and behavior that are characteristic of a
particular social group
or organization. A way of life,
especially the general customs and
, of a
particular group of people at a particular time
. That complex
whole which includes knowledge, belief, art,
, custom and any other capabilities and habits
acquired by man as a member of society.
A particular society at a particular time and place
tastes in art
and manners that are favored by a
All the knowledge and values shared by a society
. A highly
developed state of perfection; having a flawless or impeccable
Cultural Diversity Day
is a social group within a national culture that has distinctive
patterns of behavior and beliefs.
is the practices that are handed down from the past by tradition. Any
attribute or immaterial possession that is inherited from
That which is inherited; a title or property or estate that
passes by law to the heir on the death of the owner.
Hereditary succession to a title or an office or property.
are accepted or habitual practice. A specific practice of long
standing. Habitual patronage. An action or way of behaving that
is usual and traditional among the people in a particular group
or place. Something that is done regularly by a person.
are an inherited pattern of thought or action. A specific practice
of long standing.
, is a
group of political
centered on preserving traditional beliefs, attitudes and
philosophy. The aims of social conservatism vary from organization to
organization, and from country to country. Thus, there are really no
or positions that could be
considered universal among social conservatives.
is a customary way of
or behavior. Translating an idea
. The exercise of a
. Knowledge of how
something is usually done. Engage in or perform.
state of being organized in or an advocate for a tribe or tribes. In terms
, tribalism may also
refer in popular cultural terms to a way of thinking or behaving in which
people are loyal to their own tribe or social
. Tribalism has been defined in as a 'way of being' based upon
variable combinations of kinship-based
organization, reciprocal exchange, manual production, oral communication
and analogical enquiry. Ontologically, tribalism is oriented around the
valences of analogy, genealogy and mythology. That means that customary
tribes have their social foundations in some variation of these tribal
orientations, while often taking on traditional practices (e.g. Abrahamic
religions such as Christianity, Judaism, and Islam), and modern practices,
including monetary exchange, mobile communications, and modern education.
The social structure of a tribe can vary greatly from case to case, but
the relatively small size of customary tribes makes social life in such of
tribes usually involve a relatively undifferentiated role structure, with
few significant political or economic distinctions between individuals.
Tribalism implies the possession of a strong cultural or ethnic identity
that separates one member of a group from the members of another group.
Based on strong relations of proximity and kinship, members of a tribe
tend to possess a strong feeling of identity. Objectively, for a customary
tribal society to form there needs to be ongoing customary organization,
enquiry and exchange. However, intense feelings of common identity can
lead people to feel tribally connected. The distinction between these two
definitions for tribalism, objective and subjective, is an important one
because while tribal societies have been pushed to the edges of the
Western world, tribalism, by the second definition, is arguably
undiminished. A few writers have postulated that the human brain is
hard-wired towards tribalism by its evolutionary advantages, but that
claim is usually linked to equating original questions of sociality with
tribalism. Many tribes refer to themselves with their language's word for
"people" and referring to other, neighboring tribes with various epithets.
For example, the term "Inuit" translates as "people," but they were known
to the Ojibwe by a name 'Eskimo' translating roughly as "eaters of raw
is viewed, developmentally or historically, as a social group existing
before the development of, or outside, states. A tribe is a group of
distinct people, dependent on their land for their livelihood, who are
, and not integrated into the
(self directed learning)
are any customary observance or practice. The prescribed procedure
for conducting religious
is a rite of passage marking entrance or acceptance into a
group or society. It could also be a formal admission to adulthood in a
community or one of its formal components. In an extended sense it can
also signify a transformation in which the initiate is 'reborn' into a new
are an established custom. (psychology) an automatic
in reaction to a specific situation; may be
inherited or acquired through frequent repetition.
are a customary way of operation or
Something regarded as a normative
is a society in an advanced state of social development (e.g., with
complex legal and political and religious organizations)
The social process whereby societies achieve an advanced stage
of development and organization.
A particular society at a particular time and place. The quality
of excellence in thought and manners and taste.
