To be intelligent you first have to know what being
you also have to know what being ignorant is. Ignorant
is just another word
". But not knowing is not always
. That's because
is not fully understood. The
more you learn the more you should realize what you didn't know. And if
you learn things that do not make you realize how much you didn't know,
and if learning doesn't make you realize how much you still need to know,
then you did not learn anything valuable
or relevant. Wisdom does not come with age
, wisdom comes from learning.
And if learning does not increase your understanding of yourself and the
world around you, then that's not learning, that's just
. Ten people can
the same thing but
not learn the same thing. This is because
varies from person to
person. So this will need to be the next big advancement in education.
Where every student will know what to learn, when to learn, how to learn,
where to learn and why to learn. And then every student will know how to
and monitor their own progress in their own time, and at
their own pace. But you still need to be
- Intelligent Types
- Intelligence Measuring
Human Operating System
Brain Maintenance Ignorance
First you have to define what
makes a person intelligent, then you need to have an accurate way of
measuring if this intelligence is correctly understood.
= The Combined
Collective intelligence of millions of people.
Just because you have abilities does not guarantee that you will
know how to use
your abilities correctly or effectively. And just what is correctly,
and just what is effective? These words we need
define if we are ever going to know exactly what being
intelligent really means. Enlightenment
will not guarantee intelligence
. A good education that encourages learning
and a healthy environment are just two of the many influences that promote
"When we finally have more intelligent people in the world, life
will become more relaxed and a lot more enjoyable. We will have a lot less
to worry about, and we will also know more and be more in control, and
have a much better awareness of ourselves and the world around us. Life is
going to be beautiful for everyone in the future. Knowledge and
information naturally seeks harmony
, and we
have this amazing privilege to go along for the ride."
Define the actions and the thought processes that are proven to produce the most positive
results that are based on a particular set of circumstances. And
these intelligent actions and thought processes have to be
relevant and used by society today so that everyone can see the
improvements and the positive outcomes and benefits that come
from these particular intelligent actions. This way everyone
can understand why these particular actions and thought
processes are viewed as being intelligent. Because what good is
having intelligence if you never use the intelligence in real
life to solve real problems. An IQ test only confirms a small
percentage of what is considered to be intelligence. So the only
way to truly measure a persons intelligence is to have them
solve real life problems and then have them explain their
methods clearly enough so that others can repeat the process.
Welcome to Defining Intelligence.
If a person does not have the necessary information and
knowledge that is needed to correctly analyze a problem, it is
nearly impossible for that person to understand how to calculate
the correct actions that are needed in order to solve that
problem. Even if a problem is right in front of a person it is
very unlikely that they will be able to comprehend that a
particular problem is even there without necessary information
and knowledge. Then a person will still have to understand that
particular information and knowledge in order to use it
effectively. So how will a person be able to recognize that
there is necessary information and
knowledge missing from their education? How do you convince a
person to see that there is a void of missing information and
knowledge when they don't have the necessary information and
knowledge in order for them to see that there is even a void?
This is why it is so extremely important to teach students early
and completely, especially the logic that is behind learning these
techniques, tools and skills that are needed to acquire
. So what is this
necessary information and knowledge? What are the techniques,
tools and skills that are needed? That is exactly what we are
going to find out, and exactly what we are going to teach.
Remember that saying "The
Buck Stops Here
", that should be changed to "The
Ignorance Stops Here". Defining the extreme degrees of
ignorance. If everyone around you is stupid then how will you
know how stupid you are? Being surrounded by stupidity often
That Does Not Compute
When we say that someone is smart, people just assume
they know what smart means. Most people think that being smart is how good
a person is at making decisions and solving particular types of problems.
But very few people understand the processes of decision making and
problem solving. So most people don't have a clue what smart is.
