Awareness of 3 Dimensional Space - Picture Smart
When people fail to see the whole picture they can easily make
mistakes, as we can clearly see in the world today with all the problems
that we are currently faced with. It's how you look at something
and understand that something that can make all the
is the ability to draw accurate conclusions
from observing a
(3D) environment. It involves
interpreting and making judgments about the
between surrounding objects, as well as the
ability to envision and manipulate 3D models
of things that are
not immediately visible. People use this form of
many everyday activities, ranging from organizing a room to
driving a car. This type of intelligence stems from the
right side of the brain
injuries or strokes
to this area
may diminish it.
involves the potential to recognize and use
When the Brain fills in
collection of objects called vectors, which may be added together and
by numbers, called scalars. Scalars are often taken to be real numbers,
but there are also vector spaces with scalar multiplication by complex
numbers, rational numbers, or generally any field. The operations of
vector addition and scalar multiplication must satisfy certain
requirements, called axioms.
a variable quantity that can be resolved into components. A
length is magnitude and whose orientation in space is direction.
study of human use of space and the effects that
behavior, communication, and social interaction. Proxemics is one among
several subcategories in the study of nonverbal
vocalics (paralanguage), and
(structure of time).
Spatial Visualization Ability
is the ability to mentally manipulate
2-dimensional, 3-dimensional and 4-dimensional figures. It is
typically measured with simple cognitive tests and is predictive of user
performance with some kinds of user interfaces.
or angular position, or attitude of an object such as a line, plane or
rigid body is part of the description of how it is placed in the space it
is in. Namely, it is the imaginary rotation that is needed to move the
object from a reference placement to its current placement.
Retinal cells go with the flow to assess own motion through space
is the ability to rotate mental representations of
two-dimensional and three-dimensional objects as it is related to the
visual representation of such rotation
within the human mind
is the part of memory
for recording information
about one's environment and its spatial
orientation. For example, a person's spatial memory is required in order
to navigate around a familiar city, just as a rat's spatial memory is
needed to learn the location of food at the end of a maze.
or visuo-spatial ability is the capacity to
understand, reason and remember the spatial relations among objects or
is how you look at something and
which is based on your current level of knowledge and experience, and
sometimes depends on your current mood or your unique situation.
is the appearance of things
relative to one another as determined by their distance from the viewer.
The approximate representation, on a flat surface (such as paper), of an
image as it is seen by the eye. The two most characteristic features of
perspective are that objects are smaller as their distance from the
observer increases; and that they are subject to foreshortening, meaning
that an object's dimensions along the line of sight are shorter than its
dimensions across the line of sight.
is a mental position from
which things are viewed. RelativePoint of View
is the spatial property of the position from which something is observed.
is a place from which
something can be viewed.Frame of
consists of an abstract coordinate system and the set of
physical reference points that uniquely fix (locate and orient) the
coordinate system and standardize measurements.
in the context of vision and visual perception,
is the way that objects appear to the eye based on their spatial
attributes or dimensions, and the position of the eye relative to the
objects. There are two main meanings of the term: linear perspective and
is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment
using light in the
reflected by the objects in the environment. The resulting
perception is also known as visual perception,
, sight, or vision (adjectival
form: visual, optical, or ocular). The various physiological components
involved in vision are referred to collectively as the
, and are the
focus of much research in linguistics, psychology, cognitive science,
neuroscience, and molecular biology, collectively referred to as vision
of objects is given by
the way in which they reflect and transmit light. The
of objects is determined by the
parts of the
of (incident white) light that are reflected or transmitted
without being absorbed. Additional appearance attributes are based on the
directional distribution of reflected (BRDF) or transmitted light (BTDF)
described by attributes like glossy, shiny versus dull, matte, clear,
turbid, distinct, etc..