Knowledge Passed On
Types of Culture
is a subculture whose values and norms of
behavior differ substantially from those of mainstream society, often in
opposition to mainstream cultural mores.
occurs when people of a culture make
about conventions, including conventions of language,
notation, proof and evidence. They are then accused of mistaking these
assumptions for laws of logic or nature. Numerous such biases exist,
concerning cultural norms for color, location of body parts, mate
selection, concepts of justice, linguistic and logical validity,
acceptability of evidence, and taboos.
describes the existence, acceptance, and/or
promotion of multiple cultural traditions within a single jurisdiction,
usually considered in terms of the culture associated with an aboriginal
ethnic group and foreigner ethnic groups. Diversity
refers to the creation and maintenance
of unequal relationships between civilizations, favoring the more powerful
civilization. Thus, cultural imperialism is the practice of promoting and
imposing a culture, usually that of a politically powerful nation, over a
less powerful society; in other words, the cultural hegemony of
industrialized or economically influential countries which determine
general cultural values and standardize civilizations throughout the
is the study of cultural variation
among humans and is in contrast to social anthropology which perceives
cultural variation as a subset of the anthropological constant.
describes the process through which the
material, historical, and design integrity of humanity's built
heritage are prolonged through carefully planned interventions. The
individual engaged in this pursuit is known as an architectural
conservator-restorer. Decisions of when and how to engage in an
intervention are critical to the ultimate conservation-restoration of
cultural heritage. Ultimately, the decision is value based: a combination
of artistic, contextual, and informational values is normally considered.
In some cases, a decision to not intervene may be the most appropriate
is a professional responsible for the
preservation of artistic and cultural artifacts, also known as cultural
heritage. Conservators possess the expertise to preserve cultural heritage
in a way that retains the integrity of the object, building or site,
including its historical significance, context and aesthetic or visual
aspects. This kind of preservation is done by analyzing and assessing the
condition of cultural property, understanding processes and evidence of
deterioration, planning collections care or site management strategies
that prevent damage, carrying out conservation treatments, and conducting
research. A conservators job is to ensure that art object's cultural
heritage in a museum's collection are kept in the best possible condition,
while at the same time, serving the museum's mission to bring art before
Cultural Heritage Management
is the moulder and practice of
managing cultural heritage. It is a branch of cultural resources
management (CRM), although it also draws on the practices of cultural
conservation, restoration, museology, archaeology, history and
combines the creation, production, and distribution of goods
and services that are cultural in nature and usually protected by
intellectual property rights.
is characterized by digital technologies combined with high levels of
cognitive and cultural labor.
Environmental Network - IEN
Alliance of Small Island
States - AOSIS
is the ability to communicate
effectively and appropriately with people of other cultures.
is the identity or feeling of belonging to
a group. It is part of a person's self-conception and self-perception and
is related to nationality, ethnicity, religion, social class, generation,
locality or any kind of social group that has its own distinct culture. In
this way, cultural identity is both characteristic of the individual but
also of the culturally identical group of members sharing the same
is the legacy of physical artifacts and
intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past
generations, maintained in the present and bestowed for the benefit of
future generations. Cultural heritage includes tangible culture (such as
buildings, monuments, landscapes, books, works of art, and artifacts),
intangible culture (such as folklore, traditions, language, and
knowledge), and natural heritage (including culturally significant
landscapes, and biodiversity).
Transformation of Culture
is the dynamic process whereby the
living cultures of the world are changing and adapting to external or
internal forces. This process is occurring within Western culture as well
as non-Western and indigenous cultures and cultures of the world. Forces
which contribute to the cultural change described in this article include:
colonization, globalization, advances in communication, transport and
is an experience a person may have when one
moves to a cultural environment which is different from one's own; it is
also the personal disorientation a person may feel when experiencing an
unfamiliar way of life due to immigration or a visit to a new country, a
move between social environments, or simply transition to another type of
life. One of the most common causes of culture shock involves individuals
in a foreign environment. Culture shock can be described as consisting of
at least one of four distinct phases: honeymoon, negotiation, adjustment,
and adaptation. Common problems include: information overload, language
barrier, generation gap, technology gap, skill interdependence,
formulation dependency, homesickness (cultural), infinite regress
(homesickness), boredom (job dependency), response ability (cultural skill
set). There is no true way to entirely prevent culture shock, as
individuals in any society are personally affected by cultural contrasts
is the process of forcibly inculcating ideas,
attitudes, cognitive strategies or a professional methodology (see
doctrine) by coercion. Conspiring institutions such as police and mental
health institutions have been widely used as a modus operandi of
is the process by which a person or a group's language and/or culture come
to resemble those of another group.
