation of induced pluripotent stem cells
(iPSCs) or cells that can have the ability to regenerate into other cell
types and tissues, such as that of the
Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell
are a type of pluripotent stem cell that
can be generated directly from adult cells.
A Universal Solution for Regenerative Medicine
developed at Northwestern could make
it possible to repair any part of the body.
Cell mechanism that transforms electrical signals into chemical ones
. Electro-chemical coupling through protein super complexes:
The calcium channel (Cav2) delivers calcium ions (Ca2+) that activate the
enzyme NO synthase (NOS) for generation of the messenger NO. The enzymes
nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS1) and protein kinase C (PKC) play an
important role in a variety of signal transfer processes in neurons of the
brain, as well as in many cell types of other organs. Enzymes can be
activated under physiological conditions through sole electrical
stimulation of the cell membrane. Protein super complexes that rapidly
transform electrical signals at the cell membrane into chemical signal
processes inside the cell emerge through direct structural interaction of
both enzymes with voltage-gated calcium channels.
Human Skin Cells transformed directly into Motor Neurons
have converted skin cells from healthy adults directly into motor neurons
without going through a stem cell state.
Regeneration of the entire Human Epidermis using Transgenic Stem Cells
Long-Term Stability and Safety of Transgenic Cultured Epidermal Stem Cells
in Gene Therapy of Junctional Epidermolysis Bullosa
contiguous living system, such as an
All known types of organisms are capable of some degree of response to
stimuli, reproduction, growth and development and
. An organism
consists of one or more cells; when it has one cell it is known as a
unicellular organism; and when it has more than one it is known as a
multicellular organism. Most unicellular organisms are of microscopic size
and are thus classified as microorganisms. Humans are multicellular
organisms composed of many trillions of cells grouped into specialized
tissues and organs.
also known as a single-celled
, is an organism that consists of only one cell, unlike a
multicellular organism that consists of more than one cell. Historically,
simple unicellular organisms have been referred to as monads, though this
term is also used more specifically to describe organisms of the genus
Monas and similar flagellate ameboids. The main groups of unicellular
organisms are bacteria, archaea, protozoa, unicellular algae, and
unicellular fungi. Unicellular organisms fall into two general categories:
prokaryotic organisms and eukaryotic organisms. Unicellular organisms are
thought to be the oldest form of life, with early protocells possibly
emerging 3.8–4 billion years ago
are organisms that consist of more than one
cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms. All species of animals, land
plants and most fungi are multicellular, as are many
, whereas a few organisms are
partially uni- and partially multicellular, like slime molds and social
amoebae such as the genus Dictyostelium. Multicellular organisms arise in
various different ways, for example by cell division or by aggregation of
many single cells. Colonial organisms are the result of many identical
individuals joining together to form a colony. However, it can often be
hard to separate colonial protists from true multicellular organisms,
because the two concepts are not distinct; colonial protists have been
dubbed "pluricellular" rather than "multicellular".
is any eukaryotic organism that is not an animal, plant or
fungus. The protists do not form a natural group, or clade, but are often
grouped together for convenience, like algae or invertebrates. In some
systems of biological classification, such as the popular five-kingdom
is any organism that does not require
for growth. It may react
negatively or even die if oxygen is present. In contrast, an
(aerobe) is an organism that can survive
and grow in an oxygenated environment.
