Communication - Speaking Effectively - Listening Effectively
is the activity of
allowing access between
or places. Transmit
. Be in
; interchange information or ideas
Transfer from one place or period to another.
is a communication (usually brief) that is written or spoken or signaled
Being able to effectively Communicate is the most valuable skill in
every persons life. Without communication,
could not exist.
The skill and the privilege to communicate should never be taken for
granted, or misused. There is a lot to learn about communication because
it covers many different subjects and categories
. This is why
communication is so extremely important. It's literally connected to
everything that you do in your life. Effective communication will serve
you more then any other skill that you will acquire in your entire life. So
please do yourself a huge favor, Learn to communicate effectively and
efficiently, if not, then your life will be more of a struggle and you
will also be more vulnerable to misinformation
. If you learn this, then
you could learn anything that you ever wanted to learn. Language is the
gateway to all knowledge and information. Language is more then a tool and
more then the ultimate vehicle for transferring information and knowledge,
Language is power, Language is freedom, Language
, Language is
endless possibilities.Speaking Effectively
(Transferring Information)Learning Speech
(Learning to Speak)
"Every act of Communication is an act of
is the long-term
interaction between two or more individuals
in terms of the ease and comfort of communication.
"To say what you mean
what does that mean?"Reality
based on what you know, and how you
the particular experiences
that you have in Life
. The people that we are exposed to on TV, 90% of
what we see, is mostly entertainment or
. And hardly anyone is concerned about how underutilized our
is used. It's more of a toy then it is the incredible technology, a
technology that gives us incredible abilities to communicate. The adults
in our world really need to start taking our communication advancements
more seriously and use them more responsibly
, we are not children, we are
the adults. The TV is not going to educate you, it's either going to
entertaining you or manipulating you. So where does your knowledge of the
world come from? Not schools, because at the moment schools mostly teach
reading, writing and math, which are extremely important, but incredibly
inadequate. The transfer of information needs to be based on reality and
not fantasy. Kids watch and read more about
listen to intelligent people speaking. People dying and suffering is not a
fantasy. Everyone has imprisoned themselves
unknowingly. All because of
our inability to effectively communicate, which is something that we can
easily teach in schools. If there is one thing for you to remember about
how extremely important transferring information is, is that if life
cannot transfer important information, then life does not exist. Humans do
not exist. If a
cell dividing does not share it's information with the new cell, then that
cell will die
, and life would not exist. The transfer of information
is extremely important. So we need to take communication seriously, and
increase our reality based transmissions and limit the amount of fantasy
and propaganda transmissions. At this current time in 2016, most
transmissions are ineffective in delivering valuable knowledge and
information. We need to be more responsible and more aware. this transfer
of information is the core of who we are. Human species as a whole does
not want to take responsibility for the problems that we have. We have
unknowingly separated ourselves and distant ourselves from each other and
from our problems. Trying to pretend that these horrors don't exist
literally neutralizes our greatest strength and power, which is our
ability to work together as a
to accomplish any goal that we set our minds to, like protecting
and preserving all life on this planet. We have to come together and
utilize our combined intelligence
and utilize our combined power and strength in numbers. Pretending that we
are separate undermines our greatest strength and power.
Unity is everything
, your entire body
is a unity of microbes working together to sustain life, your life. Listen
to life, life is telling you how to live, and one way to live is being
able to work together with life. And since we are all part of life,
working together just makes sense. A lot of people already know how
beneficial working together is. So this is not foreign to us. But we need
to utilize this strength that we have, because if we don't, then everyone
on the planet is more vulnerable, less safe and a lot more weaker. We have
the technology and the abilities, now all we need is a plan. So if you are
reading this, what's your plan to become a better communicator?
Every human brain has a the capacity to
millions upon millions of memories
. So it would be a great idea to fill
your brain with the most valuable knowledge and information that the world
has to offer. This way you will be more intelligent then the previous
generation, and also have more abilities then the previous generation. You
will be the first humans on this planet to be known and confirmed as
intelligent life. This is a huge responsibility and will take a lot of
work. But being able to solve any problem is this world increases your
odds for a great life by 1,000 percent. This goes way beyond any utopian
narrow point of view. The future of this planet will be a lot more
beautiful then ever imagined. Our biggest problem then will be learning how do we
keep ourselves from smiling all the time?
"The biggest mistake
that any human can make is believing that they know enough."
can only be aware of things that you learned to be aware of, so you're
literally blind and you don't even know it"
should never feel worried or pressured because you don't
about a particular
subject, you should only be thankful that you're aware that you don't know
enough about a particular subject, at least now you can start learning."
So without wasting any
more of your time, it's time to start learning...
You need to learn
how to use Language
effectively and efficiently.
You need to learn how to
You need to learn how to carefully
is the act of conveying intended
one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood
signs and semiotic rules. The basic steps of communication are: The
forming of communicative intent
of the encoded message as a sequence of signals
using a specific channel or medium. Reception
of signals. Reconstruction
of the original message. Interpretation
and making sense of the
is a field of
that studies the technical process of
information and the process of
, which is the field dedicated to understanding how
humans communicate. Human communication is grounded in cooperative and
is an academic discipline that deals with processes
of human communication. There are three types of communication:
, involving listening
to a person to understand the meaning
of a message; written
, in which a message is
read; and nonverbal
involving observing a person and inferring meaning. The
discipline encompasses a range of topics, from face-to-face conversation
to mass media outlets
such as television
broadcasting. Communication studies also examines how messages are
interpreted through the political, cultural, economic, semiotic,
hermeneutic, and social dimensions of their contexts.
is a collection of individual communications
networks, transmission systems, relay stations, tributary stations, and
data terminal equipment (DTE) usually capable of interconnection and
interoperation to form an integrated whole. The components of a
communications system serve a common purpose, are technically compatible,
use common procedures, respond to controls, and operate in union.
Telecommunications is a method of communication (e.g., for sports
broadcasting, mass media, journalism, etc.). A communications subsystem is
a functional unit or operational assembly that is smaller than the larger
assembly under consideration.
as referred to
in communication systems,
, and electrical
is a function that "conveys information about the behavior
or attributes of some phenomenon". In the physical world, any quantity
exhibiting variation in time or variation in space (such as an image) is
potentially a signal that might provide information
physical system, or convey a message between observers, among other
possibilities. The IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing states that the
term "signal" includes audio, video, speech
, image, communication,
geophysical, sonar, radar, medical and musical signals or
. In nature, signals
can take the form of any action by one organism able to be perceived by
other organisms, ranging from the release of chemicals by plants to alert
nearby plants of the same type of a predator, to sounds or motions made by
animals to alert other animals of the presence of danger or of food.
Signaling occurs in organisms
all the way down to the cellular level,
with cell signaling
. Signaling theory, in evolutionary biology, proposes
that a substantial driver for evolution is the ability for animals to
communicate with each other by developing ways of signaling. In human
engineering, signals are typically provided by a
, and often the
original form of a signal is
to another form of energy using a
transducer. For example, a microphone
converts an acoustic signal to a voltage waveform, and a
does the reverse. The formal
study of the information content of signals is the field of
. The information
in a signal is usually accompanied by noise. The term noise usually means
an undesirable random disturbance, but is often extended to include
unwanted signals conflicting with the desired signal (such as crosstalk).
The prevention of noise is covered in part under the heading of signal
integrity. The separation of desired signals from a background is the
field of signal recovery, one branch of which is estimation theory, a
probabilistic approach to
. Engineering disciplines such as electrical engineering
have led the way in the design, study, and implementation of systems
involving transmission, storage, and manipulation of information. In the
latter half of the 20th century, electrical engineering itself separated
into several disciplines, specialising in the design and analysis of
systems that manipulate physical signals; electronic engineering and
computer engineering as examples; while design engineering developed to
deal with functional design of
that allow two or more
entities of a communications system to transmit information via any kind
of variation of a physical quantity. These are the rules or standard that
defines the syntax, semantics and synchronization of communication and
possible error recovery methods. Protocols
may be implemented by hardware,
software, or a combination of both. Communicating systems use well-defined
formats (protocol) for exchanging various messages. Each message has an
exact meaning intended to elicit a response from a range of possible
responses pre-determined for that particular situation. The specified
behavior is typically independent of how it is to be implemented.
Communications protocols have to be agreed upon by the parties involved.
To reach agreement, a protocol may be developed into a technical standard.
A programming language describes the same for computations, so there is a
close analogy between protocols and programming languages: protocols
are to communications what programming languages
are to computations.
is the transmission of signs, signals, messages,
writings, images and sounds
or intelligence of any nature by wire,
radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems
. Telecommunication occurs
when the exchange of information
between communication participants
includes the use of technology. It is transmitted either electrically over
physical media, such as cables, or via electromagnetic radiation Such
transmission paths are often divided into communication channels which
afford the advantages of multiplexing. The term is often used in its
plural form, telecommunications, because it involves many different
CommunicationHow Does a Telephone Work?