There is not one human alive today who is at their full
potential of intelligence or abilities. That's because
we just got public internet around 20 years ago
in 1998, which gave us
access to more knowledge and information then any other time in human
history. We are just starting to figuring out the enormous potential and
intelligence that every human being has on this planet. But the transfer
of knowledge and information is still none existent for more then 90
percent of humans on the planet, and the other 10 percent are still not
using the Internet
effectively or efficiently
enough. We are living on only 10 percent of our full potential, and yet we
still have done a lot of amazing things, which clearly shows our actual
potential. But all these great technologies are no comparison, or are in
no way equivalent to the incredible advancements that awaits the human
race on that special day when all people eventually have access to
valuable knowledge and information. The Great
Awaking is Coming
When a child is labeled with
, most parents and teachers are not qualified or
experienced enough to know what having a child with enhanced
abilities means. Or do they know what extra attention is needed
in order to not waste these enhanced abilities on tedious or
irrelevant actions, like
memorizing things that do not benefit
. It's like having a very powerful and fast
computer, but it's being wasted because you are only using it to
play video games. We are the only species on the planet that can
be distracted by our own stupidity. Intelligent species? Not
yet. Remember, enhanced abilities does not guarantee incredible
achievements, it only implies that there's a potential, which we
all have, that's if we all get the special attention that we
need. The more I study education, the more I see what's needed. The more you learn, the more you
should also learn what you still do not know.
Education needs to be everyone's special attention.
Advanced Precocious Learners
Human Brain KnowledgeTesting
"People say they are educated because they went to
college, which is a lie and an ignorant observation, because
there is no definition of what
being educated is
, just like with intelligence. Just because you have a
does not mean that you're
is being unaware because of a lack of relevant information or knowledge.
Devoid of good sense or judgment.
Uneducated in the fundamentals of a given art or branch of
learning. A poor ability to understand or to profit from
Unable to Reason
accurately or effectively, which is usually from the lack of
valuable knowledge and information. Ignorance
You don't outgrow ignorance. You
can only overcome your ignorance by deliberately
learning throughout your
entire life. Wisdom does not come with age
wisdom comes from learning.
"A fool thinks of himself as being wise, a
knows himself to be a fool."
"Real knowledge is to know the extent
of one's own ignorance."
(551 BC – 479 BC)
is refraining from acquiring knowledge when the cost of
educating oneself on an issue exceeds the potential benefit that the
knowledge would provide. But how would you know that
Necessity and Sufficiency
are implicational relationships between
statements. The assertion that one statement is a necessary and sufficient
condition of another means that the former statement is true if and only
if the latter is true. That is, the two statements must be either
simultaneously true or simultaneously false. Fallacy
is the study of culturally induced ignorance
particularly the publication of inaccurate or
is lacking sense or clear, sound reasoning. Lack of
is failure to
understand; unable to think with clarity or act intelligently. Being perplexed by many
situations or statements; filled
with bewilderment. Unable to think clearly, without order or sense. Make unclear,
indistinct, or blurred. Not clearly defined or easy to perceive
or understand. Disturbance of normal functioning. Confusion
is the state of being bewildered or unclear in one’s mind about something.
is confusion resulting
from failure to understand.
is to be thrown into great
confusion or disorder. Disturb in mind or make uneasy or cause to be
Proof by Contradiction
is a form of proof, and more specifically a
form of indirect proof, that establishes the
of a proposition. It
starts by assuming that the opposite proposition is true, and then shows
that such an assumption leads to a contradiction.
Law of Noncontradiction
statements cannot both be true in the same sense at the
same time, e.g. the two propositions "A is B " and "A is not B " are
mutually exclusive. It is the second of the three classic
laws of thought
Law of Excluded Middle
states that for any proposition, either that
proposition is true or its negation is true. It is the third of the
three classic laws of thought
is to make false by mutilation or
addition; as of a message or story
Having an intended meaning altered or misrepresented.
Ignorance is similar to not understanding a
you are Easily Fooled
No one wants
to be ignorant, but when you stop educating yourself, you are then
choosing to stay ignorant for the rest of your life. So you are
ignorant by consent
means that you give up most of your rights and freedoms, and at the same
time, cause other people give up most of their rights and freedoms
is being near-sightedness or
short-sightedness. (you can't see what is
right in front of your face).