is a microscopic organism, which may be single-celled or
multicellular. The study of microorganisms is called
, viewing plant cells
under a microscope. Microorganisms are very diverse and include all
bacteria, archaea and most protozoa. This group also contains some fungi,
algae, and some micro-animals such as rotifers. Many macroscopic animals
and plants have microscopic juvenile stages. Some microbiologists classify
viruses and viroids as microorganisms, but others consider these as
nonliving. In July 2016, scientists identified a set of 355 genes from the
last universal common ancestor of all life, including microorganisms,
living on Earth. Microorganisms live in every part
of the biosphere
, including soil, hot springs, inside rocks at
least 19 km (12 mi) deep underground, the deepest parts of the ocean, and
at least 64 km (40 mi) high in the atmosphere. Microorganisms, under
certain test conditions, have been observed to thrive in the vacuum of
outer space. Microorganisms likely far outweigh
all other living things combined
. The mass of prokaryote
microorganisms including the bacteria and archaea may be as much as 0.8
trillion tons of carbon, out of the total biomass of between 1 and 4
trillion tons. Microorganisms appear to thrive in the Mariana Trench, the
deepest spot in the Earth's oceans. Other researchers reported related
studies that microorganisms thrive inside rocks up to 580 m (1,900 ft;
0.36 mi) below the sea floor under 2,590 m (8,500 ft; 1.61 mi) of ocean
off the coast of the northwestern United States, as well as 2,400 m (7,900
ft; 1.5 mi) beneath the seabed off Japan. In August 2014, scientists
confirmed the existence of microorganisms living 800 m (2,600 ft; 0.50 mi)
below the ice of Antarctica. According to one researcher, "You can find
microbes everywhere — they're extremely adaptable to conditions, and
survive wherever they are." Microorganisms are crucial to
nutrient recycling in
as they act as
. As some microorganisms can
, they are a
vital part of the nitrogen cycle, and recent studies indicate that
airborne microorganisms may play a role in precipitation and weather.
Microorganisms are also exploited in biotechnology, both in traditional
food and beverage preparation, and in modern technologies based on genetic
engineering. A small proportion of microorganisms are
, causing disease and
even death in plants
is a non-human species that is extensively studied
to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that
discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the
workings of other organisms. Model organisms are in vivo models and are
widely used to research human disease when human experimentation would be
unfeasible or unethical. This strategy is made possible by the common
descent of all living organisms, and the conservation of metabolic and
developmental pathways and genetic material over the course of evolution.
is any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each
other and often these cells adhere to a surface. These adherent cells are
frequently embedded within a self-produced matrix of extracellular
polymeric substance (EPS). Biofilm extracellular polymeric substance,
which is also referred to as slime (although not everything described as
slime is a biofilm), is a polymeric conglomeration generally composed of
extracellular DNA, proteins, and polysaccharides. Biofilms may form on
living or non-living surfaces and can be prevalent in natural, industrial
and hospital settings. The microbial cells growing in a biofilm are
physiologically distinct from planktonic cells of the same organism,
which, by contrast, are single-cells that may float or swim in a liquid
medium. Microbes form a biofilm in response to many factors, which may
include cellular recognition of specific or non-specific attachment sites
on a surface, nutritional cues, or in some cases, by exposure of
planktonic cells to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics. When a
cell switches to the biofilm mode of growth, it undergoes a phenotypic
shift in behavior in which large suites of genes are differentially
are polymers produced by living organisms; in other words,
they are polymeric biomolecules. Since they are polymers, biopolymers
contain monomeric units that are covalently bonded to form larger
structures. There are three main classes of biopolymers, classified
according to the monomeric units used and the structure of the biopolymer
formed: polynucleotides (RNA and DNA), which are long polymers composed of
13 or more nucleotide monomers; polypeptides, which are short polymers of
amino acids; and polysaccharides, which are often linear bonded polymeric
carbohydrate structures. Cellulose is the most common organic compound and
biopolymer on Earth. About 33 percent of all plant matter is cellulose.
The cellulose content of cotton is 90 percent, for wood is 50 percent.
is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted
into more complex products in living organisms. In biosynthesis, simple
compounds are modified, converted into other compounds, or joined together
to form macromolecules. This process often consists of metabolic pathways.
Some of these biosynthetic pathways are located within a single cellular
organelle, while others involve enzymes that are located within multiple
cellular organelles. Examples of these biosynthetic pathways include the
production of lipid membrane components and nucleotides. The prerequisite
elements for biosynthesis include: precursor compounds, chemical energy
(e.g. ATP), and catalytic enzymes which may require coenzymes (e.g.NADH,
NADPH). These elements create monomers, the building blocks for
macromolecules. Some important biological macromolecules include:
proteins, which are composed of amino acid monomers joined via peptide
bonds, and DNA molecules, which are composed of nucleotides joined via
are microorganisms that produce methane as a metabolic
byproduct in anoxic conditions.
refers to low
20.9% of the gas in the atmosphere is oxygen.
is a microbe which derives energy from reduced
compounds of mineral origin.
are a diverse group of organisms using inorganic substrate
(usually of mineral origin) to obtain reducing equivalents for use in
biosynthesis (e.g., carbon dioxide fixation) or energy conservation (i.e.,
ATP production) via aerobic or anaerobic respiration. Known
chemolithotrophs are exclusively microbes; no known macrofauna possesses
the ability to utilize inorganic compounds as energy sources.