As you chat away, your phone converts your
voice into an electrical signal
, which is then transmitted as
and converted back into
sound by your friend's phone. A basic
therefore little more than a combined radio transmitter and a radio
receiver, quite similar to a walkie-talkie or CB radio.
refers either to a physical transmission medium
such as a wire, or to a logical connection over a multiplexed medium such
as a radio channel in telecommunications and
channel is used to convey an information signal, for example a digital bit
stream, from one or several senders (or transmitters) to one or several
receivers. A channel has a certain capacity for transmitting information,
often measured by its bandwidth in Hz or its data rate in bits per second.
is an umbrella term used in biology and more
in depth in biophysics and biochemistry
to identify different types of
communication methods between living cells. Some of the methods include
cell signaling among others. This process allows millions of cells to
communicate and work together to perform important bodily processes that
are necessary to survival. Both multicellular and unicellular organisms
heavily rely on cell-cell communication.Networks
- Communication Technologies
of Communication Studies
Early humans went from using
methods, to eventually having a
. And then we advanced to
. And now in the 21st century we have advanced
, which is an incredible advancement. We
can now for the first time communicate in more ways then any other time in human
history. The digital world changes everything.
is us mimicking the
. We will soon be connected to
everything on the planet. And we will soon have full
and full power of
our collaborative abilities
Now that the flow of knowledge and information has no limits. The human
race is about to embark on the most incredible adventure ever, the
adventures in learning.
Not only do we have millions of people with
don't have access to valuable knowledge and information, but the billions
of people who do have access are not communicating effectively or efficiently. So our
ability to communicate has advanced, just not our ability to
? There's a lot of room for improvements. Knowledge
is communication through a visual aid
and is described as the conveyance of ideas and information in forms that
can be read or looked upon. Visual communication in part or whole relies
on vision, and is primarily presented or expressed with two dimensional
images, it includes: signs, typography, drawing, graphic design
illustration, Industrial Design, Advertising,
and electronic resources. It also explores the idea that a visual message
accompanying text has a greater power to inform, educate, or persuade a
person or audience. Visual Tools
is a system of communication using
. Speech as a means of
communication cannot strictly be separated from the whole of human
communicative activity which includes the visual and the term 'language'
in relation to vision
is an extension of its use
to describe the perception, comprehension and production of
(body language) - Presentations
(charts and graphs)
is a means to convey scientific, engineering,
or other technical information. Individuals in a variety of contexts and
with varied professional credentials engage in technical communication.
Some individuals are designated as technical communicators or
. These individuals use a set of methods to research, document, and
present technical processes
or products. Technical communicators may
the information they capture into paper documents
, web pages,
computer-based training, digitally stored text, audio, video, and other
media. The Society for Technical Communication defines the field as any
form of communication that focuses on technical or specialized topics,
communicates specifically by using technology or provides
how to do something. More succinctly, the
Institute of Scientific and
defines technical communication as factual
communication, usually about products and services. The
Association for Technical Communication
briefly defines technical
communication as "the process of defining, creating and delivering
information products for the safe, efficient and effective use of products
(technical systems, software, services)". Whatever the definition of
technical communication, the overarching goal of the practice is to create
easily accessible information for a specific audience.
process can be divided into six broad steps:
Determine purpose and audience. Collect information.
Organize and outline
. Write the first draft. Revise and edit. Publish output.
is an exchange of information between two or more people. It is also an
area of study. Communication skills are developed and may be enhanced or
improved with increased knowledge and practice. During interpersonal
communication, there is message sending and message receiving. This can be
conducted using both direct and indirect methods. Successful interpersonal
communication is when the message senders and the message receivers
understand the message. Encompasses: speech communication, nonverbal
is a discipline that studies
communication across different
and social groups
or how culture affects communication. It is used to describe the wide
range of communication processes and problems that naturally appear within
an organization or social context made up of individuals from different
religious, social, ethnic, and educational backgrounds. Intercultural
communication is sometimes used synonymously with cross-cultural
communication. In this sense it seeks to understand how people from
different countries and cultures act, communicate and perceive the world
around them. Many people in intercultural business communication argue
that culture determines how individuals encode messages, what medium they
choose for transmitting them, and the way messages are interpreted.
is non-concurrent, remote communication
between people, including letters, email, newsgroups, Internet forums,
is the field dedicated to
understanding how humans communicate. Human communication is grounded in
cooperative and shared intentions.
is an academic discipline that
deals with processes of human communication. There are three types of
communication: verbal, involving listening to a person to understand the
meaning of a message; written, in which a message is read; and nonverbal
communication involving observing a person and inferring meaning. The
discipline encompasses a range of topics, from face-to-face conversation
to mass media outlets such as television broadcasting. Communication
studies also examines how messages are interpreted through the political,
cultural, economic, semiotic, hermeneutic, and social dimensions of their
Develop Good Communication Skills
Types of CommunicationCommunication
can mean either communicating a
concept, a process, or data that satisfies a long term strategic goal of
an organization by allowing facilitation of advanced planning, or
communicating over long distances usually using international
telecommunications or dedicated global network assets to coordinate
actions and activities of operationally significant commercial,
non-commercial and military business or combat and logistic subunits. It
can also mean the related function within an organization, which handles
internal and external communication processes. Strategic communication can
also be used for political warfare.Internal
Models of Communication
are conceptual models used to
explain the human communication process.
An information source, which
produces a message.
A transmitter, which encodes the message into
A channel, to which signals are adapted for transmission
receiver, which 'decodes' (reconstructs) the message from the signal.
destination, where the message arrives.
Shannon and Weaver argued that
there were three levels of problems for communication within this concept
The technical problem: how accurately can the message be transmitted?
The semantic problem: how precisely is the meaning 'conveyed'?
effectiveness problem: how effectively does the received meaning affect
Daniel Chandler critiques the transmission model by stating:
It assumes communicators are isolated individuals.
No allowance for
No allowance for differing interpretations.
allowance for unequal power relations.
is a communication model that states every
message has four facets. The matter layer contains statements which are
matter of fact like data and facts, which are part of the news. In the
self-revealing or self-disclosure the speaker - conscious or not intended
- tells something about himself, his motives, values, emotions etc. In the
Relationship-layer is expressed resp. received, how the sender gets along
with the receiver and what he thinks of him. The Appeal contains the
desire, advice, instruction and effects that the speaker is seeking for.
states there are four fundamental types of
discourse. Master, University, Hysteric and Analyst.
Discourse of the
Master – Struggle for mastery / domination / penetration. Based on Hegel's
Discourse of the University – Provision and
worship of "objective" knowledge — usually in the unacknowledged service
of some external master discourse.
Discourse of the Hysteric – Symptoms
embodying and revealing resistance to the prevailing master discourse.
Discourse of the Analyst – Deliberate subversion of the prevailing master
is a style of improvisation with or without
instrumental beats, in which lyrics are recited with no particular subject
or structure It is similar to other improvisational music, such as jazz (Myka
9 of Freestyle Fellowship describes it as being "like a jazz solo"), where
there is a lead instrumentalist acting as the improviser and the rest of
the band providing the beat. Improv/freestyles are improvised in this way.
is saying or doing something with little or no
preparation or forethought. Said or done without having been planned or
written in advance. Remark made spontaneously without prior preparation.
Done on the fly. Means at one's pleasure.
is an aspect of communication studies
which specializes in the study of communication in a sports setting. It
can encompass the study of interpersonal and organizational communication
(both verbal and non-verbal) between participants within a particular
sport (e.g. players, coaches, managers, referees, trainers and
physiotherapists, and governing bodies); communication between sports
participants, fans, and the media; and the way that sports are represented
and communicated in the media. Sports communication is something that
happens at all levels of ranging from kindergarten to the college level
and is not restricted to professionals. It happens on a constant basis and
works best with people that are willing to work collectively as a team. If
everyone is on board with positive thoughts and communication, it becomes
very dismantling to the person receiving the message. It is not only for
positive talk, though, because negative sports communication happens all
is a word that phonetically imitates, resembles
or suggests the sound that it describes.
are communications personnel responsible for
receiving and transmitting pure and reliable messages, tracking vehicles
and equipment, and recording other important information. A number of
organizations, including police and fire departments, emergency medical
services, motorcycle couriers, taxicab providers, trucking companies,
railroads, and public utility companies, use dispatchers to relay
information and coordinate their operations. Essentially, the dispatcher
is the "conductor" of the force, and is responsible for the direction of
all units within it.
is the long-distance transmission of textual or
symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical
exchange of an object bearing the message. Thus semaphore is a method of
telegraphy, whereas pigeon post is not. Telegraphy requires that the
method used for encoding the message be known to both sender and receiver.
Such methods are designed according to the limits of the signalling medium
used. The use of smoke signals, beacons, reflected light signals, and flag
semaphore signals are early examples. In the 19th century, the harnessing
of electricity led to the invention of electrical telegraphy. The advent
of radio in the early 20th century brought about radiotelegraphy and other
forms of wireless telegraphy. In the Internet age, telegraphic means
developed greatly in sophistication and ease of use, with natural language
interfaces that hide the underlying code, allowing such technologies as
electronic mail and instant messaging.
is a subfield of the larger
discipline of communication studies. Organizational communication, as a
field, is the consideration, analysis, and criticism of the role of
communication in organizational contexts. Its main function is to inform,
persuade and promote goodwill. The flow of communication could be either
formal or informal. Communication flowing through formal channels are
downward, horizontal and upward whereas communication through informal
channels are generally termed as grapevine.