New Research Could Help Humans See What Nature Hides
. Three main
background properties that affect the ability to see objects: the
or brightness, the contrast (the variation in luminance) and the
similarity of the background to the orientation and shape of the object.
is the difference in color
between parts of an
occurs when the perception of one stimulus, called a
target, is affected by the presence of another stimulus, called a mask.
With respect to time, there are three different types of masking –
forward, backward, and simultaneous. These correspond to trials where the
mask precedes the target, follows the disappearance of the target, or
appears at the same time as the target, respectively. In the spatial
domain, there are two different types of masking: pattern masking and
metacontrast. Pattern masking occurs when the target and mask are
presented within the same retinal location, and metacontrast occurs when
the mask does not overlap with the target location.
is the rapid, accurate, and confident judgments
of numbers performed for small numbers of items.
is the ability to interpret, negotiate, and make
meaning from information presented in the form of an
, extending the meaning of literacy, which commonly signifies
interpretation of a written or printed text. Visual literacy is based on
the idea that pictures can be “read” and that meaning can be through a
process of reading
(art) Sight and Eye Problems
Field of View
the extent of the observable world that is seen at any given moment. In
case of optical instruments or sensors it is a solid angle through which a
detector is sensitive to electromagnetic radiation. When something is
outside your center of focus
, you will not
be able to understand the threat it may have, and thus, not be able to
react in time.
Angle of View
describes the angular extent of a given scene that is imaged by a camera.
It is used interchangeably with the more general term field of view.
the "spatial array of visual sensations available to observation in
introspectionist psychological experiments"
is a part of vision that occurs outside the very center of gaze.
Blind Spot (vision)
is an obscuration of the visual field. A
particular blind spot known as the physiological blind spot, "blind
point", or punctum caecum in medical literature, is the place in the
visual field that corresponds to the lack of light-detecting photoreceptor
cells on the optic disc of the retina where the optic nerve passes through
the optic disc. Because there are no cells to detect light on the optic
disc, the corresponding part of the field of vision is invisible. Some
process in our brains interpolates the blind spot based on surrounding
detail and information from the other eye, so we do not normally perceive
the blind spot.
in a vehicle is an area around the vehicle that cannot be
directly observed by the driver while at the controls, under existing
circumstances. Blind spots exist in a wide range of vehicles: aircraft,
cars, motorboats, sailboats, and trucks. Other types of transport have no
blind spots at all, such as bicycles, horses, and motorcycles. Proper
adjustment of mirrors and use of other technical solutions can eliminate
or alleviate vehicle blind spots. A no zone is one of several areas around
a large truck, where the truck driver cannot see. Collisions frequently
occur in no zones. In transport, driver visibility is the maximum distance
at which the driver of a vehicle can see and identify prominent objects
around the vehicle. Visibility is primarily determined by weather
conditions (see visibility) and by a vehicle's design. The parts of a
vehicle that influence visibility include the windshield, the dashboard
and the pillars. Good driver visibility is essential to safe road traffic.
Blind spots may occur in the front of the driver when the A-pillar (also
called the windshield pillar), side-view mirror, or interior rear-view
mirror block a driver's view of the road. Behind the driver, cargo,
headrests, and additional pillars may reduce visibility.
is the third and inner coat of the
which is a
light-sensitive layer of tissue. The optics of the
create an image of
the visual world on the retina (through the cornea and lens), which serves
much the same function as the film in a camera. Light striking the retina
initiates a cascade of chemical and electrical events that ultimately
trigger nerve impulses. These are sent to various visual centres of the
brain through the fibres of the optic nerve. Neural retina typically
refers to three layers of neural cells (photo receptor cells, bipolar
cells, and ganglion cells) within the retina, while the entire retina
refers to these three layers plus a layer of pigmented epithelial cells.
Human Brain Processing
PowerTV Sizes and Viewing
. How far to sit from a 50 inch TV. Less then 60 degrees.
Viewing Distance for a 43" to 50" Screen Size is around 8 feet away.