The Blob can
Learn - and Teach !
It isn't an animal, a plant, or a fungus. The
(Physarum polycephalum) is a
strange, creeping, bloblike organism made up of one giant cell. Though it
has no brain, it can learn from experience, as biologists at the Research
Centre on Animal Cognition. Imagine you could temporarily fuse with
someone, acquire that person's knowledge, and then split off to become
your separate self again, you don't have to imagine because that is what
schools are supposed to do, but fail to understand the process.
A single-celled organism capable of learning
is a form of learning
in which an organism decreases or
ceases to respond to a stimulus
after repeated presentations. Essentially,
the organism learns to stop responding
which is no longer
biologically relevant. For example, organisms may habituate to
repeated sudden loud noises when they learn these have no consequences.
Habituation usually refers to a reduction in innate
than behaviours developed during conditioning in which the process is
is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific
function. Individual organelles are usually separately enclosed within
their own lipid bilayers.Metaorganisms
constitute a large domain of prokaryotic
. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a
number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria were
among the first life forms to appear on Earth, and are present in most of
its habitats. Bacteria inhabit soil, water, acidic hot springs,
radioactive waste, and the deep portions of Earth's crust. Bacteria also
live in symbiotic
relationships with plants and animals.
is a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through
, and are the
only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen. The name
"cyanobacteria" comes from the color of the bacteria (Greek: κυανός (kyanós)
= blue). Sometimes, they are called
, and incorrectly so, because cyanobacteria are
prokaryotes and the term "algae" is reserved for eukaryotes. Like other
prokaryotes, cyanobacteria have no membrane-sheathed organelles.
Photosynthesis is performed in distinctive folds in the outer membrane of
the cell (unlike green plants which use organelles adapted for this
specific role, called chloroplasts). Biologists commonly agree that
chloroplasts found in eukaryotes have their ancestry in cyanobacteria, via
a process called endosymbiosis. By producing
as a byproduct of
photosynthesis, cyanobacteria are thought to have converted the early
oxygen-poor, reducing atmosphere, into an oxidizing one, causing the
"rusting of the Earth" and the
Great Oxygenation Event
, that dramatically changed the composition of
life forms and led to the near-extinction of anaerobic organisms.
is said to be a natural process of life arising from
non-living matter, such as simple organic compounds.
is thought to have occurred on Earth between 3.8 and
4.1 billion years ago. How can abiogenesis be a natural process when you
have no proof and no other planet to compare it to. Information does not
come from nothing, this information had to originate from somewhere.
constitute a domain and kingdom of single-celled
microorganisms. These microbes (archaea; singular archaeon) are
prokaryotes, meaning that they have no cell nucleus or any other
membrane-bound organelles in their cells.
is any organism whose cells contain a nucleus and
other organelles enclosed within membranes. Eukaryotes belong to the taxon
Eukarya or Eukaryota. The defining feature that sets eukaryotic cells
apart from prokaryotic cells (Bacteria and Archaea) is that they have
membrane-bound organelles, especially the nucleus, which contains the
genetic material and is enclosed by the nuclear envelope. The presence of
a nucleus gives eukaryotes their name.
that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus (karyon),
mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
Prokaryotic DNA Replication
is the process by which a prokaryote
duplicates its entire genome
into another copy that
is passed on to daughter cells. Although it is often studied in the
model organism E. coli, other bacteria show many similarities. Replication
is bi-directional and originates at a single origin of replication (OriC).
It consists of three steps: Initiation, elongation, and termination. DNA
replication begins at the origin of replication, a region commonly
containing repeating sequences (DnaA boxes) that bind DnaA, an initiation
protein. DnaA-ATP will first bind high-affinity boxes (R1, R2, and R4,
which have a highly conserved 9 bp consensus sequence 5' - TTATCCACA -
3'), then oligomerize into several low-affinity boxes. This accumulation
will displace a protein called Fis, allowing another protein, IHF, to bind
the DNA and induce a bend. This bend allows the DnaA chain to load onto an
AT-rich region of 13-mers (the DUE, Duplex unwinding element), causing the
double-stranded DNA to separate. The DnaC helicase loader will interact
with the DnaA on the single-stranded DNA to recruit the DnaB helicase,
which will continue to unwind the DNA as the DnaG primase lays down an RNA
primer and DNA Polymerase III holoenzyme begins elongation.