Small Group Communication
is interpersonal communication
within groups of between 3 and 20 individuals. Groups generally work in a
context that is both relational and social. Quality communication such as
helping behaviors and information-sharing causes groups to be superior to
the average individual in terms of the quality of decisions and
effectiveness of decisions made or actions taken. However, quality
decision-making requires that members both identify with the group and
have an attitude of commitment to participation in interaction. reflection
has been defined as "a set of factors designed
to combat crises and to lessen the actual damages inflicted." Crisis
management should not merely be reactionary; it should also consist of
preventative measures and preparation in anticipation of potential crises.
Effective crisis management has the potential to greatly reduce the amount
of damage the organization receives as a result of the crisis, and may
even prevent an incident from ever developing into a crisis.
is the collective communication outlets or tools that
are used to store and deliver information or data. It is either associated
with communication media, or the specialized
mass media communication
businesses such as print media and the press,
photography, advertising, cinema, broadcasting (radio and television) and
is a discrete unit of communication intended by the
source for consumption by some recipient or group of recipients. A message
may be delivered by various means, including courier, telegraphy, carrier
pigeon and electronic bus. A message can be the content of a broadcast. An
interactive exchange of messages forms a conversation.
is to present reasons and
. Give evidence
of. Have an
argument about something. Give
evidence in support of an idea, action, or theory, typically
with the aim of persuading others to share one's view. exchange
or express diverging or opposite
, typically in a heated or
Anger ruins Arguments
Profanity ruins Communication
Proof of Evidence
Some people are like a unique puzzle
Some puzzles can not be solved
you approach it in the way that it was designed. Meaning, some people
communicate differently. Unless you modify your communication methods, you
will always struggle with communication with that particular person.
Some people don't know
which questions to ask
"It's ok to disagree with me, I can't force you to be right."
is a fact or assertion offered as
that something is true.
A contentious speech act; a dispute where there is strong
disagreement. A discussion
in which reasons are advanced for and
against some proposition or proposal. A course of reasoning
aimed at demonstrating a truth or falsehood; the methodical
process of logical reasoning
is the speech act of refuting by
offering a contrary contention or argument. Refuting is to prove to be
false or incorrect.
is a form of argument which attempts either to disprove a
statement by showing it inevitably leads to a
ridiculous, absurd, or impractical conclusion
, or to prove one by
showing that if it were not true
the result would be absurd or impossible.
Just Complaining is
not an ArgumentContentious
is something that is likely to cause controversy, or cause a dispute and
How To Argue With
Your Partner when we are confronted suddenly. Don't hurt back when feeling
unloved or misunderstood
You can make your argument seem more
appealing using rhetoric that invites an emotional response. Just stating
the facts may not be enough.
used to describe the guiding beliefs or ideals that characterize a
community, nation, or ideology.
the logic behind an argument, which tries to inform an audience using
logical arguments and supportive evidence.
represents an appeal to the emotions of the audience, and elicits feelings
that already reside in them. Pathos is a communication technique used most
often in rhetoric (where it is considered one of the three modes of
persuasion, alongside ethos and logos), and in literature, film and other
narrative art. Emotional appeal can be accomplished in a multitude of
ways: By a metaphor or storytelling, commonly known as a hook. By passion
in the delivery of the speech or writing, as determined by the audience.
Personal anecdote or short account of an incident.
Not the Whole Truth
What are the
Facts and Evidence
? What is the
current situation now? What is expected to happen in the future?
How do people feel?
is a process of thoughtfully weighing options, usually
prior to voting
. Deliberation emphasizes the use of
as opposed to
power-struggle, creativity, or dialog.
are generally made after deliberation through a vote
of those involved. In legal settings a
famously uses deliberation because it is
given specific options, like guilty or not guilty, along with information
and arguments to evaluate. In "deliberative democracy
", the aim is for
both elected officials and the general public to use deliberation rather
than power-struggle as the basis for their vote.
is a rhetorical device that juxtaposes potential future
outcomes to communicate support or opposition for a given action or
policy. In deliberative rhetoric, an argument is made using examples from
the past to predict future outcomes in order to illustrate that a given
policy or action will either be harmful or beneficial in the future.
rhetoric that deals with goodness, excellence, nobility,
shame, honor, dishonor, beauty, and matters of virtue and vice. The
"components" of virtue according to
"justice, courage, self-control, magnificence, magnanimity, liberality,
gentleness, practical and speculative wisdom" or "reason". Vice was the
"contrary" of virtue.
is a kind
of logical argument that applies
to arrive at a conclusion based on two or more
propositions that are asserted or assumed to be
is an ancient Greek treatise on the art of
, dating from the 4th century BC.
is a discussion
in which reasons are advanced for and against some
proposition or proposal. The formal presentation of a stated
proposition and the opposition to it (usually followed by a
). Argue with one another. Think about carefully; weigh.
pros and cons
of an issue.
is contention in argument; strife, dissension, quarrelling, controversy;
especially a formal discussion of subjects before a public assembly or
legislature, in Parliament or in any deliberative assembly.
is debating by
, or in public.
Chatham House Rule
is a system for holding debates and
discussion panels on controversial issues.
debate or discourse is a succinct statement designed to support
persuasively one side taken on an issue. Such statements can either be
free standing or created as retorts to the opposition's talking points and
are frequently used in public relations, particularly in areas heavy in
debate such as politics
The Great Debaters
debaters argue a topic of national importance.
is a type of one-on-one debate with a format that
emphasizes logic, ethical values, and philosophy.
is the interdisciplinary study of how conclusions can be reached through
logical reasoning; that is, claims based, soundly or not, on premises. It
includes the arts and sciences of civil debate, dialogue, conversation,
and persuasion. It studies rules of inference, logic, and procedural rules
in both artificial and real world settings. Argumentation includes debate
and negotiation which are concerned with reaching mutually acceptable
conclusions. It also encompasses eristic dialog, the branch of social
debate in which victory over an opponent is the primary goal. This art and
science is often the means by which people protect their beliefs or
self-interests in rational dialogue, in common parlance, and during the
process of arguing. Argumentation is used in law, for example in trials,
in preparing an argument to be presented to a court, and in testing the
validity of certain kinds of evidence. Also, argumentation scholars study
the post hoc rationalizations by which organizational actors try to
justify decisions they have made irrationally.
Evidence Based Argumentation
is a debate technique from 1982 by Ray Ransberger and Marshall Fritz in
which the speaker attempts to find
person they are trying to convince of their view. Once a person objects to
the speaker's ideas, the speaker employs the technique in three stages. 1)
Listen to the other person's objections. 2) Understand the other person's
objections. 3) Find a common
in the other person's objections and convince them your way is a
solution to the agreed problem.
is a discourse between two or more people holding different points of view
about a subject but wishing to establish the truth through reasoned
EBA Developing Evidence Based Arguments
is to force (a person or
animal) into a place or situation from which it is hard to escape.
Offer and Acceptance
Successful negotiation is not about getting to
yes, it's about mastering no and understanding what the path to an
agreement is. more little yeses you get, the more likely you are to say
yes to a big yes. "Well you want me to be successful don't you?" That's
pushing for a yes. The flipside question to that instead is, "Do you want
me to fail?" "That's right."
is a section of a composition or speech that
marks a temporary shift of subject; the digression ends when the writer or
speaker returns to the main topic. Digressions can be used intentionally
as a stylistic or rhetorical device.
is someone who, given a certain argument, takes a
position they do not necessarily agree with (or simply an alternative
position from the accepted norm), for the sake of debate or to explore the
is a person
who harasses and tries to disconcert others with questions, challenges, or
gibes. Hecklers are often known to shout disparaging comments at a
performance or event, or to interrupt set-piece speeches, with the intent
of disturbing performers and/or participants. Interrupts (a public
speaker) with derisive or aggressive comments or abuse
is an act of
showing displeasure for someone or something, generally an entertainer, by
loudly yelling boo! (and holding the "oo" sound) or making other noises of
disparagement, such as hissing. People may make hand signs at the
entertainer, such as the thumbs down sign. If spectators particularly
dislike the performance they may also accompany booing by throwing objects
(traditionally rotten fruit and vegetables) onstage, though the objects
may not be meant to physically hurt the performer.
is a person who sows discord on the Internet by starting arguments or
upsetting people, by posting inflammatory, extraneous, or off-topic
messages in an online community (such as a newsgroup, forum, chat room, or
blog) with the deliberate intent of provoking readers into an emotional
response or of otherwise disrupting normal on-topic discussion, often for
their own amusement.Critics
is an extended
(often interactive) dealing with some
particular topic. An exchange of
on some topic.
Avoiding Invalid Reasons
is a written
or spoken conversational exchange between two or more people, and a
literary and theatrical form that depicts such an exchange.
is a form of
communication between two or more people. Typically, it occurs in spoken
communication, as written exchanges are usually not referred to as
conversations. The development of conversational skills and etiquette is
an important part of socialization. The development of conversational
skills in a new language is a frequent focus of language teaching and
learning. Conversation analysis is a branch of sociology which studies the
structure and organization of human interaction, with a more specific
focus on conversational interaction.