- Make Minds Deficient.
- Resulting from an Inadequate Education.
is being disorganized
and lacking in concentration. Flighty, thoughtless,
absent-minded, forgetful, distractable.
is being deprive of strength or efficiency; make useless or worthless.
Having inaccurate beliefs can cripple the mind.
is being devoid of good sense or judgment. Having or revealing stupidity.
is the lack or failure of wisdom and of making proper
careful choices. In this sense, it differs from stupidity, which is the
lack of intelligence. An act of foolishness is called folly. Foolish talk
is called stultiloquence. Risk
is having a poor ability to understand or to profit from experience.
defiant disregard for danger or consequences
is a lack of intelligence, understanding, reason, wit or
sense. Stupidity may be innate, assumed or reactive – a defence against
grief or trauma.
"I'm not saying you're stupid, I'm just
saying that you have bad luck when it comes to thinking."
You need knowledge, because if you don't have much, you can't think
much, or do much, or be much. But if you have money, you can be a very
popular moron, but you still can't think much. Even If you use money to
buy access to
, it won't guarantee that you'll learn anything valuable or
important and become intelligent. Because access to knowledge is not the
same as acquiring knowledge or learning. You can pay someone to learn for
you, but you will still be a moron who can't think much or be much. So you
will never be anyone of value or importance, just someone with money, and
sadly for some idiots, money is enough, at least
they think it is
, because they can't think much.
Suspension of Disbelief
or willing suspension of disbelief
has been defined as a willingness to suspend one's critical
believe the unbelievable; sacrifice of realism and logic for the
sake of enjoyment.
is an unconscious aspect of the personality which the
identify in itself. Because one tends to reject or remain ignorant of the
least desirable aspects of one's personality, the shadow is largely
negative, or the entirety of the unconscious, i.e., everything of which a
person is not fully conscious.
humans defend themselves against their own
unconscious impulses or qualities (both positive and negative) by denying
their existence in themselves while attributing them to others. For
example, a person who is habitually rude may constantly accuse other
people of being rude. It incorporates
But of course, being ignorant is more then the basic definition.
Awareness becomes Distorted
Years of Potential Life Lost
is also related to the years
that are lost from being ignorant, or doing ignorant things.
The Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY
is a measure of overall
, with the disease being ignorance in this
is a cognitive bias whereby individuals
overestimate their own qualities and abilities, relative to others.
is the mental stress or discomfort
experienced by an individual who holds two or more
ideas, or values at the same time; performs an action that is
contradictory to one or more beliefs, ideas, or values; or is confronted
by new information that conflicts with existing beliefs, ideas, or values.
refers to the tendency for beliefs or sets of beliefs to endure once
formed. In particular, cognitive inertia describes the human inclination
to rely on familiar assumptions and exhibit a reluctance and/or inability
to revise those assumptions, even when the evidence supporting them no
longer exists or when other evidence would question their accuracy.
are exaggerated or irrational thought
patterns that are believed to perpetuate the effects of psychopathological
states, especially depression and anxiety.
Dunning Kruger Effect
is a cognitive
low-ability individuals suffer from illusory superiority, mistakenly
assessing their ability as much higher than it really is. Dunning and
Kruger attributed this bias to a metacognitive inability of those of low
ability to recognize their ineptitude and evaluate their ability
most Adults don't want to Learn
is knowing that human beings could be wrong about their
beliefs, expectations, or their understanding of the world.
is a logical fallacy in which
arguments appear to be logically equivalent
when in fact they are not.