is the domination of a culturally diverse society, by the
who manipulate the culture of that
society—the beliefs, explanations, perceptions, values, and mores—so that
their imposed, ruling-class worldview becomes the accepted cultural norm;
the universally valid dominant ideology, which justifies the social,
political, and economic status quo as natural and inevitable, perpetual
and beneficial for everyone, rather than as artificial social constructs
that benefit only the ruling class.
is a category of people who identify with each
other based on similarities, such as common language, ancestral, social,
cultural, or national experiences. Unlike other social groups (wealth,
age, hobbies), ethnicity is often an inherited status based on the society
in which a person lives. In some cases, it can be adopted if a person
moves into another society. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be
defined by a shared cultural heritage, ancestry, origin myth, history,
homeland, language or dialect, symbolic systems such as religion,
mythology and ritual, cuisine, dressing style, art, and physical
is "the formation and development of an ethnic
group." This can originate through a process of self-identification as
well as come about as the result of outside identification.
is a specialization in anthropology
and sister sciences (sociology, psychology, economics, political science)
that uses field data from many societies to examine the scope of human
behavior and test hypotheses about human behavior and culture. Sometimes
called holocultural studies or comparative studies.
Cross Cultural Training and Intercultural Awareness
is the interdisciplinary study of
difference—chiefly race, ethnicity, and nation, but also sexuality,
gender, and other such markings—and power, as expressed by the state, by
civil society, and by individuals.
Sociology of Race and Ethnic Relations
is the study of
social, political, and economic relations between races and ethnicities at
all levels of society. This area encompasses the study of racism,
residential segregation, and other complex social processes between
different racial and ethnic groups. The sociological analysis of race and
ethnicity frequently interacts with other areas of sociology such as
stratification and social psychology, as well as with postcolonial theory.
is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an
ancestor (i.e., a grandparent, great-grandparent, great-great-grandparent,
and so forth). Ancestor is "any person from whom one is descended. In law
the person from whom an estate has been inherited.
is a descendent or heir. Connected by a relationship of
blood. A person considered as descended from some ancestor or race.
are ethnic groups who are descended from and identify with the original
inhabitants of a given region.
refers to a society characterized by an
orientation to the past, not the future, with a predominant role for
custom and habit. Such societies are marked by a lack of distinction
between family and business, with the division of labor influenced
primarily by age, gender, and status.
a comparative tendency in various fields of
entirety of ideas
, perspectives, attitudes, images, and other
phenomena that are within the mainstream of a given culture, especially
Western culture of the early to mid 20th century and the emerging global
mainstream of the late 20th and early 21st century.
refers to a society believed to lack
cultural, technological, or economic sophistication or development.
is the body of works dealing with information and
communication technologies (ICT) and their application to cultural
heritage, such as virtual archaeology. Virtual heritage and cultural
heritage have independent meanings: cultural heritage refers to sites,
monuments, buildings and objects "with historical, aesthetic,
archaeological, scientific, ethnological or anthropological value",
whereas virtual heritage refers to instances of these within a
technological domain, usually involving computer visualization of
artifacts or Virtual Reality environments.
is a term used in social science to describe traditions, value systems,
myths and symbols that are common in a given society.
International Culture and Cognition Institute
should have one foot in the old world and one foot in the new
world, and live in the middle."
were the children of Australian
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander descent who were removed from their
families by the Australian Federal and State government agencies and
church missions, under acts of their respective parliaments. The removals
of those referred to as "half-caste" children were conducted in the period
between approximately 1900 and 1969, although in some places mixed-race
children were still being taken into the 1970s. Documentary evidence, such
as newspaper articles and reports to parliamentary committees, suggest a
range of rationales. Apparent motivations include child protection, the
belief that the Aboriginal people would die out, given their catastrophic
population decline after white contact, and the belief that full-blooded
Aboriginal people resented miscegenation and the mixed-race children
fathered and abandoned by white men.
Generation Fund for Indian Development
is any information or knowledge that is
known within a tribe but often unknown outside of it. A tribe may be a
group or subgroup of people that share a common knowledge. With a
corporate perspective, "Tribal Knowledge or know-how is the
organization. It is the sum of all the
knowledge and capabilities
of all the people".