Viewing Distance for a 55" to 60" Screen Size is around 10 feet away.
is a digital image processing technique in which the image resolution, or
amount of detail, varies across the image according to one or more
"fixation points." A fixation point indicates the highest resolution
region of the image and corresponds to the center of the eye's retina, the
is the apparent line that separates earth from sky, the line that divides
all visible directions into two categories: those that intersect the
Earth's surface, and those that do not.
is a hypothetical internal cognitive symbol
that represents external reality, or else a mental process that makes use
of such a symbol: "a formal system for making explicit certain entities or
types of information, together with a specification of how the system does
refers to various phenomena which occur when a wave encounters an obstacle
or a slit. It is defined as the bending of
around the corners of an
obstacle or aperture into the region of geometrical shadow of the
is the proposal that visual perception is
accomplished by rays of light emitted by the eyes.
is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using
light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment.
is the phenomenon of thinking through visual processing. Visual thinking
has been described as seeing words as a series of pictures. Music
includes any of the formal techniques which
study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic
Spatial Temporal Reasoning
is an area of
draws from the fields of computer science, cognitive science, and
cognitive psychology. The theoretic goal—on the cognitive side—involves
representing and reasoning spatial-temporal knowledge in mind. The applied
goal—on the computing side—involves developing high-level control systems
for navigating and understanding time and space.
is a type of neuron in the brains of many species that allows
them to understand their position in space.
There is two hippocampi, one in
each side of
, It belongs to the
and plays important roles in the consolidation
of information from short-term memory to long-term memory and
commonly refers to the clarity of
. Visual acuity is dependent on
optical and neural factors, i.e., (i) the sharpness of the retinal focus
, (ii) the health and functioning of the retina, and
(iii) the sensitivity of the interpretative faculty of the brain.
is used to improve vision skills such
as eye movement control and eye coordination. It involves a series of
procedures carried out in both home and office settings, usually under
professional supervision by an orthoptist.
is a term referring to
the integration occurring in the brain to give us a final percept,
presumably in the prefrontal cortex. Information from the dorsal (parietal
or medial temporal) stream dealing with localization or movement is
integrated with information from the ventral (inferotemporal) stream
dealing with colour or form, so that, for example, we can see a red car
moving towards us.
is the perceptual space housing the visual
world being experienced by an aware observer; it is the subjective
counterpart of the space of physical objects before an observer's eyes.
Geographic Coordinate System
Think Outside the Box
is an image processing technique used to determine changes between images.
The difference between two images is calculated by finding the difference
between each pixel in each image, and generating an image based on the
result. For this technique to work, the two images must first be aligned
so that corresponding points coincide, and their photometric values must
be made compatible, either by careful calibration, or by post-processing
(using color mapping). The complexity of the pre-processing needed before
differencing varies with the type of image.
describes the ability of any image-forming device such as an
optical or radio telescope, a microscope, a camera, or an eye, to
distinguish small details of an object, thereby making it a major
determinant of image resolution.
are descriptions of the best focused spot of light
that a perfect lens with a circular aperture can make, limited by the
diffraction of light. The Airy disk is of importance in physics, optics,
refers to the problem of ascertaining
which parts of one image correspond to which parts of another image, where
differences are due to movement of the camera, the elapse of time, and/or
movement of objects in the photos.
is a quick, simultaneous movement of both eyes
between two or more phases of fixation in the same direction. The
phenomenon can be associated with a shift in frequency of an emitted
signal or a movement of a body part or device. Controlled
cortically by the frontal eye fields (FEF), or subcortically by the
superior colliculus, saccades serve as a mechanism for fixation, rapid eye
movement, and the fast phase of optokinetic nystagmus.