Complex Archaea that bridge the gap between Prokaryotes and
is the study of the microscopic anatomy (microanatomy) of cells and
tissues of plants and animals.
is a period in an organism's life cycle when
growth, development, and (in animals) physical activity are temporarily
stopped. This minimizes metabolic activity and therefore helps an organism
to conserve energy. Dormancy tends to be closely associated with
environmental conditions. Organisms can synchronize entry to a dormant
phase with their environment through predictive or consequential means.
Predictive dormancy occurs when an organism enters a dormant phase before
the onset of adverse conditions. For example, photoperiod and decreasing
temperature are used by many plants to predict the onset of winter.
Consequential dormancy occurs when organisms enter a dormant phase after
adverse conditions have arisen. This is commonly found in areas with an
unpredictable climate. While very sudden changes in conditions may lead to
a high mortality rate among animals relying on consequential dormancy, its
use can be advantageous, as organisms remain active longer and are
therefore able to make greater use of available resources.
Glass formation in plant anhydrobiotes: survival in the dry
Cytoplasmic viscosity near the cell plasma membrane: measurement
by evanescent field frequency-domain microfluorimetry
is an adaption of fluorimetry for studying
the biochemical and biophysical properties of cells by using microscopy to
image cell components tagged with
. It is a type of microphotometry that gives a
quantitative measure of the qualitative nature of fluorescent measurement
and therefore, allows for definitive results that would have been
previously indiscernible to the naked eye.
Intracellular glasses and seed survival in the dry state
Building Blocks of Life
How did the chemistry of simple
lead to the information storage of
ribonucleic acid, or RNA? The
must store information to code for proteins.
do more than build muscle — they also
regulate a host of processes in the body.)
List of interstellar and circumstellar molecules
Swapped human genes into the genetic code used by common yeast
found that the cells could continue to function and
Systematic humanization of yeast genes reveals conserved
functions and genetic modularity
Pyramid of Complexity
- Nano Machines
Central Nervous System
Tree of Life
"Bacteria looks the same as bacteria of the
same region from 2.3 billion years ago
—and that both sets of
ancient bacteria are indistinguishable from modern sulfur bacteria found in mud off of the coast of Chile."
"Life has been using a standard set of
20 Amino Acids
for more than 3 billion years"
~ Quoted by Stephen
J. Freeland of the
NASA Astrobiology Institute
at the University
Remnants of an Ancient Metabolism without Phosphate
is a branching diagram or "tree" showing
the inferred evolutionary relationships among various biological species
or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences
in their physical or genetic characteristics. The taxa joined together in
the tree are implied to have descended from a common ancestor.
Phylogenetic trees are central to the field of phylogenetics.
Tree of Life
is any graph used to visualize
evolutionary relationships (either abstractly or explicitly) between
nucleotide sequences, genes, chromosomes, genomes, or species. They are
employed when reticulation events such as hybridization, horizontal gene
transfer, recombination, or gene duplication and loss are believed to be
involved. They differ from phylogenetic trees by the explicit modeling of
richly-linked networks, by means of the addition of hybrid nodes (nodes
with two parents) instead of only tree nodes (a hierarchy of nodes, each
with only one parent). Phylogenetic trees are a subset of phylogenetic
networks. Phylogenetic networks can be inferred and visualised with
software such as SplitsTree and, more recently, Dendroscope. A standard
format for representing phylogenetic networks is a variant of Newick
format which is extended to support networks as well as trees.
is the branch of phylogeny that
analyses hereditary molecular differences, mainly in DNA sequences, to
gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships.
is the use of molecular genetics to study the evolution of
relationships among individuals and species. The goal of systematic
studies is to provide insight into the history of groups of organisms and
the evolutionary processes that create diversity among species.
is a classic device for illustrating what is
also called a "scale of being" which indicates that a species is defined
by a genus and a differentia and that this logical process continues until
the lowest species is reached, which can no longer be so defined.
is a diagram that shows the occurrence and appearance
or phenotypes of a particular gene or organism and its ancestors from
one generation to the next, most commonly humans, show dogs, and race
Building Blocks of Life
Tree of Life
is a widespread mytheme or archetype in the
world's mythologies, related to the concept of sacred tree more generally,
and hence in religious and philosophical tradition.