Creates more questions then
is a mistaken belief, especially one based on
. It's an incorrect argument in logic and
undermines an argument's logical
"Some people may react to hearing a fallacy by simplify
Bullshit!" But of course you have to explain what the bullshit is, or you
end up looking like an idiot, because you just responded to a fallacy
using another fallacy. So your bullshit
is a pattern of reasoning rendered
invalid by a flaw
in its logical
structure that can neatly be expressed in a standard logic system, for
example propositional logic. An argument that is formally
always considered wrong. A formal fallacy is contrasted with an informal
fallacy, which may have a valid logical form and yet be unsound because
one or more premises are false.Anecdotal fallacy
is using a
personal experience or an isolated example instead of sound
is a pattern of reasoning rendered invalid by a flaw in its logical
structure that can neatly be expressed in a standard logic system. An
argument that is formally fallacious is always considered wrong. A formal
fallacy is contrasted with an informal fallacy, which may have a valid
logical form and yet be unsound because one or more premises are
occurs when the contents of an argument's stated premises fail to
adequately support its proposed conclusion.
asserts, by irrelevant association and
often by appeal to emotion, that qualities of one thing are inherently
qualities of another. Two types of association fallacies are sometimes
referred to as guilt by association
and honor by association.
Fallacy of Composition
arises when one infers that something
is true of the whole from the fact that it is true of some part of the
whole (or even of every proper part). For example: "This fragment of metal
cannot be fractured with a hammer, therefore the machine of which it is a
part cannot be fractured with a hammer." This is clearly fallacious,
because many machines can be broken apart, without any of those parts
being able to be fractured.
is an informal fallacy closely related to
the sorites paradox, or paradox of the heap. The fallacy causes one to
erroneously reject a vague claim simply because it is not as precise as
one would like it to be. Vagueness alone does not necessarily imply
like having a Fantasy
believe that your reasoning
is accurate, but the Reality
is you're just
fantasizing. So you are either
to yourself or
others, or just
pretending that you know
, because you have no
proof. It's OK to have fantasies, just don't try to convince other people
that your fantasy is real.
are commonly held scientific beliefs that
have no basis in actual scientific fact.
is a belief
that is held with strong conviction despite superior
is a cognition of mistrust in which a person doubts the
honesty of another person or believes another person to be guilty of some
type of wrongdoing or crime, but without sure proof. Suspicion can also be
aroused in response to objects that negatively differ from an expected
states that if individuals reflect on values that are personally relevant
to them, they are less likely to experience distress and react defensively
when confronted with information that contradicts or threatens their sense
to a wrongdoing
Refusing to move or to change one's opinion; obstinate; firmly resisting,
even when present with facts that prove they are wrong.
is the indirect expression of hostility,
such as through procrastination, stubbornness, sullen behavior, or
deliberate or repeated failure to accomplish requested tasks for which one
is (often explicitly) responsible.
of ones own
is the unknown dark side of your own
People fail to see themselves
is a kind of logical argument that
applies deductive reasoning to arrive at a conclusion based on two or more
propositions that are asserted or assumed
to be true.
ErrorsAppeal to the stone
is dismissing a claim as absurd without demonstrating proof for its
: Cutting people with knives is a crime.
Surgeons cut people with knives. Surgeons are criminals.
List of Common Misconceptions
corrects erroneous beliefs
that are currently widely held about notable topics. Each misconception
and the corresponding facts have been discussed in published literature.
Note that each entry is formatted as a correction; the misconceptions
themselves are implied rather than stated.
Base Rate Fallacy
is a formal fallacy. If presented with related base
rate information (i.e. generic, general information) and specific
information (information only pertaining to a certain case), the mind
tends to ignore the former and focus on the latter. Base rate neglect is a
specific form of the more general Extension neglect.
is the height of ignorance." ~
is an example of cognitive bias
, in which
people react to a particular choice in different ways depending on how it
is presented; e.g. as a loss or as a gain. People tend to avoid risk when
a positive frame is presented but seek risks when a negative frame is
presented. Gain and loss are defined in the scenario as descriptions of
outcomes (e.g. lives lost or saved, disease patients treated and not
treated, lives saved and lost during accidents, etc.)