I can see the duck, I can see the rabbit,
I can see the differences between the duck and the rabbit. I can
also determine whether there is any important information or
relevance to what I see. So filling in the details will be based
on priorities, and not just based on beliefs.
is a psychological phenomenon involving a stimulus (an image or
a sound) wherein the mind perceives a familiar pattern of something where
none exists. Common examples are perceived images of animals, faces, or
objects in cloud formations, the man in the moon, the moon rabbit, and
hidden messages within recorded music played in reverse or at higher- or
is the human tendency to perceive meaningful patterns within random data.
is a psychological test in which subjects' perceptions of inkblots are
recorded and then analyzed using psychological interpretation, complex
algorithms, or both. Some psychologists use this test to examine a
person's personality characteristics and emotional functioning. It has
been employed to detect underlying thought disorder, especially in cases
where patients are reluctant to describe their thinking processes openly.
Black Dots Test
How many dots?
that test your Problem Solving Skills
Can You Trust Your Eyes?
are staged tricks or illusions that seem
real but are actually highly skilled techniques designed to fool you,
similar to media
How Magicians Trick
Your Brain: The Psychology Of Magic
(slight of hand - body smart)
Psychological Theories of Magic
treat magic as a personal
phenomenon intended to meet individual needs, as opposed to a social
phenomenon serving a collective purpose.
is a term used in anthropology and
psychology, denoting the fallacious attribution of causal relationships
between actions and events, with subtle differences in meaning between the
two fields. In anthropology, it denotes the attribution of causality
between entities grouped with one another (coincidence) or similar to one
another. In psychology, the entities between which a causal relation has
to be posited are more strictly delineated; here it denotes the belief
that one's thoughts by themselves can bring about effects in the world or
that thinking something corresponds with doing it. In both cases, the
belief can cause a person to experience fear, seemingly not rationally
justifiable to an observer outside the belief system, of performing
certain acts or having certain thoughts because of an assumed correlation
between doing so and threatening calamities.
is an illusion caused by the
characterized by visually perceived images that differ from
reality. The information gathered by the eye is processed in the
give a percept that does not tally with a physical measurement of the
stimulus source. There are three main types: literal optical illusions
that create images that are different from the objects that make them,
physiological illusions that are the effects of excessive stimulation of a
specific type (brightness, colour, size, position, tilt, movement), and
, the result of unconscious inferences. Pathological
visual illusions arise from a pathological
exaggeration in physiological
visual perception mechanisms causing the aforementioned types of
List of Optical illusions
is an optical illusion of relative size
is a brightness illusion where certain
stripes of a black and white grating is partially replaced by a gray
is a technique for creating or enhancing the illusion of
depth in an image by means of stereopsis for binocular vision.
Visual Tilt Effects
is due to the effect of a spatial context or temporal context, the
perceived orientation of a test line or grating pattern can appear tilted
away from its physical orientation.
Lotto: Optical illusions show how we see
Optical Illusions That Will Blow Your Mind
Menu for Restaurant Design Tricks
is the phenomenon of certain surfaces that
appear to gradually change colour as the angle of view or the angle of
is a style of visual art that uses optical illusions.
is a psychological phenomenon in which the mind
responds to a stimulus (an image or a sound) by perceiving a familiar
pattern where none exists.
is an illusion where things appear to be
present but are not what they seem.
Flash Lag illusion
is a visual illusion wherein a flash and a moving object that appear in
the same location are perceived to be displaced from one another.
investigates the relationship between physical
stimuli and the sensations and perceptions they produce.
is a perceptual phenomenon that demonstrates
an interaction between hearing and vision in speech perception. The
illusion occurs when the auditory component of one sound is paired with
the visual component of another sound, leading to the perception of a
third sound. The visual information a person gets from seeing a person
speak changes the way they hear the sound. If a person is getting poor
quality auditory information but good quality visual information, they may
be more likely to experience the McGurk effect. Integration abilities for
audio and visual information may also influence whether a person will
experience the effect. People who are better at sensory integration have
been shown to be more susceptible to the effect. Many people are affected
differently by the McGurk effect based on many factors, including brain
damage and other disorders.
Flicker Rate of Video Frames
is the optical illusion of perceiving a series of still images, when
viewed in rapid succession, as continuous motion.