"knowledge", are a large body of texts originating in
the ancient Indian subcontinent.
indigenous knowledge (IK), and local
knowledge generally refer to knowledge systems embedded in the cultural
traditions of regional, indigenous, or local communities. Traditional
knowledge includes types of knowledge about traditional technologies of
subsistence (e.g. tools and techniques for hunting or
midwifery, ethnobotany and ecological knowledge
celestial navigation, ethnoastronomy, the climate, and others. These kinds
of knowledge, crucial for subsistence and survival, are generally based on
accumulations of empirical observation and on interaction with the
environment. In many cases, traditional knowledge has been orally passed
for generations from person to
. Some forms of traditional knowledge find expression in
, legends, folklore, rituals,
, and laws. Other forms of
traditional knowledge are expressed through different means.
Homing Pigeons share our Human Ability to build Knowledge Across
. When people share and pass knowledge down through
generations, it increases efficiency, progressively improves performance,
and increases necessary innovations. (cross-generational knowledge,
cumulative culture, collective intelligence, accumulation of knowledge
Environmental ‘Memories’ Passed on for 14 Generations
is the study
of how people in the past "have understood the phenomena in
the sky, how they used these phenomena and what role the sky played in
their cultures. (ethnoastronomy).
of the traditional knowledge and customs of a people
their medical, religious, and other uses. The relationships that exist
between people and plants.
is a name given to many ancient Egyptian texts supposed to
have been written by Thoth, the Egyptian god of writing and knowledge.
They include many texts that were claimed to exist by ancient authors, and
a magical book that appears in an Egyptian work of fiction.
Earth Peoples United
is traditional art, literature, knowledge, and practices that are
in large part through oral
and example. The information thus transmitted expresses the
shared ideas and values
of a particular group.
is a body of traditions and
a subject or held by a particular group, typically passed from
person to person by word of mouth
. Knowledge gained through
tradition or anecdote.
Value (personal and cultural)
is a conceptual process by which general rules and concepts are derived
from the usage and classification
of specific examples, literal (Real or
) signifiers, first principles, or other methods. "An
abstraction" is the product of this process — a concept that acts as a
super-categorical noun for all subordinate concepts, and connects any
related concepts as a group, field, or category.
maintains that human development is socially situated and knowledge is
constructed through interaction with others
. It is a sociological theory
of knowledge that applies the general philosophical constructivism into
focuses on teaching
indigenous knowledge, models, methods, and content within formal or
non-formal educational systems. The growing recognition and use of
indigenous education methods can be a response to the erosion and loss of
indigenous knowledge through the processes of colonialism, globalization,
and modernity. Indigenous communities are able to “reclaim and revalue
their languages and [traditions], and in so doing, improve the educational
success of indigenous students,” thus ensuring their survival as a
are academic disciplines that study human culture. In the Middle
Ages, the term contrasted with divinity and referred to what is now called
classics, the main area of secular study in universities at the time.
Today, the humanities are more frequently contrasted with natural,
physical and sometimes social sciences
as well as professional training. Humanities
National Humanities Medal
is an American award that annually recognizes several individuals, groups,
or institutions for work that has "deepened the nation's understanding of
the humanities, broadened our citizens' engagement with the humanities, or
helped preserve and expand Americans' access to important resources in the
is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis
of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts,
architecture, biofacts or ecofacts, and cultural landscapes. Archaeology
can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities.
the study of various aspects of humans within past and present
Social anthropology and cultural anthropology study the
norms and values
of societies. Linguistic anthropology studies how language affects social
life. Biological or physical anthropology studies the biological
development of humans. Archaeology, which studies past human cultures
through investigation of physical evidence, is thought of as a branch of
anthropology in the United States, while in Europe, it is viewed as a
discipline in its own right, or grouped under other related disciplines
such as history.