I noticed throughout my life
that hardly anyone ever has a meaningful or deep
. No one takes the time to ask
help them to truly understand someone. There's no real
People just see the surface and
pretend that they know
what's underneath it all. There for there is
very little learning going on. It's easy to overlook things when you don't
know they exist. To assume
live a lie
is a general term for a number of
approaches to analyze written, vocal, or sign language use, or any
significant semiotic event.
denotes written and spoken communications
such as: In semantics and discourse analysis: Discourse is a conceptual
generalization of conversation within each modality and context of
communication. The totality of codified language (vocabulary) used in a
given field of intellectual enquiry and of social practice, such as legal
discourse, medical discourse, religious discourse, et cetera. In the work
of Michel Foucault, and that of the social theoreticians he inspired:
discourse describes "an entity of sequences, of signs, in that they are
enouncements (énoncés)", statements in conversation.
is a discourse between two or more
people holding different points of view about a subject but wishing to
establish the truth through reasoned arguments.
is a form of cooperative argumentative
dialogue between individuals, based on asking and answering questions to
stimulate critical thinking and to draw out ideas and underlying
presumptions. It is a dialectical method, often involving a discussion in
which the defense of one point of view is questioned; one participant may
lead another to contradict themselves in some way, thus weakening the
Listening - Hearing accurately when other People Speak
Try to quite your
or inner voice so that you are truly
listening and not just waiting to speak. Keep
. Give full Attention
and correctly hear
and understand someone's messages. Sometimes it's hard when someone's
talking and you have a question to ask, but you want to be
polite and wait until a person finishes speaking. And then you
have to decide if the question that you want to ask is
appropriate at this time? Because you first want to acknowledge
that you heard the person correctly before you ask questions
that might lead in a different direction. Sometimes hold your
questions for another time. Have a
. Do not create resistance in the
listener. It's hard to listen to things that you don't understand. But
don't pretend that you understand the subject. Tell the person that you're
not sure that you understand them completely, but you're definitely
interested in what they're saying.
is a communication technique used in counseling,
training, and conflict resolution. It requires that the listener fully
concentrate, understand, respond and then remember what is being said.
This is opposed to reflective listening where the listener repeats back to
the speaker what they have just heard to confirm understanding of both
is a communication strategy involving
two key steps: seeking to understand a speaker's idea, then offering the
idea back to the speaker, to confirm the idea has been understood
correctly. It attempts to "reconstruct what the client is thinking and
feeling and to relay this understanding back to the client". Reflective
listening is a more specific strategy than the more general methods of
Focusing upon the conversation by reducing or
eliminating any kind of distraction.
Genuinely embracing the speaker’s
perspective without necessarily agreeing with it. By engaging in a
non-judgmental and empathetic approach, listeners encourage the others to
the mood of the speaker, reflecting the
emotional state with words and nonverbal communication. This requires the
listener to quiet his mind and focus fully upon the mood of the speaker.
This mood will become apparent not just in the words used but in the tone
of voice, posture and other nonverbal cues given by the speaker. The
listener will look for congruence between words and mood.
what the speaker said, using the speaker’s own words rather than merely
paraphrasing words and phrases, thereby mirroring the essential concept of
Responding to the speaker's specific point, without
digressing to other subjects.
Repeating the procedure for each subject,
and switching the roles of speaker and listener, if necessary.
the reflective listening approach, both client and therapist embrace the
technique of thoughtful silence, rather than to engage in idle chatter.
"Listen to understand, just don't listen in order to give a reply"
refers to other-oriented emotions elicited by and
congruent with the perceived welfare of someone in need. These
other-oriented emotions include feelings of tenderness, sympathy,
compassion, soft-heartedness, and the like. Empathic concern is often and
wrongly confused with Empathy
To empathize is to respond to another's perceived emotional state by
experiencing feeling of a similar sort. Empathic concern or sympathy not
only include empathizing, but also entails having a positive regard or a
non-fleeting concern for the other person. Listening Skills: Patients, alarm
fatigue, cry wolf, confirm listening.
"You Were Born With Two Ears And One Mouth For A Reason,
We have two ears and one mouth so that we can listen twice as much as we
"If we were meant to talk more than listen, we would have
two mouths and one ear."
(1835 - 1910)
We can listen to
500 words a minute, but only speak 250 words a minute.
Julian Treasure 5 ways to Listen Better
Directed Listening and Thinking Activity
Silence is Golden
is to hear with intention. Pay close
attention to; give heed to. You
have to learn how to listen.
is a skill.
You can't hear
something that you have never learned how to listen for.
Being able to truly listen to someone takes
and knowing what to listen
for, by knowing the person, and by knowing the different ways that people
use to communicate.
Brain mechanisms of Pitch Perception.
(the rise and fall of the voice in speaking).
To emphasize a word, we briefly raise our pitch
this alone can change the meaning of a sentence. Tang et al. performed
high-density brain recordings on clinically monitored neurosurgical
patients. They discovered that intonational pitch
is represented by a
highly specialized and dedicated neural population in the auditory cortex.
Discrete cortical sites extracted intonational information in real time
from the speech signal. These sites were overlapping with, but
functionally independent from, sites that encode other critical aspects of
, such as the phonemes and information about the speaker.
Speakers of all human languages regularly use intonational pitch to convey
, such as to emphasize a particular word. Listeners
extract pitch movements from speech and evaluate the shape of intonation
contours independent of each speaker’s pitch range. We used high-density electrocorticography to record neural population activity directly from
the brain surface while participants listened to sentences that varied in
intonational pitch contour, phonetic content, and speaker. Cortical
activity at single electrodes over the human superior temporal gyrus
selectively represented intonation contours. These electrodes were
intermixed with, yet functionally distinct from, sites that encoded
different information about phonetic features or speaker identity.
Furthermore, the representation of intonation contours directly reflected
the encoding of speaker-normalized
relative pitch but not absolute
Know the Difference between
is to perceive (sound) via the auditory sense.
Get to know or become aware of, usually accidentally. Listen and
Receive a communication from someone. Examine or hear (evidence
or a case) by judicial process.
Expresses enthusiastic agreement. (Discover,
Learn, Notice, Comprehend)
"We listen to obtain
information. We listen to understand. We listen for enjoyment. We listen
Analyze Information Accurately
1. Stop Talking
Don't talk, listen.
Limit your own
talking. You can’t talk and listen at the same time. If you are
thinking about what you are going to say next, then you're not
listening. Don’t argue mentally. Don’t allow yourself to become
annoyed or irritated with anything that is said. Try agreeing with points
to see if you can understand the speaker’s perspective better.
Don’t jump to conclusions. Avoid making unwarranted assumptions
about what is going to be said. Don’t mentally try to complete
the other person’s sentences. Listen and learn.
When somebody else is talking, listen to what
they are saying, do not interrupt, or talk over them or finish
their sentences for them. Stop, just listen.
Don’t interrupt or change the subject. A pause, even a long
pause, doesn’t always mean that the speaker has finished saying
everything that he or she has to say. When the other
person has finished talking, then you may need to clarify to ensure
you have received their message accurately.
2. Prepare Yourself to Listen
Prepare in advance. Remarks and questions prepared in advance,
when possible, free your mind for listening.
Relax. Focus on the speaker. Put other things out of mind.
Turn off your own worries. Turning off and tuning in aren’t
always easy, but they are important. Personal problems or
worries not connected with the subject at hand form a kind of
internal "static" that can blank out the real message that you
are tuning in. The
human mind is easily distracted by other thoughts – what’s for
lunch, what time do I need to leave to catch my train, is it
going to rain – try to put other thoughts out of mind and
concentrate on the messages that are being communicated.
Concentrate on what you are hearing. Focus your mind on what the
speaker is saying. Practice shutting out outside distractions
3. Put the Speaker at Ease
Help the speaker to feel free to speak. Remember their needs and
concerns. Nod or use other gestures or words to encourage them
to continue. Maintain eye contact but don’t stare – show you are
listening and understanding what is being said.
React to ideas, not the person. Don’t allow irritation to rise
from things said, or from mannerisms. Try not to respond to
these distractions. Base your response on principles, not
4. Remove Distractions
Focus on what is being said: don’t doodle, shuffle papers, look
out the window, pick your fingernails or similar. Avoid
unnecessary interruptions. These behaviors disrupt the listening
process and send messages to the speaker that you are bored or
Consider taking notes. In some settings, taking notes is
appropriate and will help you remember important points. Be
selective. Trying to take notes on everything said can result in
being left far behind or in retaining irrelevant information.
Try to understand the other person’s point of view. Look at
issues from their perspective. Let go of preconceived ideas. By
having an open mind we can more fully empathize with the
speaker. If the speaker says something that you disagree with
then wait and construct an argument to counter what is said but
keep an open mind to the views and opinions of others.
6. Be Patient
A pause, even a long pause, does not necessarily mean that the
speaker has finished. Be patient and let the speaker continue in
their own time, sometimes it takes time to formulate what to say
and how to say it. Never interrupt or finish a sentence for
Listen for ideas, not just words. You want to get the whole
picture, not just isolated bits and pieces. Listen for key
Use interjections to punctuate your listening. An occasional
"Yes" or "I see" shows you are still with the speaker. However,
wait until the speaker has finished his or her comment, and
don’t overdo or use interjections as meaningless comments.
7. Avoid Personal Prejudice
Try to be impartial. Don't become irritated and don't let the
person’s habits or mannerisms distract you from what they are
really saying. Everybody has a different way of speaking - some
people are for example more nervous or shy than others, some
have regional accents or make excessive arm movements, some
people like to pace whilst talking - others like to sit still.
Focus on what is being said and try to ignore styles of
8. Listen to the Tone
Volume and tone both add to what someone is saying. A good
speaker will use both volume and tone to their advantage to keep
an audience attentive; everybody will use pitch, tone and volume
of voice in certain situations – let these help you to
understand the emphasis of what is being said.