Great Chain of Being
is a strict, religious hierarchical
structure of all matter and life, believed to have been decreed by God.
The chain starts from God and progresses downward to
, demons (fallen/renegade angels),
stars, moon, kings, princes, nobles, commoners, wild animals, domesticated
animals, trees, other plants, precious stones, precious metals, and other
Microbes in Humans
is an optimality criterion under which the
phylogenetic tree that minimizes the total number of character-state
changes is to be preferred. Under the maximum-parsimony criterion, the
optimal tree will minimize the amount of homoplasy (i.e., convergent
evolution, parallel evolution, and evolutionary reversals). In other
words, under this criterion, the shortest possible tree that explains the
data is considered best. The principle is akin to Occam's razor, which
states that—all else being equal—the simplest hypothesis that explains the
data should be selected.
of Life Web Project
is the division of a single entity into two or more parts and
the regeneration of those parts into separate entities resembling the
original. The object experiencing fission is usually a cell, but the term
may also refer to how organisms, bodies, populations, or species split
into discrete parts. The fission may be binary fission, in which a single
entity produces two parts, or multiple fission, in which a single entity
produces multiple parts.
500 Million years ago
is a tentative partial list of
transitional fossils (fossil remains of groups that exhibits both
"primitive" and derived traits). The fossils are listed in series, showing
the transition from one group to another, representing significant steps
in the evolution of major features in various lineages. These changes
often represent major changes in morphology and anatomy, related to mode
of life, like the acquisition of feathered wings for an aerial lifestyle
in birds, or limbs in the fish/tetrapod transition onto land.The Missing Link
Richard Dawkins: Intermediate Fossils
Descriptive Complexity Theory
is a branch of computational
complexity theory and of finite model theory that characterizes complexity
classes by the type of logic needed to express the languages in them.
Evolution of Biological Complexity
Most Animals Start out the Same Way
, but they never end the same way.
Horizontal Gene Transfer
is the movement of genetic material
between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than via vertical
transmission (the transmission of DNA from parent to offspring.) HGT is
synonymous with lateral gene transfer (LGT) and the terms are
interchangeable. HGT has been shown to be an important factor in the
evolution of many organisms. Horizontal gene transfer is the primary
reason for the spread of antibiotic resistance in bacteria and plays an
important role in the evolution of bacteria that can degrade novel
compounds such as human-created pesticides and in the evolution,
maintenance, and transmission of virulence. This horizontal gene transfer
often involves temperate bacteriophages and plasmids. Genes that are
responsible for antibiotic resistance in one species of bacteria can be
transferred to another species of bacteria through various mechanisms such
as F-pilus, subsequently arming the antibiotic resistant genes' recipient
against antibiotics, which is becoming a medical challenge to deal with.
Most thinking in genetics has focused upon vertical transfer, but there is
a growing awareness that horizontal gene transfer is a highly significant
phenomenon and among single-celled organisms, perhaps the dominant form of
genetic transfer. Artificial horizontal gene transfer is a form of genetic
engineering.The tree of life does not say you grew out of bacteria
tree of life is the
biological history of planet earth,
things that we have
. The tree of life shows the
path that certain information took, or transcended from. The tree
of life shows some
of the things that we and other life forms are made out of, not grew out of, but
made out of.
If you were creating advanced animal life, you would want
animals made out of
certain things like bacteria, things that have learned to
survive for millions of
years. This is more then a
, this is the
blueprint for life, use the strongest material available, give
life the ability to
adapt, to evolve and to learn. Intelligent Design
The responsibility of life is now in our hands
. Humans have been
given the ability to manually adjust information, which
gives life even more chances to survive, pure genius. But it is
also pure hell when the
ability to manually adjust
causes death and destruction, all because the
information being adjusted
reduces our chances of survival, like
that poisons the
water, land and air. There is also corruption. Bad information is
, actions being made based on bad information. Bad cells
are multiplying when
bad cells should be dying.