Blinkers (horse tack)
are a piece of horse tack that prevent the horse
the rear and, in some cases, to the side.
causes distant objects to be blurry while close
objects appear normal.
is hostility towards and mistrust of
intellect, intellectuals, and intellectual pursuits, usually expressed as
the derision of education, philosophy, literature, art, and science, as
impractical and contemptible.
is the idea that when individuals make decisions, their rationality is
limited by the available information, the tractability of the decision
problem, the cognitive limitations of their minds, and the time available
to make the decision. Decision-makers in this view act as satisficers,
seeking a satisfactory solution rather than an optimal one.
occurs in learning when there is an
interaction between the new material and transfer effects of past learned
behavior, memories or thoughts that have a negative influence in
comprehending the new material. Bringing to memory old knowledge has
the effect of impairing both the speed of learning and memory performance.
There are two main kinds of interference: proactive interference (see
Proactive learning), retroactive interference (see Retroactive learning).
The main assumption of interference theory is that the stored memory is
intact but unable to be retrieved due to competition created by newly
is the tendency not to notice and
more quickly forget stimuli that cause emotional discomfort and contradict
our prior beliefs.
is a delusional state that concerns
only one particular topic.
is a decision-making strategy or cognitive heuristic that entails
searching through the available alternatives until an acceptability
threshold is met.
is the notion that species can revert into more "primitive" forms over
one covers up, consciously or
unconsciously, weaknesses, frustrations, desires, or feelings of
inadequacy or incompetence in one life area through the
gratification or (drive towards) excellence in another area.
Ignorant people can be easily
Fooled by the
and other sources of Propaganda. (Twisted Logic)
Ignorant people are more susceptible to Mental Health Problems,
Physical Health Problems, Anger and Crime.
The Problems with trying to Teach Adults
is the Worlds Largest Killer
Gap and DividePopularity
Faith In Authority Is The Worst Enemy Of The
is being vague
because your statement lacks
the specifics or details to clarify the meaning. Not being specific enough
leads to meaningless chatter
reaching an inductive generalization
based on insufficient evidence. Making a hasty conclusion without
considering all of the variables.
is a conclusion about all or many
instances of a phenomenon that has been reached on the basis of just one
or just a few instances of that phenomenon. It is an example of jumping to
is something that
is not clear to the understanding.
are Not conclusive; Does not put an end to
doubt or question. Dose not explain enough in order to define the actions
that are needed to reach a particular goal, or to come to a particular
understanding. When there is no follow up, or
, then the amount of
mistakes will increase.
is a mental shortcut that relies on
immediate examples that come to a given person's mind when evaluating a
specific topic, concept, method or decision.
can also be Generalizing.
Media News Language Distortions
is to take something to be
the case or to be true without
or proof. Accepting
something without any evidence
. Arrogant or Presumptuous.
Make a Pretense of. Take liberties or act with
something. Used for the purpose of argument to indicate a
on which a statement can be based.
is another word for assuming. Pretending You Understand
is to believe something to be
true without verification or proof. To take liberties or act without
permission with too much
when someone believes that if "P implies Q and P is asserted to be true,
therefore Q must be true?" Guilty by
Association is not Always True
(false evidence) -
is the belief that something will happen without
considering the possibilities
will not happen, thus being
when the expected reality does not happen like you thought
is an unshakable belief in something without need for proof or
is an expression of strong disapproval; pronouncing as wrong or
is the act of giving a false appearance. Pretending with intention
to deceive. A false or unsupportable quality.
is being accused of having done something wrong or illegal but
. Declared but not proved. Doubtful or suspect.
Someone who is under suspicion.
The act or an instance of suspecting something
on little or no evidence.
is the belief in supernatural
one event causes another without any natural process linking the two
jump to conclusions, they incriminate, they judge, and
all without any hard evidence, or confirmed information, or
anything that is remotely relevant that would help them prove
that their reasoning is even accurate. Blowing hot air, a temper
tantrum, just another ignorant remark from the
, a waste of human language, and time.
Jumping to Conclusions
is where one "judge[s] or decide[s]
something without having all the facts; to reach unwarranted conclusions".