is the dominant constituent of
anthropology throughout the United Kingdom and Commonwealth and much of
Europe (France in particular), where it is distinguished from cultural
anthropology. In the USA, social anthropology is commonly subsumed within
cultural anthropology (or under the relatively new designation of
Department of Anthropology
is the study of man or early humans. The combination
and a sub-discipline of paleontology and biological anthropology, studies
the formation and the development of the specific
humans (hominization) and the reconstruction of evolutionary kinship lines
in the family Hominidae
means of the study of fossils, such as petrified skeletal remains, bone
fragments, footprints and associated evidence, stone tools, artifacts, and
settlement localities. As technologies and methods advance, genetics plays
an ever increasing role in paleoanthropology, in particular examining and
comparing DNA structure as a vital tool of research of the evolutionary
kinship lines of related species and genera.
is the study of the relationship between culture and
the brain. Neuroanthropology explores how the brain gives rise to culture,
how culture influences brain development, structure and function, and the
pathways followed by the co-evolution of brain and culture. Moreover,
neuroanthropologists consider how new findings in the brain sciences help
us understand the interactive effects of culture and biology on human
development and behavior. In one way or another, neuroanthropologists
ground their research and explanations in how the human brain develops,
how it is structured and how it functions within the genetic and cultural
limits of its biology.
is a scientific discipline concerned with the
biological and behavioral aspects of human beings, their related non-human
primates and their extinct hominin ancestors. It is a subfield of
anthropology that provides a biological perspective to the systematic
study of human beings.
data from fossils and subfossils to reconstruct the
of the past.
the systematic study of people and cultures. It is designed to explore
cultural phenomena where the researcher observes society from the point of
view of the subject of the study. An ethnography is a means to represent
graphically and in writing the culture of a group.
is the recording of the practices and folklore of cultures threatened with
extinction, including as a result of modernization.
using satellite imagery
, we can fight
the loss of our cultural heritage. On any given day, it's estimated
that10,000+looted artifacts are for sale on the black market. Become a
space archaeologist and document threats to ancient sites. Help
authorities get there first.
Eyes in the Sky
Help Discover Ancient Ruins — before it's too late: Sarah Parcak
(video and interactive text)
is the act of depriving something of its sacred
character, or the disrespectful, contemptuous, or destructive treatment of
that which is held to be sacred or holy by a group or individual.
is the research-based study of various human-made items
found in space, their interpretation as clues to the adventures mankind
has experienced in space, and their preservation as cultural heritage.
are those subjects or skills that in classical
antiquity were considered essential for a free person. To take an active
part in civic life, included participating in public debate, defending
oneself in court, serving on juries, and most importantly, military
oldness, the historic period preceding the Middle Ages in Europe, an
artifact surviving from the past.
is anything created by humans which gives
information about the culture of its creator and users.
labels the process by which
particular classes appropriate cultural forms and practices for their own
also known as family history, is the study of
and the tracing of their
lineages and history
. Genealogists use oral
interviews, historical records, genetic analysis, and other records to
obtain information about a family and to demonstrate kinship and pedigrees
of its members. The results are often displayed in charts or written as
narratives. The pursuit of family history and origins tends to be shaped
by several motives, including the desire to carve out a place for one's
family in the larger historical picture, a sense of responsibility to
preserve the past for future generations, and a sense of self-satisfaction
in accurate storytelling.
Legacy Family Tree
is genealogy software for Windows that
assists family historians in tracking, organizing, printing, and sharing
family history. The standard edition is distributed as freeware, with no
restrictions, only requiring registration on the company's web site to
download the software. Users may pay a fee to do Product activation
"unlock" the additional features in the deluxe edition.
Tips on Making a Family Tree Photo Album
is the web of social relationships that form an
important part of the lives of most humans in most societies.
is a person temporarily or permanently residing,
as an immigrant, in a country other than that of their
high-quality cultural & educational media.
Europeana Historic Photography Collections
is a philosophical movement that, along with
cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching
transformations in Western society in the late 19th and early 20th
centuries. Among the factors that shaped modernism were the development of
modern industrial societies and the rapid growth of cities, followed then
by the horror of World War I. Modernism also rejected the certainty of
Enlightenment thinking, and many modernists rejected religious belief.
is the practice of an unconventional lifestyle,
often in the company of like-minded people, with few permanent ties,
involving musical, artistic, or literary pursuits. In this context,
Bohemians may be wanderers, adventurers, or vagabonds
There’s a big difference between
. Especially when a tradition violates
. We don’t want to end
or take away
. We want to
preserve traditions and preserve cultures
. Adjusting to the 21st century
world in which we all live does not mean that we need to reject
. It just means that some of
those old traditions that violate
need to be preserved in our archives and not
preserved in our everyday lives.
old traditions in
or on a particular
will always be popular as they have always been.
want to learn from our mistakes, not live with our mistakes.