9. Listen for Ideas – Not Just Words
You need to get the whole picture, not just isolated bits and
pieces. Maybe one of the most difficult aspects of listening is
the ability to link together pieces of information to reveal the
ideas of others. With proper concentration, letting go of
distractions, and focus this
10. Wait and Watch for Non-Verbal Communication
Gestures, facial expressions, and eye-movements can all be
important. We don’t just listen with our ears but also with our eyes –
watch and pick up the additional information being transmitted via
Skills you Need
When listening, asking
a good question tells the speaker the listener has not only heard what was
said, but that they comprehended it well enough to want additional
information. Good listening was consistently seen as a two-way dialog.
It's good to Restate issues to confirm that their understanding is
correct. Good listeners make the conversation a positive experience for
the other party. Good listening is characterized by the creation of a safe
environment in which issues and differences could be discussed openly. A
good listener increasingly understands the other person’s emotions and
feelings about the topic at hand, and identifies and acknowledges them.
The listener empathizes with and validates those feelings in a supportive,
nonjudgmental way. Good listeners never highjack the conversation so that
they or their issues become the subject of the discussion. 80% of what we
communicate comes from
Listening is the
ability to accurately receive and interpret messages in the
Listening is key to all effective communication, without the
ability to listen effectively messages are easily misunderstood
– communication breaks down and the sender of the message can
easily become frustrated or irritated.
A good listener will
listen not only to what is being said, but also to what is left
unsaid or only partially said.
Effective listening involves observing body language and
noticing inconsistencies between verbal and non-verbal messages.
For example, if someone tells you that they are happy with their
life but through gritted teeth or with tears filling their eyes,
you should consider that the verbal and non-verbal messages are
in conflict, they maybe don't mean what they say.
for Developing Listening Skills / Language learning depends on listening.
Listening provides the aural input that serves as the basis for
language acquisition and enables learners to interact in spoken
Effective language instructors show students how
they can adjust their listening behavior to deal with a variety of
situations, types of input, and listening purposes. They help students
develop a set of listening strategies and match appropriate strategies to
each listening situation.
Listening strategies are techniques or
activities that contribute directly to the comprehension and recall of
listening input. Listening strategies can be classified by how the
listener processes the input.
Top-down strategies are listener
based; the listener taps into background knowledge of the topic, the
situation or context, the type of text, and the language. This background
knowledge activates a set of expectations that help the listener to
interpret what is heard and anticipate what will come next. Top-down
Listening for the main idea
Bottom-up strategies are text
based; the listener relies on the language in the message, that is, the
combination of sounds, words, and grammar that creates meaning. Bottom-up
Listening for specific details
Recognizing word-order patterns
also use metacognitive strategies to plan, monitor, and evaluate their
They plan by deciding which listening strategies will serve
best in a particular situation.
They monitor their comprehension and
the effectiveness of the selected strategies.
They evaluate by
determining whether they have achieved their listening comprehension goals
and whether the combination of listening strategies selected was an
Listening for Meaning
To extract meaning from a
listening text, students need to follow four basic steps:
the purpose for listening. Activate background knowledge of the topic in
order to predict or anticipate content and identify appropriate listening
Attend to the parts of the listening input that are
relevant to the identified purpose and ignore the rest. This selectivity
enables students to focus on specific items in the input and reduces the
amount of information they have to hold in short-term memory in order to
Select top-down and bottom-up strategies that are
appropriate to the listening task and use them flexibly and interactively.
Students' comprehension improves and their confidence increases when they
use top-down and bottom-up strategies simultaneously to construct meaning.
Check comprehension while listening and when the listening task is over.
Monitoring comprehension helps students detect inconsistencies and
comprehension failures, directing them to use alternate strategies.
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association
Auditory Neuroscience Laboratory
Listening Training and Auditory Integration
AIT - Auditory Integration Training
very little empirical evidence
regarding this assertion.
Academy of Audiology
Speech Pathology Services
How to Listen when
others are Speaking
Learning to Speak - Speech
is the vocalized form of communication based upon the
syntactic combination of lexicals
and names that are drawn from very large (usually about 1,000 different
. Each spoken
word is created out of the phonetic combination of a limited set of vowel
and consonant speech sound units. These vocabularies, the syntax which
structures them, and their set of speech sound units differ, creating the
existence of many thousands of different types of mutually unintelligible
. Most human speakers are able to communicate in two or
more of them, hence being polyglots
. The vocal abilities that enable humans
to produce speech also provide humans with the ability to
is a word formed by analogy
. The purpose is to draw attention to the neglect of oral
skills in education.
Speech and Language Pathology
is a field of expertise
practiced by a clinician known as a speech-language pathologist (SLP),
also called speech and language therapist, or speech therapist, who
specializes in the evaluation and treatment of communication disorders,
cognition, voice disorders, and swallowing disorders. A common
misconception is that speech-language pathology is restricted to
correcting pronunciation difficulties, such as helping English speaking
individuals enunciate their "s" and "r" sounds, and helping people who
stutter to speak more fluently. In fact, speech-language pathology is
concerned with a broad scope of speech, language, swallowing, and voice
issues involving communication, some of which are: Word-finding issues,
either as a result of a specific language problem such as a language delay
or a more general issue such as dementia. Social communication
difficulties involving how people communicate ideas with others
(pragmatics). Structural language impairments, including difficulties
creating sentences that are grammatical (syntax) and meaningful
(semantics). Literacy impairments (reading and writing) related to the
letter-to-sound relationship (phonics), the word-to-meaning relationship
(semantics), and understanding the ideas presented in a text (reading
comprehension). Voice difficulties, such as a
, a voice that is too
soft, or other voice difficulties that negatively impact a person's social
or professional performance. Cognitive impairments (e.g., attention,
memory, executive function) to the extent that they interfere with
communication. The components of speech production include: phonation
(producing sound); resonance; fluency; Intonation, Pitch variance; Voice
(including aeromechanical components of respiration) The components of
language include: phonology (manipulating sound according to the rules of
a language); Morphology (understanding and using minimal units of
meaning); syntax (constructing sentences according to languages' grammar
rules); semantics (interpreting signs or symbols of communication to
construct meaning); pragmatics (social aspects of communication).
Primary pediatric speech and language disorders include receptive and
expressive language disorders, speech sound disorders, childhood apraxia
of speech, stuttering, and language-based learning disabilities.
Swallowing disorders include difficulties in any system of the swallowing
process (i.e. oral, pharyngeal, esophageal), as well as functional
dysphagia and feeding disorders. Swallowing disorders can occur at any age
and can stem from multiple causes.
Babies first Words
(effects on children)
Learning a New
is a region in the frontal lobe
of the dominant hemisphere (usually the left) of the hominid brain with
functions linked to speech production.
Inferior Frontal Gyrus
is also extremely important for language
comprehension and production due to the fact that most language processing
takes place in the left hemisphere
. Speech takes both sides of the
is the vocalized form of communication
based upon the syntactic combination of lexicals and names that are drawn
from very large (usually about 1,000 different words)
vocabularies. Each spoken word is created out of the phonetic combination
of a limited set of vowel and consonant speech sound units (phonemes).
These vocabularies, the syntax which structures them, and their sets of
speech sound units differ, creating many thousands of different, and
mutually unintelligible, human languages. Most human speakers are able to
communicate in two or more of them, hence being polyglots. The vocal
abilities that enable humans to produce speech also enable them to
is the study of speech signals and the processing
methods of these signals. The signals are usually processed in a digital
representation, so speech processing can be regarded as a special case of
digital signal processing
, applied to
speech signal. Aspects of speech processing includes the acquisition,
manipulation, storage, transfer and output of speech signals. The input is
called speech recognition and the output is called speech synthesis.
is the ability to convey wants, needs, thoughts, and ideas meaningfully
using appropriate syntactic, pragmatic, semantic, and phonological
language structures. Oral expression should NOT be confused with reading
aloud or reading fluently.
is the use of pitch
in language to distinguish lexical
or grammatical meaning
– that is, to
distinguish or to inflect words. All verbal languages use pitch to
and other paralinguistic information and to convey emphasis,
contrast, and other such features in what is called intonation, but not
all languages use tones to distinguish words or their inflections,
analogously to consonants and vowels. Languages that do have this feature
are called tonal languages; the distinctive tone patterns of such a
language are sometimes called tonemes, by analogy with phoneme. Tonal
languages are extremely common in Africa, East Asia, and Central America,
but rare elsewhere in Asia and in Europe; as many as seventy percent of
world languages may be tonal.
is a branch of
that comprises the
study of the sounds
of human speech, or—in
the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign. It is concerned
with the physical properties of speech sounds or signs (phones): their
physiological production, acoustic properties, auditory perception, and
neurophysiological status. Phonology, on the other hand, is concerned with
the abstract, grammatical characterization of systems of sounds or signs.
The field of phonetics is a multilayered subject of linguistics that
focuses on speech. In the case of oral languages there are three basic
areas of study:Articulatory phonetics:
the study of the production of
speech sounds by the articulatory and vocal tract by the speaker.
the study of the physical transmission of speech
sounds from the speaker to the listener. Auditory phonetics:
of the reception and perception of speech sounds by the listener.
areas are inter-connected through the common mechanism of sound, such as
wavelength (pitch), amplitude, and
Phonetics – The Sound of American English
Flash Animation Project: University of Iowa
is a branch of
concerned with the
systematic organization of sounds in languages.