TV Effects on the Mind
Flicker Rates influence Brainwaves
(flicker rate can induce an alpha brain wave).
perceive flicker artifacts at 500 Hz
How Many Frames can Humans See
Continuous Flash Suppression
is an adapted version of the original flash suppression method. In CFS,
the first eye is presented with a static stimulus, such as a schematic
face, while the second eye is presented with a series of rapidly changing
stimuli. The result is the static stimulus becomes consciously repressed
by the stimuli presented in the second eye. A variant of CFS to suppress a
dynamic stimulus is also reported CFS not only successfully suppresses
images, but it strengthens the depth and duration of suppression compared
to previous methods, such as flash suppression and binocular rivalry. CFS
has the highest magnitude of suppression and allows researchers to
increase the suppression time of an image tenfold. Using this method,
subjects may report an image presented in their visual field as being
invisible for over three minutes. CFS has the longest suppression time
compared to other methods. CFS opens the door to studying preconscious
processing mechanisms involved in visual perception.
is a visible fading
between cycles displayed on video displays, especially the refresh
interval on cathode ray tube (CRT) as well as Plasma based computer
screens and/or TVs. Flicker occurs on CRTs when they are driven at a low
refresh rate, allowing the brightness to drop for time intervals
sufficiently long to be noticed by a human eye – see persistence of vision
and flicker fusion threshold. For most devices, the screen's phosphors
quickly lose their excitation between sweeps of the electron gun, and the
afterglow is unable to fill such gaps – see phosphor persistence. A
similar effect occurs in PDPs during their refresh cycles.
is the number of times in a second that a display
hardware updates its buffer. This is distinct from the measure of frame
rate in that the refresh rate includes the repeated drawing of identical
frames, while frame rate measures how often a video source can feed an
entire frame of new data to a display. For example, most movie projectors
advance from one frame to the next one 24 times each second. But each
frame is illuminated two or three times before the next frame is projected
using a shutter in front of its lamp. As a result, the movie projector
runs at 24 frames per second, but has a 48 or 72 Hz refresh rate. On
cathode ray tube (CRT) displays, increasing the refresh rate decreases
flickering, thereby reducing eye strain. However, if a refresh rate is
specified that is beyond what is recommended for the display, damage to
the display can occur. For computer programs or telemetry, the term is
also applied to how frequently a datum is updated with a new external
value from another source (for example; a shared public spreadsheet or
hardware feed). (vertical refresh rate, or vertical scan rate for
cathode ray tubes).
"You Won't Believe
Your Eyes!" - Smarter Every Day 142
are watching television and believe you are looking at pictures, you are
actually looking at the phosphorescent glow of three hundred thousand tiny
There is no picture there
. These dots seem to be lit constantly, but
in fact they are not. All the dots go off thirty times per second,
creating what is called the flicker effect of television, which is similar
to strobe or ordinary fluorescent light.
Flicker Fusion Threshold
or flicker fusion rate, is a concept in the
psychophysics of vision. It is defined as the frequency at which an
intermittent light stimulus appears to be completely steady to the average
human observer. Flicker fusion threshold is related to persistence of
vision. Although flicker can be detected for many waveforms representing
time-variant fluctuations of intensity, it is conventionally, and most
easily, studied in terms of sinusoidal modulation of intensity. There are
seven parameters that determine the ability to detect the flicker: the
frequency of the modulation; the amplitude or depth of the modulation
(i.e., what is the maximum percent decrease in the illumination intensity
from its peak value); the average (or maximum—these can be inter-converted
if modulation depth is known) illumination intensity; the wavelength (or
wavelength range) of the illumination (this parameter and the illumination
intensity can be combined into a single parameter for humans or other
animals for which the sensitivities of rods and cones are known as a
function of wavelength using the luminous flux function); the position on
the retina at which the stimulation occurs (due to the different
distribution of photoreceptor types at different positions); the degree of
light or dark adaptation, i.e., the duration and intensity of previous
exposure to background light, which affects both the intensity sensitivity
and the time resolution of vision; physiological factors such as age and
is a visual phenomenon caused by aliasing that
occurs when continuous motion is represented by a series of short or
instantaneous samples. It occurs when the view of a moving object is
represented by a series of short samples as distinct from a continuous
view, and the moving object is in rotational or other cyclic motion at a
rate close to the sampling rate. It also accounts for the "wagon-wheel
effect", so-called because in video or film, spoked wheels on horse-drawn
wagons sometimes appear to be turning backwards.