List of Common Misconceptions
is any of several hypothetical phenomena or
processes that reverse causality, allowing an effect to occur before its
When people assume, they make up stories
and pretend they know the facts, and they make other people
this pretend made up story, even when they have
very little facts. This behavior is idiotic. People should focus
more on each other and learn how to
and learn to fully understand ourselves and other people.
to learn how to stop assuming that they know more then the other
person. We have to stop pretending to have conversations that
never happened. Talking to yourself is not the same as talking
to the actual person. The art of conversation is the opportunity
to make a connection, to work together in mind. We have to stop
wasting time and energy, and life. We have this incredible
ability to communicate and use language, but we don't even teach
phenomenon studied in cognitive science and
social psychology. This term describes the role of motivation in
cognitive processes such as decision-making and attitude change
in a number of paradigms, including: Cognitive dissonance
reduction, Beliefs about others on whom one's own outcomes
depend, Evaluation of evidence related to one's own outcomes.
Bias is favoring something in advance that prevents
consideration of an issue
or situation. Influence in an unfair way.
An attitude of mind especially one that favors one alternative
over others. An inclination to favor one group or view or
opinion over alternatives. A predisposition to like something.
An attitude of mind
especially one that favors one alternative
over others. An inclination beforehand to interpret statements
in a particular way. A disposition in advance to react in a
particular way. The state of being susceptible; easily affected.
A natural or acquired habit or characteristic tendency in a
person or thing. A characteristic likelihood of or natural
disposition toward a certain condition or character or effect. A
feeling of favorable regard. Consider as the
. Promote over another.
Give preference to one over another. Opinion
- Pretending to Understand
Don't judge a book totally by its
, and don't
judge information totally by its source
Don't use barriers when receiving information, use
that are based on
and not based on preconceived
. Putting up
will lower your
chances of learning things that may be extremely important, which will
decrease your odds for success and lower your chances in life, and you
only have so many chances in life, so don't waste them on a foolish
. You need to
, and stop
pretending that you have learned enough
is a predisposition to
inclination to favor one group or view or opinion over
advance to react
particular way. An inclination beforehand to interpret statements in a
attitude of mind especially one that favors one
over others. Inclined to
feel a liking.
is a psychological phenomenon by which
people tend to develop a preference for things merely because they are
familiar with them. In social psychology, this effect is sometimes called
the familiarity principle. The effect has been demonstrated with many
kinds of things, including words, Chinese characters, paintings, pictures
of faces, geometric figures, and sounds. In studies of interpersonal
attraction, the more often a person is seen by someone, the more pleasing
and likeable that person appears to be.
refers to a systematic pattern of deviation
from norm or rationality in judgment, whereby inferences about other
people and situations may be drawn in an illogical fashion. Individuals
create their own "subjective social reality" from their
input. An individual's construction of social reality, not the objective
input, may dictate their behaviour in the social world. Thus, cognitive
biases may sometimes lead to perceptual distortion, inaccurate judgment,
illogical interpretation, or what is broadly called irrationality.
List of Cognitive Biases
is a cognitive bias that refers to the systematic errors made
when people evaluate or try to find reasons for their own and others'
behaviors. People constantly make attributions regarding the cause of
their own and others' behaviors; however, attributions do not always
accurately mirror reality. Rather than operating as
people are prone to perceptual errors that lead to biased interpretations
of their social world. Attributions
assigning some quality or character to a person or thing. Assigning to a
cause or source.
is when an uncertain quantity is the probability
distribution that would express one's beliefs about this quantity before
some evidence is taken into account.
sometimes known as in-group–out-group bias,
, or intergroup bias, is a
pattern of favoring members of one's in-group over out-group members. This
can be expressed in evaluation of others, in allocation of resources, and
in many other way.