Motor Learning and Control
UCLA Bureau of Glottal Affairs
are consonants using the glottis as their primary
is the complete or partial closure of the glottis
during the articulation of another sound.
is defined as
the opening between the vocal folds
International Speech Communication Association
Using Praat for
Sauce Program for Voice Analysis
Expressive Synthetic Speech Resource
is the process by which the sounds of
language are heard, interpreted and understood. The study of speech
perception is closely linked to the fields of phonology and phonetics in
linguistics and cognitive psychology and perception in psychology.
Research in speech perception seeks to understand how human listeners
recognize speech sounds and use this information to understand spoken
language. Speech perception research has applications in building computer
systems that can recognize speech, in improving speech recognition for
hearing- and language-impaired listeners, and in foreign-language
One area of the brain
is for perceiving speech, and another area of the brain is for
is any disorder that affects an
individual's ability to comprehend, detect, or apply language and speech
to engage in discourse effectively with others. The delays and disorders
can range from simple sound substitution to the inability to understand or
use one's native language.
is characterized by trouble with reading despite
normal intelligence. Different people are affected to varying degrees.
Problems may include difficulties in spelling words, reading quickly,
writing words, "sounding out" words in the head, pronouncing words when
reading aloud and understanding what one reads. Often these difficulties
are first noticed at school. When someone who previously could read loses
their ability, it is known as alexia. The difficulties are involuntary and
people with this disorder have a normal desire to learn.
is a branch of science that studies
, balance, and related disorders. Its
practitioners, who treat those with hearing loss and proactively prevent
related damage are audiologists. Employing various testing strategies
(e.g. hearing tests, otoacoustic emission measurements,
videonystagmography, and electrophysiologic tests), audiology aims to
determine whether someone can hear within the normal range, and if not,
which portions of hearing (high, middle, or low frequencies) are affected,
to what degree, and where the lesion causing the hearing loss is found
(outer ear, middle ear, inner ear, auditory nerve and/or central nervous
system). If an audiologist determines that a hearing loss or vestibular
abnormality is present he or she will provide recommendations to a patient
as to what options (e.g. hearing aid, cochlear implants, appropriate
medical referrals) may be of assistance. In addition to testing hearing,
audiologists can also work with a wide range of clientele in
rehabilitation (individuals with tinnitus, auditory processing disorders,
cochlear implant users and/or hearing aid users), from pediatric
populations to veterans and may perform assessment of tinnitus and the
Medium of instruction
is a language used in teaching. It may
or may not be the official language of the country or territory. If the
first language of students is different from the official language, it may
be used as the medium of instruction for part or all of schooling.
Bilingual or multilingual education may involve the use of more than one
language of instruction. UNESCO considers that "providing education in a
child's mother tongue is indeed a critical issue".
Visual Processing Disorders
refers to a reduced ability to
make sense of information taken in through the
or stammering, is a speech disorder in which the
flow of speech is disrupted by involuntary repetitions and prolongations
of sounds, syllables, words or phrases as well as involuntary silent
pauses or blocks in which the person who stutters is unable to produce
sounds. The term stuttering is most commonly associated with involuntary
sound repetition, but it also encompasses the abnormal hesitation or
pausing before speech, referred to by people who stutter as blocks, and
the prolongation of certain sounds, usually vowels or semivowels.
Stammering Lidcombe Program
Singing and Stuttering
Primary Progressive Aphasia
is a neurological syndrome in
which language capabilities slowly and progressively become
impaired while other mental functions remain intact.
is a combination of a speech and language disorder
that affects about 1 million individuals within
, also known as Wernicke’s aphasia, fluent
aphasia, or sensory aphasia, is a type of aphasia in which an
individual is unable to understand language in its written or
is the configuration and interaction of the
articulators (speech organs such as the tongue, lips, and palate) when
making a speech sound.
Place of Articulation
of a consonant is the point of contact where an obstruction occurs in the
vocal tract between an articulatory gesture, an active articulator
(typically some part of the tongue), and a passive location (typically
some part of the roof of the mouth). Along with the manner of articulation
and the phonation, it gives the consonant its distinctive sound.
is the set of rules, principles, and processes that
govern the structure of sentences in a given language, specifically word
order. The term syntax is also used to refer to the study of such
principles and processes. The goal of many syntacticians is to discover
the syntactic rules common to all languages.
is primarily the linguistic, and also
philosophical, study of meaning—in language, programming languages, formal
logics, and semiotics. It focuses on the relationship between
signifiers—like words, phrases, signs, and symbols—and what they stand
for, their denotation.
is a subfield of linguistic semantics. The units
of analysis in lexical semantics are lexical units which include not only
words but also sub-words or sub-units such as affixes and even compound
words and phrases. Lexical units make up the catalogue of words in a
language, the lexicon. Lexical semantics looks at how the meaning of the
lexical units correlates with the structure of the language or syntax.
This is referred to as syntax-semantic interface.The study of lexical
semantics looks at: The classification and decomposition of lexical items.
The differences and similarities in lexical semantic structure
cross-linguistically. The relationship of lexical meaning to sentence
meaning and syntax. Lexical units, also referred to as syntactic atoms,
can stand alone such as in the case of root words or parts of compound
words or they necessarily attach to other units such as prefixes and
suffixes do. The former are called free morphemes and the latter bound
morphemes. They fall into a narrow range of meanings (semantic fields) and
can combine with each other to generate new meanings.
may be any group of words, often carrying a special
idiomatic meaning; in this sense it is roughly synonymous with expression.
In linguistic analysis, a phrase is a group of words (or possibly a single
word) that functions as a constituent in the syntax of a sentence, a
single unit within a grammatical hierarchy. A phrase typically appears
within a clause, but it is possible also for a phrase to be a clause or to
contain a clause within it.
is a way of pronunciation particular to a speaker or
group of speakers.
is the process of identifying the
boundaries between words, syllables, or phonemes in spoken natural
languages. The term applies both to the mental processes used by humans,
and to artificial processes of natural language processing.
is the way a word or a language is spoken, or
the manner in which someone utters a word. If one is said to have "correct
pronunciation", then it refers to both within a particular dialect. A word
can be spoken in different ways by various individuals or groups,
depending on many factors, such as: the duration of the cultural exposure
of their childhood, the location of their current residence, speech or
voice disorders, their ethnic group, their social class, or their
How To Say
Tongue Twister Exercises
Rhetoric and Composition Parts of
Dynamic Information Processing
Measures in Audiovisual Speech Perception
Verbal Fluency Test
are a kind of psychological test in
which participants have to say as many words as possible from a category
in a given time (usually 60 seconds). This category can be semantic, such
as animals or fruits, or phonemic, such as words that begin with letter p.
The semantic fluency test is sometimes described as the category fluency
test or simply as "freelisting". The COWAT (Controlled oral word
association test) is the most employed phonetic variant. Although the most
common performance measure is the total number of words, other analyses
such as number of repetitions, number and length of clusters of words from
the same semantic or phonetic subcategory, or number of switches to other
categories can be carried out.Reticence in Speaking
the trait of being uncommunicative; not volunteering anything more than
seeks to explain two related
issues: The process which enables oral poets to improvise poetry; and why
orally improvised poetry has the characteristics it does.
Fran Capo is world's fastest talking
female clocked at 603.32 words in 54.2 seconds. That’s 11 words
is a rhythmic repetition of numbers and
"filler words" spoken by auctioneers in the process of conducting an
auction. The chant consists of at least the current price and the asking
price to outbid. Auctioneers typically develop their own style, and
competitions are held to judge them. Outside of auctions, the chant has
been the subject of music and used in commercials and film.
to Talk Faster
is a speech and communication disorder
characterized by a rapid rate of speech, erratic rhythm, and poor syntax
or grammar, making speech difficult to understand.
Pressure of Speech
is a tendency to speak rapidly and
frenziedly, as if motivated by an urgency not apparent to the listener.
The speech produced, sometimes called pressured speech, is difficult to
interrupt. It may be too fast, or too tangential for the listener to
understand. It is an example of cluttered speech. It can be unrelenting,
loud and without pauses.
Talking - Speaking Effectively
that fail to specify your message. If you give a
clear example of what you're trying to say, then people will
have an easier time understanding you, and they might even be
able to answer your comment more accurately, and correctly.
Directly to Someone versus Speaking Indirectly to Someone
"We have made
our ability to communicate more complicated then it needs to be."
Direct Communication versus Indirect Communication. Meanings
Knowing when and
why to be direct is the key to effective communication. Knowing when to
give subtle hints, Knowing when to talk around a subject. Knowing when to
give under-the-surface meaning versus implicit meaning. It's good to Speak
directly too the person, not indirectly. Don't beat around the bush, speak to someone one and not at someone.