You blink about 15 to
20 times every single minute
, 21,000 times (or more) a day. When you blink
your eye actually rolls back in its socket and then returns to normal when
you open your eye.
have the largest
their size in the animal kingdom, with visual acuity superior to that of
other vertebrate groups. Birds of prey have a very high density of
receptors and other adaptations that maximise visual acuity. The placement
of their eyes gives them good binocular vision enabling accurate judgement
of distances. Nocturnal species have tubular eyes, low numbers of colour
detectors, but a high density of rod cells which function well in poor
light. Terns, gulls and albatrosses are amongst the seabirds which have
red or yellow oil droplets in the colour receptors to improve distance
vision especially in hazy conditions.
Mechanics Of The Film Projector
or frames per second FPS, is the frequency (rate)
at which consecutive images called frames are displayed in an animated
Reflexive system of the human eye also produces a conscious visual
experience that may be related to excessive light sensitivity
refers to the frequency at which a chip like a
central processing unit (CPU), one core of a multi-core processor, is
running and is used as an indicator of the
is a specific type of timepiece tested and
certified to meet certain precision standards.
is a technique whereby the frequency at which
film frames are captured (the frame rate) is much lower than that used to
view the sequence. When played at normal speed, time appears to be moving
faster and thus lapsing. For example, an image of a scene may be captured
once every second, then played back at 30 frames per second; the result is
an apparent 30 times speed increase. Time-lapse photography can be
considered the opposite of high speed photography or slow motion.
is a phenomenon of visual
disappearance or perceptual illusions observed in the lab, in which
stationary visual stimuli disappear as if erased in front of an observer's
eyes when masked with a moving background.
Spinning Head Spins
Flashing Lights can cause Seizures
December 16, 1997, hundreds of Japanese children were brought to hospital
. They all had one thing in common: they had
been watching an episode of the
Pokemon TV Show
when their symptoms began. Doctors determined that
their symptoms were triggered by five seconds of intensely bright flashing
lights on the
popular TV program
. But why did the lights affect a few hundred
children while thousands of other viewers were unharmed? Brains may be
protected from epileptic seizures by rapidly produced molecules called
short RNAs, or microRNAs (miRs). MicroRNAs are a recently-discovered class
of non-coding RNAs that can prevent genes from expressing particular
proteins, high amounts of one
micro-RNA called miR-211
which the researchers predicted was involved. The levels of this molecule
could be gradually lowered by administering the antibiotic Doxycycline,
enabling tests of its potency to avoid epilepsy.
Regulation of PP2Cm expression by miRNA-204/211 and miRNA-22 in mouse and
is a database that manages both space and time information.
amount of elapsed time between two events.
Hermann von Helmholtz
was a German physician and physicist
who made significant contributions in several scientific fields.(August
31, 1821 – September 8, 1894).
was a German psychologist who
pioneered the experimental study of memory, and is known for his discovery
of the forgetting curve and the spacing effect. He was also the first
person to describe the learning curve. (January 24, 1850 – February 26,
was a German physiologist who did much research
into color vision, binocular perception and eye movements. He proposed
opponent color theory in 1892. (5 August 1834 – 26 January 1918).
is a type of neuron located near the inner surface (the
ganglion cell layer) of the retina of the eye. It receives visual
information from photoreceptors via two intermediate neuron types: bipolar
cells and retina amacrine cells. Retina amacrine cells, particularly
narrow field cells, are important for creating functional subunits within
the ganglion cell layer and making it so that ganglion cells can observe a
small dot moving a small distance. Retinal ganglion cells collectively
transmit image-forming and non-image forming visual information from the
retina in the form of action potential to several regions in the thalamus,
hypothalamus, and mesencephalon, or midbrain.