This is not to say that
is not important, because it is
have valuable knowledge, so we need more
is a distinct set of concepts or thought patterns,
including theories, research methods, postulates, and standards for what
constitutes legitimate contributions to a field. A standard or typical
example. Systematic arrangement of all the inflected forms of a word. The
generally accepted perspective of a particular discipline at a given time.
Manal Al-Sharif: A Saudi Woman who Dared to Drive
US Institute of Peace
is the condition or result of being
is having many and different. Distinctly dissimilar or unlike.
is a collection
a variety of sorts of things. Choice
is having great diversity or
in many areas and able to turn with ease from one thing to
another. Able to move freely in all directions. A category of things
distinguished by some common characteristic or quality.
is the quality of diverse or different cultures, as
opposed to monoculture, the global monoculture, or a homogenization of
cultures, akin to cultural decay. The phrase cultural diversity can also
refer to having different cultures respect each other's differences. The
phrase "cultural diversity" is also sometimes used to mean the variety of
human societies or cultures in a specific region, or in the world as a
whole. Globalization is often said to have a negative effect on the
world's cultural diversity.
can be defined as any program designed to
facilitate positive intergroup interaction,
discrimination, and generally teach individuals who are different from
others how to work together effectively
. From the broad corporate
perspective, diversity training is defined as raising personal awareness
about individual differences in the workplace and how those differences
inhibit or enhance the way people work together
and get work done.
is used to describe political entities
(neighborhoods, student bodies, etc.) with members who have identifiable
differences in their cultural backgrounds or lifestyles. The term
describes differences in racial or ethnic classifications, age, gender,
religion, philosophy, physical abilities, socioeconomic background, sexual
orientation, gender identity, intelligence, mental health, physical
health, genetic attributes, behavior, attractiveness, or other identifying
features. In measuring human diversity, a diversity index measures the
probability that any two residents, chosen at random, would be of
different ethnicities. If all residents are of the same ethnic group it's
zero. The diversity index does not take into account the willingness of
individuals to cooperate with those of other ethnicities. If half are from
one group and half from another, it's 50.
is equitable or fair representation between genders.
Gender diversity most commonly refers to an equitable ratio of men and
women, but may also include non-binary gender categories.
among a group of people does not say anything about the
people. It only says that some people are slightly different in appearance
and that they may have beliefs that are unique to their particular
culture. Diversity says nothing about the abilities or the intelligence of
a particular group of people. Just having many different people doesn't
guarantee good communication or community, or effectiveness or increased
productivity. And having no diversity at all also does not guarantee good
communication or community, or effectiveness or increased productivity.
Diversity in skills would have to depend on the work involved. One of the
good things about having many different people is it can help avoid
. And you certainly don't
want any type of forced segregation, or prejudices or
still, it all depends on that particular group of people. Can they
communication effectively? Can they be a community and work together? Can
they progress? Diversity in the minds of people is powerful. That is why
diversity among people is powerful. Any place where you can have people
sharing new ways of thinking, is a place where you will have the most
potential and the most advancements. Just look at America. Diversity
works. But our job is far from over. We have a lot of work to do. And we
can't afford to be distracted by our own ignorance and let tiny
differences divide us. We are all humans, so lets get on with this.
is the total number of
genetic makeup of a species. It is distinguished from
, which describes the tendency of genetic
characteristics to vary. Genetic diversity serves as a way for populations
to adapt to changing environments. With more variation, it is more likely
that some individuals in a population will possess variations of alleles
that are suited for the environment. Those individuals are more likely to
survive to produce offspring bearing that allele. The population will
continue for more generations because of the success of these individuals.
There is no society
, we only have
social groups that have little or no coherence with themselves
or other groups that are within their own town or immediate
area. There is no reason or logic in trying to separate
ourselves from each other. Either we
learn to live together
we will continue to tragically die together
. And for whatever
the selfish reasons are, to many of us are choosing to
unnecessarily die together then to live together. And the deaths
are not always immediate, so people are unaware that they are
dying, and that they are also passing on these deaths to future