Avoid blunt comments. Avoiding insults may be seen as more important
than providing honest feedback
attention to nonverbal behaviors. In particular, a discrepancy between
nonverbal behaviors and the words used by an indirect speaker can indicate
that the words aren’t accurate. Recognize that, for indirect
communicators, it’s “always easier to agree than to disagree”. Sometimes it's good to use open-ended, non-leading questions. Avoid
phrasing a question so that the answer may be perceived as insulting to
someone (for example, may be seen as criticizing someone).
indirect speakers when communicating with direct speakers include:
Recognize that your subtle messages may not be perceived in the way you
expect or may not be perceived at all. Accept that direct communicators
respect direct speech. Politeness can sometimes make the message less affective.
tend to say what they think, and Indirect communicators seek
to avoid conflict, tension and uncomfortable situations. We all use indirect
communication strategies at times and in certain circumstances – we mean
more than we say, and we gather meaning from others beyond the words they
use. Try not to use these ignorant excuses
when explaining and communicating
...Tell it like it is. Let the
facts speak for themselves. If you don't have anything nice to say,
don't say anything. Tell someone what you think they want to hear. The
squeaky wheel gets the grease. The nail that sticks out gets hammered back
in. Honesty is the best policy. Being polite is more important than
. It's okay to say no. Avoid
saying no; say “maybe” or “possibly,” even if you mean “no.” The truth is
more important than sparing someone’s feelings. Don’t beat around the
bush. If the truth might hurt, soften it. Say what you mean and mean what
you say. Read between the lines. Take communication at face value. Handle
communication to save face. Time is money. Get to the point. Small talk
before business is important. It’s okay to disagree with your boss at a
meeting. Criticism of others, especially people with more authority,
should be unspoken or careful and veiled.
Cultural Dimension: direct versus indirect communication style
"You can create the perfect message,
but the understanding depends on the skill of the receiver to
correctly decipher it."
is the act of speaking clearly and concisely.
The opposite of good enunciation is mumbling or slurring.
Pronunciation is a
is to pronounce sounds of words correctly.
"Lets be Frank" is a directness in manner or speech; without subtlety
or evasion. The quality of being honest and straightforward in attitude
and speech. Giving an answer that is short and precise.
is declaring one's
conversational intent and inviting consent from one's
prospective conversation partner.
sufficient, uninterrupted time for talking.
Have a Meaningful Conversation
the flow of information back and
forth between partners in a conversation by alternating roles of
speaker and listener.
is the beauty and persuasion in speech. Powerful and effective
Don't talk to fill pauses, or respond to statements in a
Whole Body Listening
and evaluation until you can see things from
You Don't Know Everything
Avoid making distracting gestures and maintain an appropriate
distance and posture.
Think like the person to whom you are speaking
. His or her
problems and needs are important. You’ll understand and retain
them better if you keep his or her point of view.
Ask clarification questions. If you don’t understand something,
or if you feel you may have missed a point, clear it up now
before it embarrasses you later.
occurs when two people look at each other's eyes
at the same time. In human beings, eye contact is a form of nonverbal
communication and is thought to have a large influence on social behavior.
is the process of measuring either the point of
gaze (where one is looking) or the motion of an eye relative to the head.
An eye tracker is a device for measuring eye positions and eye movement.
Eye trackers are used in research on the visual system, in psychology, in
psycholinguistics, marketing, as an input device for human-computer
interaction, and in product design. There are a number of methods for
measuring eye movement. The most popular variant uses video images from
which the eye position is extracted. Other methods use search coils or are
based on the electrooculogram.
When to Change the Subject
How to Tell if You Talk Too Much
Delayed Auditory Feedback
also called delayed sidetone, is a
type of altered auditory feedback that consists of extending the time
between speech and auditory perception. It can consist of a device that
enables a user to speak into a microphone and then hear his or her voice
in headphones a fraction of a second later. Some DAF devices are hardware;
DAF computer software is also available.
Knowing the right time to
someone and knowing when to let someone else
interrupt you is very important. Genuinely seek
. Keep feedback impersonal and goal-oriented.
toward behavior that the recipient can
control. Ask questions to ensure understanding of the feedback.
Avoid being emotional and avoid attacking others.
you heard, especially to clarify the speaker's intentions.
on specific behaviors rather than making general statements.
Learn to separate
and enjoy each one individually.
as an adjective or adverb, refers to a
situation or a behaviour due to which communication with outsiders is not
possible, for either voluntary or involuntary reasons, especially due to
confinement or reclusiveness.
Thinking in Levels
Automated Conversation Coach
Most of the time, words are translated with
little confusion. It's when we put many words together is when we start to
have most of the errors in translation. People are biased against certain
words, and sometimes subconsciously. So we have to pay
we say things and also confirm what we are saying is interpreted
correctly. With out any under lying meanings, or undertones, or even a
perceived play on words. And that's another problem, how to deal with miss
interpretations and personal perceptions. We can't assume that people are
understanding our messages the right way, and not taking it the wrong way.
We should choose words that minimize confusion, but still transfer our
messages at a higher rate of accuracy.
Getting Your Point
Across (5 Tips)
The Average Rate for an American
Speaker is 150 Words Per Minute.
Calm yourself, don't get upset or let your emotions control your
speech. Avoid arguing. Avoid degrading others or insulting
people, or prejudging people. Don't use
Try not to say anything that would be counterproductive to
the goal that you want to achieve.
Develop a Friendly Tone of Voice
Begin your speech, if necessary, state your name and any
relevant information that would lead up to this point in time.
Be sure to generate enough vocal power and energy to reach every
listener in the room.Breathe
Express your view about the important issue. Explain the goals
explain how it benefits others. Back up your opinion with facts,
evidence, witnesses and or documents. And don't forget that you have
to explain why you think this evidence is
relevant, because just presenting facts is not good enough, you
have to explain the meaning and the importance of these facts.
Use examples and make suggestions.
Search for Meaning
. Relate to the opinions of others and let them know that
you understand their point of view. Be ready for the follow up
questions and have appropriate responses ready. Don't tell a
person they are wrong, just explain why you believe that you are
right, and why it is more fair to everyone, and that it's free from
favoritism, or self-interest, or bias, or deception.
I once too
thought that same way, or similar way. And then I experienced a
change when I learned some new information.
verifying this information and researching it more deeply, I
have come to the conclusion that I must change, or, I will be
responsible for any damage that is done from these negative
actions, actions that do more harm then good. Humans are born
good, and I have never met a bad dog either, I guess that is why
dogs are mans best friend, we seek out similar company even
outside our own species.
Don't be discouraged if you need to end the conversation. Don't
feel bad if your point didn't get through. Learn to ask for more
time to think, and to seek out more information on the matter. And also to learn more about other peoples point of view, so
that you can better explain and understand your own point of
Room! - Sample Lesson: Voice Modulation and Speed
of a Powerful Speaking Voice
The Proper use of Pitch for your Speaking Voice
Develop a Perfect Speaking Voice
selectively. Repeat the last one to three words that a
person just said back to them to establish a rapport, this will help the
person feel more comfortable to be open, and also help communicate to the
person that you're striving to understand their feelings, and that you
like them. When a person feels that you understand them, like when saying
"that's right", is reaffirming that you're truly listening and
understanding them. Acknowledging their side and mirroring their point.
Questions that allow opportunities to say no can give the other person a
measure of control and give them a sense of security, other then getting
the other person to answer yes to questions. Don't try to force your
opponent to admit that you are right. Rephrase and summarize.
no-oriented questions like: "Have you given up on this aspect?" and "Is it
too late to talk about x ?" Use phrases like "It sounds like you are
afraid of..." and "It looks like you're concerned about..." Use empathy
strategically. Knowing the weaknesses of your position will help you to be
prepared for difficult questions.
more then you show, speak less then you know."
is a ranking of speech sounds (or phones)
by amplitude. For example, if one says the vowel [a], they will produce a
much louder sound than if one says the stop [t]. Sonority hierarchies are
especially important when analyzing syllable structure; rules about what
segments may appear in onsets or codas together, such as SSP, are
formulated in terms of the difference of their sonority values. Some
languages also have assimilation rules based on sonority hierarchy, for
example, the Finnish potential mood, in which a less sonorous segment
changes to copy a more sonorous adjacent segment.
is the perceived sound quality of a
sound, or tone that distinguishes different types of sound production,
such as choir voices and musical instruments, such as string instruments,
wind instruments, and percussion instruments, and which enables listeners
to hear even different instruments from the same category as different
(e.g. a viola and a violin).
Talk With a Deeper Voice
Tone & Inflection
responsibility of confirming if someone is listening to you is your
responsibility, it's not the responsibility of the listener.
In every communication between people, only half of the message
is clear, or completely understood. That's because not every
question is answered during a normal conversation. People need
to know more then just the definition of a word. And people also
need to know more about the context, because a lot of context
that surrounds words is non factual,
made up of
that could easily mislead someone. First we need to
learn to speak in truths, then we need to learn to communicate
fully and accurately. I see conversations in the future being
more fuller, more enjoyable, more meaningful, more open, and
more honest, where one word could
speak a thousand truths
one word could answer a 1000 questions. But that's from everyone
having a high quality education, an education that does not
exist as of 2016. But the research is near completion, so a high
quality education is not that far away. So when a person says
that they are educated, it will mean that have 1000 different
skills and qualities, and know a 1000 different things, and they
could explain them for you if needed, using
20,000 unique words
Why do some people assume that when they talk, everyone
understands what they're saying?
Just because you use a
or a phrase,
this does not explain the message, you only reveal a small
detail, and then you expect people to fill in all the missing
information correctly. So in your mind, you believe that you're
explaining everything the person needs to understand the message. For some maybe, but for most of the people, they need
more details, need more info, and they need the reason why.
Other wise, you're not saying anything. You're like a barking
dog. You know the dog is trying to say something, but until you
investigate to find out why the dog is barking, you will not
know why the dog is barking.