is a cognitive bias by which a person will consider a
statement or another piece of information to be correct if it has any
personal meaning or significance to them. In other words, a person whose
opinion is affected by subjective validation will perceive two unrelated
events (i.e., a coincidence) to be related because their personal belief
demands that they be related. Closely related to the Forer effect,
subjective validation is an important element in cold reading. It is
considered to be the main reason behind most reports of
also called survey bias
, is the
tendency of a person to answer questions on a survey untruthfully or
misleadingly. For example, they may feel pressure to give answers that are
socially acceptable. A general term for a wide range of cognitive biases
that influence the responses of participants away from an accurate or
truthful response. These biases are most prevalent in the types of studies
and research that involve participant self-report, such as structured
interviews or surveys. Response biases can have a large impact on the
validity of questionnaires or
is the observation that individuals will give high accuracy ratings to
descriptions of their personality that supposedly are tailored
specifically for them but are, in fact, vague and general enough to apply
to a wide range of people. This effect can provide a partial explanation
for the widespread acceptance of some beliefs and practices, such as
astrology, fortune telling, graphology, aura reading and some types of
Insensitivity to Sample Size
is a cognitive bias that occurs when
people judge the probability of obtaining a sample statistic without
respect to the sample size.
is a cognitive bias in which a person overestimates his or
her ability to interpret and predict accurately the outcome when analyzing
a set of data, in particular when the data analyzed show a very consistent
pattern—that is, when the data "tell" a coherent story. This effect
persists even when the person is aware of all the factors that limit the
accuracy of his or her predictions, that is when the data and/or methods
used to judge them lead to highly fallible predictions.
is the phenomenon of perceiving a relationship between
variables (typically people, events, or behaviors) even when no such
relationship exists. Expert Opinion
is the tendency to search for, interpret, favor, and recall
information in a way that confirms one's preexisting beliefs or
hypotheses, while giving disproportionately less consideration to
We tend to seek out and listen to information that confirms what we
already believe. Not only do we disregard contrary ideas, but we also
interpret ambiguous ones to fit our beliefs. Confirming our preconceptions
feels good. We like to be right. In reality, we can become blind to the
is a phenomenon in which a
disagreement becomes more extreme as the different parties consider
evidence on the issue. It is one of the effects of confirmation bias: the
tendency of people to search for and interpret evidence selectively, to
reinforce their current beliefs or attitudes. When people encounter
ambiguous evidence, this bias can potentially result in each of them
interpreting it as in support of their existing attitudes, widening rather
than narrowing the disagreement between them.
Inference-Observation Confusion. Unwarranted Conclusions
Judges or decides something without having all the facts.
is the quality of being inclined to accept and act on the suggestions of
others; where false but plausible information is given and one fills in
the gaps in certain memories with false
when recalling a scenario or moment. Suggestibility uses
cues to distort recollection after persistently being told something
pertaining to a past event, one's memory of the event conforms to what
they've been told.
Listening is a Skill
statistic is biased
if it is calculated in such a way that
it is only systematically different from the population
parameter of interest.
by Pace Art + Technology.
The following lists some types of biases, which can overlap.
involves individuals being more likely to be
selected for study than others, biasing the sample. This can
also be termed Berksonian bias.
evaluating diagnostic tests
patient samples, leading to an overestimate of the sensitivity
and specificity of the test.
Bias of an estimator
is the difference between an
estimator's expectations and the true value of the parameter
Bias of an Estimator
of an estimator is the difference between this
value and the
of the parameter being
estimated. An estimator or decision rule with zero bias is called
unbiased. Otherwise the estimator is said to be biased. In
, "bias" is an objective
statement about a function, and while not a desired property, it is not
pejorative, unlike the ordinary English use of the term "bias".
is the bias that appears in estimates of
parameters in a regression analysis when the assumed
specification omits an independent variable that should be in
statistical hypothesis testing
, a test is said to be
unbiased when the probability of committing a type I error (i.e.
false positive) is less than the significance level, and that of
getting a true positive (rejecting the null hypothesis when the
alternative hypothesis is true) is at least that of the
occurs when a phenomenon is more likely to be
observed for a particular set of study subjects. For instance,
the syndemic involving obesity and diabetes may mean doctors are
more likely to look for diabetes in obese patients than in
thinner patients, leading to an inflation in diabetes among
obese patients because of skewed detection efforts.
may lead to selection of outcomes, test samples, or
test procedures that favor a study's financial sponsor.