Natural Eye Vitamins
products that range from isolated nutrients, dietary
supplements and herbal products.
do effect eyesight.
If your blood sugar levels change quickly, it
can affect the shape of your eye's lens, causing blurry vision, which goes
back to normal after your blood sugar stabilizes.
Certain activities like reading
also effect eyesight
. Our eyes have focusing muscles which work to
change the power of the lenses in your eyes. Your eye muscles work hardest
focus on things close to you
. Since this isn't the muscles' natural
position, they spasm and fatigue after a time. When this happens, you may
notice that your distance
vision is blurry
. This is because the muscles have failed to relax and
are still focusing close, even though you are looking far away. Although
the symptom is blurry distance vision, the problem is too much close work.
Try to keep things at a slightly greater distance from your eyes to keep
your eyes as relaxed as possible.
I Can't Believe what I See
is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of
real perception. Hallucinations are vivid, substantial, and are perceived
to be located in external objective space. They are distinguishable from
these related phenomena: dreaming, which does not involve wakefulness;
illusion, which involves distorted or misinterpreted real perception;
imagery, which does not mimic real perception and is under voluntary
control; and pseudohallucination, which does not mimic real perception,
but is not under voluntary control. Hallucinations also differ from "delusional
", in which a correctly sensed and interpreted stimulus
(i.e., a real perception) is given some additional (and typically absurd)
significance. Hallucinations can occur in any
auditory, olfactory, gustatory, tactile, proprioceptive, equilibrioceptive,
nociceptive, thermoceptive and chronoceptive. A mild form of hallucination
is known as a disturbance, and can occur in most of the senses above.
These may be things like seeing movement in peripheral vision, or hearing
faint noises and/or voices. Auditory hallucinations are very common in
schizophrenia. They may be benevolent (telling the subject good things
about themselves) or malicious, cursing the subject etc.
of the malicious type are frequently heard, for example
people talking about the subject behind his/her back. Like auditory
hallucinations, the source of the visual counterpart can also be behind
the subject's back. Their visual counterpart is the feeling of being
looked or stared at, usually with malicious intent. Frequently, auditory
hallucinations and their visual counterpart are experienced by the subject
together. Hypnagogic hallucinations and hypnopompic hallucinations are
considered normal phenomena. Hypnagogic hallucinations can occur as one is
hypnopompic hallucinations occur when one is waking up. Hallucinations can
be associated with drug use (particularly deliriants), sleep deprivation,
psychosis, neurological disorders, and delirium tremens. The word
"hallucination" itself was introduced into the English language by the
17th century physician Sir Thomas Browne in 1646 from the derivation of
the Latin word alucinari meaning to wander in the mind
Hallucinations arise when the brain gives more weight to its
about the world
than to the sensory evidence it receives. Hallucinations occur when this
internal fact-checking fails, our senses
can’t always be trusted
, how can we separate illusion from
Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder
is a disorder
characterized by a continual presence of
commonly visual, that are reminiscent of those generated by the use of
Many of the characteristics of this disorder can be mistaken for anxiety
or panic related disorders by physicians. Previous use of hallucinogens by
the person is necessary, but not sufficient, for diagnosis of HPPD. For an
individual to be diagnosed with HPPD, the symptoms cannot be due to
another medical condition. HPPD is distinct from flashbacks by reason of
its relative permanence; while flashbacks are transient, HPPD is
is a psychological phenomenon in which an
individual has a sudden, usually powerful, re-experiencing of a past
experience or elements of a past experience. These experiences can be
happy, sad, exciting, or any other emotion one can consider. The term is
used particularly when the
is recalled involuntarily, and/or when it is so intense that
the person "relives" the experience, unable to fully recognize it as
memory and not something that is happening in "real time".