"Some people use
that say very
little, and they pretend like they are answering a question, when in fact
they are actually asking more questions in the form of an answer."
is an obnoxious and
foolish and loquacious talker. (chatterbox)
is to speak (about unimportant matters) rapidly and incessantly.
Gift of Gab
always think before we speak and always choose the right moment.
But be careful, it's not just what you say, but it's also what
you don't say that can cause the most damage. Remember, no one
can read your mind, so don't be afraid to speak your mind,
because you may never have another chance.
It's not just what you say, but how you say it. Remember,
language is the easy part, communicating effectively is the hard
part.Writing TipsSpeaking with Purpose
Don't Beat Around the Bush
is to treat a topic, but omit its main points, often
"If we both stop
Jumping to Conclusions
then maybe we'll get somewhere"
"If you just say
what you mean, you can avoid the possibility of things being
, or being misunderstood."
The differences between "The Silent Treatment
" and "Turning a Blind Eye
Sometimes you don't want to satisfy someone with a response to a
question, or an observation or an opinion, because it might
encourage someone to continue talking about something that you
don't feel comfortable about, or something that you disagree
with, or something that you don't have enough information about
so that you can reply with a correct response. And you don't
want to get caught in a conversation with someone who is upset
and will most likely drag you into an argument. But sometimes
you don't want to totally ignore someone. Make eye contact with
the person that shows no emotion, so as not to influence or
encourage someone to continue a conversation that is making an
incorrect observation, or just asking the wrong questions.
Sometimes it's just better to change the subject, in a nice way
of course. Or ask for the conversation to continue later in a
better time and place.
Sometimes you just
want to be a
Fly on the Wall
in certain situations, meaning that you
would like to be there secretly to see and hear what happens.
, being an
without the risk of actually being there. Interested
but not ready to commit or ready to be fully involved where your
true character can be on display and tested along side the
Talking to Yourself - Inner Voice
Is Thinking to Yourself and Talking to Yourself the
Conversations in your Head are only one half of a
Even though you're talking to yourself
counts as only one opinion
. You can't say "my paranoid side says
yes while my logical side says no", because you still need to
confirm the accuracy of both of those questions, just like when
trying to figuring out if something is
How can you be sure "That it Goes without Saying
" if you never
say it out loud?
To pretend to have a conversation with someone else, and to guess
what their responses would be, is not that unusual, people do it
all the time, it's called "thinking to yourself
." It's anticipating
responses to particular questions that you might ask someone.
But the bottom line is, you're still only answering your own questions, so
you're pretty much still just talking to yourself, in a form of
role-playing. And it's not a great way to teach yourself, mostly
because you're only relying on one information source. So you
still need to seek out more information and knowledge in order
to obtain a better understanding about the questions you're
asking, and, you also have to be sure that you're asking the
right questions, and using the right sources?
also known as inner voice, internal speech, or verbal stream
of consciousness is thinking in words. It also refers to the semi-constant
internal monologue some people have with themselves at a conscious or
semi-conscious level (see Default mode network). Much of what people
consciously report "thinking about" may be thought of as an internal
monologue, a conversation with oneself. Some of this can be considered as
speech rehearsal. When reading, some people's internal monologue moves
their muscles slightly as if they were speaking; this is called
subvocalizing. In some medical or mental conditions, there is uncertainty
about the source of internal sentences. Attribution for an internal
monologue may lead to concerns over schizophrenia, hallucinations, or
hearing voices. This internal monologue is stimulated by the sensory parts
of the brain, activating both auditory and visual receptors. Contemplation
"attempts to calm the internal voice" by various means.
In the philosophical field of language there is much research about
internal speech in correlation with the building and usage of phrases in
one's own idiom and thus the importance of language in the process of
Language and Thought
is when our emotions and behavior are caused by
our internal dialogue. We can change ourselves by learning to challenge
and refute our own thoughts, especially a number of specific mistaken
thought patterns called "cognitive distortions". Cognitive therapy has
been found to be effective by empirical studies.
is a communicator's internal use
of language or thought. It can be useful to envision intrapersonal
communication occurring in the mind of the individual in a model which
contains a sender, receiver, and feedback loop.
or silent speech, is the internal speech typically
made when reading; it provides the sound of the word as it is read.
This is a natural process when reading and it helps the mind to access
meanings to comprehend and remember what is read, potentially reducing
cognitive load. This inner speech is characterized by minute movements in
the larynx and other muscles involved in the articulation of speech. Most
of these movements are undetectable (without the aid of machines) by the
person who is reading. It is one of the components of Baddeley and Hitch's
phonological loop proposal which accounts for the storage of these types
of information into short-term memory.
How pronouns can be used to build confidence in stressful situations
language or self-talk can help us 'see' ourselves through someone else's
Preschoolers Correct Speaking Mistakes Even When Talking to Themselves
is a psychological concept which describes the mind's
ability to imagine the different positions of participants in an internal
dialogue, in close connection with external dialogue. The "dialogical
self" is the central concept in the Dialogical Self Theory (DST), as
created and developed by the Dutch psychologist Hubert Hermans since the
"I want everyone to know what I'm thinking, but what I'm
thinking is not always what I want to say out load, or should say out
load. Thinking bad things is not a victimless crime. You can say it's a
, but why does that excuse you? Unless
you are making a point? You have a responsibility for your own thoughts,
as well as for the words you speak. Saying horrible things, or thinking
horrible things, does not say that you are a bad person, it's only bad
when you believe those words or thoughts, it's also bad when you don't
apologize for your thoughts or words." (it is a learning process)
. We not only misinterpret each other
sometimes, we also misinterpret our own thoughts and feelings
sometimes. Not only do we experience difficulties communicating
with other people, we also have difficulties communicating with
ourselves. This is why we need more knowledge and information to
make us more skilled, more aware, and more intelligent.
is having an inaccurate mental representation of the meaning or
significance of something. Not correct; not in conformity with
fact or truth.
to myself, then who is the joke intended
for? My conscience? Who's that? If my awareness is random like my dreams,
then how can I be sure which part of me is listening, and why?"
Voices in my Head
Internal Monologue seems to have a mind of its own, as if the
mechanism for creating dreams while we sleep, is some how being
activated while you are awake, then your
might need to seek out some
How to cope with Hearing Voices
Hearing the voices of God
or just voices?
Poor supplementary motor area activation differentiates Auditory Verbal
is a tract of axons in the brainstem that
carries information about sound from the cochlear nucleus to various
brainstem nuclei and ultimately the contralateral inferior colliculus of
the midbrain. Three distinct, primarily inhibitory, cellular groups are
located interspersed within these fibers, and are thus named the nuclei of
the lateral lemniscus.
is a parasomnia that refers to talking aloud while asleep. It can be quite
loud, ranging from simple mumbling sounds to loud shouts and long
frequently inarticulate speeches, and can occur many times during a sleep
cycle. As with sleepwalking and night terrors, sleeptalking usually occurs
during the less-deep delta-wave NREM sleep stages or during temporary
Things I would say if I were me, "Who the hell
are you?" I'm you,
first person narrative
"Sometimes in order to keep
the conversation going, you have to do it yourself, ask all the
questions and look for the answers."
is a person involved in a conversation or
dialogue. Two or more people speaking to one another, are each
that other people will automatically know where they're coming
from, and at the least, everyone hopes that other people will
understand them correctly. But when we are misunderstood, we
should never be defensive or surprised, because meaning is
something that is not always a constant or a given. That is why
is extremely important. Always make sure that you are on the
same page as the other person. If you're not on the same page,
then find out which pages you're both on. And please don't be
stubborn or impatient when communicating, it will only impede
understanding and cause more problems to happen.
Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments
Analyzing Cockpit Communications:
The Links Between Language,
Performance, Error, and Workload.
Gender Differences in Language Use
: Gender differences in
language use were examined using standardized categories to
database of over 14,000 text files from 70 separate studies.
Women used more words related to psychological and social
processes. Men referred more to object properties and impersonal
"Let us not have any preconceived notions on who we think each other is,
let us communicate openly, like friends do, and let us focus
more on our abilities, and not so much on our disabilities, or
Levels of Communication:
Direct and Indirect
channels of Communication:Relationships
CompetencySkills You Need
is a brief statement
that presents the main points in a concise form. Without
is a restatement of the meaning of a text or
passage using other words.
As extremely important as communication
is, it is sadly over looked, taken for granted, and underutilized.
Communication is not even being taught in schools as effectively as it
should be, which is extremely disturbing considering it is the most
valuable skill on the planet. All life forms survive by transferring
important information. Everything from atoms to every cell in our body
depends on this communication of information to live and survive. Without
the ability to communicate information, there would be no life. And when
information becomes distorted or infected, that is when life is the most
vulnerable. The wrong information, or bad information, can easily produce
mistakes in our thoughts and in our actions.
Humans ability to
manually send and receive information gives us incredible advantages, but
this manual ability is also a vulnerability, because when we
, many problems can occur, like disease, death, war, poverty,
crime, corruption, and so on. Education has over looked this incredibly
important skill to communicate. You need more then just the ability to
communicate, you need to know when, why, where and what to communicate.
Communication is all about transferring information and knowledge. And as
simple as that sounds, communication is one skill that most people don't
fully understand enough in order to communicate effectively or
efficiently. Being able to communicate is one of the most important skills to have.