accompanying prominent hallucinations, thought disorder, mood disorder, or
flattening of affect
, which is a condition of reduced
in an individual. It
manifests as a failure to express feelings (affect display) either
verbally or non-verbally, especially when talking about issues that would
normally be expected to engage the emotions. Expressive
are rare and there is
little animation in facial
any thing which manifests itself. Phenomena are often, but not always,
understood as "things that appear" or "experiences" for a sentient being,
or in principle may be so.
are any observable events that result from the
interaction of light and matter. See also list of optical topics and
optics. A mirage is an example of an optical phenomenon.
is a naturally
occurring optical phenomenon in which
light rays are bent
a displaced image of distant objects or the sky. The word comes to English
via the French mirage, from the Latin mirari, meaning "to look at, to
wonder at". This is the same root as for "mirror" and "to admire". In
contrast to a hallucination, a mirage is a real optical phenomenon that
can be captured on camera, since light rays are actually refracted to form
the false image at the observer's location. What the image appears to
represent, however, is determined by the interpretive faculties of the
human mind. For example, inferior images on land are very easily mistaken
for the reflections from a small body of water. Mirages can be categorized
as "inferior" (meaning lower), "superior" (meaning higher) and "Fata
Morgana", one kind of superior mirage consisting of a series of unusually
elaborate, vertically stacked images, which form one rapidly changing
mirage.Beyond the Senses
is a non-specific term that refers to an image continuing to appear in
one's vision after the exposure to the original image has ceased. An
afterimage may be a normal phenomenon (physiological afterimage) or may be
pathological (palinopsia). Illusory palinopsia may be a pathological
exaggeration of physiological afterimages. The remainder of this article
refers to physiological afterimages. A common physiological afterimage is
the dim area that seems to float before one's eyes after briefly looking
into a light source, such as a camera flash. Afterimages are a common
symptom of visual snow.
Persistence of Vision
refers to the optical illusion that occurs when
visual perception of an object does not cease for some time after the rays
of light proceeding from it have ceased to enter the eye.
is a type of temporal illusion in which the
first impression following the introduction of a new event or task demand
to the brain appears to be extended in time. For example, chronostasis
temporarily occurs when fixating on a target stimulus, immediately
following a saccade (i.e., quick eye movement). This elicits an
overestimation in the temporal duration for which that target stimulus
(i.e., postsaccadic stimulus) was perceived. This effect can extend
apparent durations by up to 500 ms and is consistent with the idea that
the visual system models events prior to perception
People cognize and interpret information
to fit what they already believe, but what if you
by what you know and learned, and by
what you have experienced? Everyone should have the ability to
see things in at least two different ways. Seeing things from
top-down, and the bottom-up
. We know that our minds can run
on automatic, so we don't have to instruct our brains to think,
because the brain is always thinking, whether will tell it to or
not, we think even when we're
sleeping. But we have the ability to control our thinking, but
we have to exercise this ability everyday, if not, then
could get blurred and undefined. We also have our
, so what you see might not be what
others see, so what do you see?
not what you want to see
. This is
what I know from previous experiences. You also have to see as
if it were the first time seeing, and this is how you would
explain what you see is if you were seeing for the first time.
You can only see what your mind allows you to see, that is why
you must use the mind in a way that you're controlling what you
see by looking at details and asking questions to explain those details.
is a cylindrical map projection.
The Size of Things
motivated cognition is not a complete sentence. Having
information does not say anything until you specify the exact
information that you are referring too, and, have also confirmed
that everyone has understood this information accurately in the
same way in order to influence the correct actions that would
help solve this particular problem.
"You can have logic
long as you have two logics and two beliefs, one confirming the