involves a skew in the availability of data, such
that observations of a certain kind are more likely to be
we judge a decision based on its outcome rather than how exactly the
decision was made in the moment. Just because you win a lottery doesn't
mean that buying a lottery ticket was a smart decision. Here you are
deciding the value of decision after you have seen the outcome.
arise due to the way that the results are
arise due to the systematic exclusion of certain
individuals from the study.
arises due to a loss of participants e.g. loss to
follow up during a study.
arises due to differences in the accuracy or
completeness of participant recollections of past events. e.g. a
patient cannot recall how many cigarettes they smoked last week
exactly, leading to over-estimation or under-estimation.
arises when the researcher unconsciously
influences the experiment due to cognitive bias where judgment
may alter how an experiment is carried out / how results are
recorded.Bias blind spot
when people tend to think themselves as less biased than other people. It
means that by default we remain blind to our own cognitive biases.
What if your bias was based on lies or inaccurate information?
There are no quick fixes when it comes to repairing our biases. It takes
years to learn how to overcome biases, and you have to have discipline and
awareness. But even then, there are no guarantees that you will always be
accurate. People need to be on a learning journey, and be reminded that
this journey should never end. Learning must be part of our daily
responsibilities, like eating healthy, drinking clean water, sleeping
enough, exercising, and learning something new that will increase your
understanding of yourself and the world around you. And remember, there is
no finish line or graduation day, only a continuation, something that adds
to life and extends life for the better. Live, Learn, Love and Progress.
is a cognitive bias in which people wrongly
think they have direct insight into the origins of their mental
states, while treating others' introspections as unreliable. In certain
situations, this illusion leads people to make confident but false
explanations of their own behavior (called "causal theories") or
inaccurate predictions of their future mental states.
is how individuals adapt to information or experiences that are
threatening to their self-concept.
Bias could also be
a way of looking at
using a particular set of parameters or roperties. But you
can't use the same parameters for everything.
are those physical quantities which directly describe the
physical attributes of the system;
are those combinations of the properties which suffice to
determine the response of the system. Properties can have all sorts of
dimensions, depending upon the system being considered; parameters are
dimensionless, or have the dimension of time or its reciprocal.
A man and his son were in an automobile accident. The man died
on the way to the hospital, but the boy was rushed into surgery.
The emergency room surgeon said "I can't operate, that's my
son!" How is this possible? Answer: The surgeon was
The worst thing about assuming is
that people ask a
when what they are really doing is making an
accusation and a judgment in the form of a question, because they assume
that they know the answer. So it's not a question, but an accusation and a
judgment without a trial, or without debate. Presumptuous questions can
either be balanced or unbalanced. Unbalanced questions ask questions only
from the point of view of one side of an argument. For example, an
interrogator might ask “’Do you favor the death penalty for persons
convicted of murder?”’ This question assumes that the person’s only point
of view in the situation is that a person who is convicted must either get
the death penalty or not. The second type of presumptuous question is
balanced question. This is when the interrogator uses opposite questions
to make the witness believe that the question is balanced when the reality
is that it is not. For example, the interrogator would ask, “’Do you favor
life in prison, without the possibility of parole?” This type of question
may seem balanced when in reality it is still influencing the person to
discuss life in prison and no other choice.
The Right to Remain Silent
is interviewing as commonly employed by law
enforcement officers, military personnel, and intelligence agencies with
the goal of eliciting useful information. Interrogation
may involve a
diverse array of techniques, ranging from developing a rapport with the
subject, to outright torture
one that implies that a certain answer should be given in response, or
falsely presents a presupposition in the question as accepted fact. Such a
question distorts the memory
thereby tricking the person into answering in
a specific way that might or might not be true or consistent with their
actual feelings, and can be deliberate or unintentional. For example, the
phrasing "Don't you think this was wrong?
" is more suggestive than "Do you
think this was wrong?
" despite the difference of only one word. The former
may subtly pressure the respondent into responding "yes," whereas the
latter is far more direct. Repeated questions can make people think their
first answer is wrong and lead them to change their answer, or it can
cause people to continuously answer until the interrogator gets the exact
response that they desire. The diction used by the interviewer can also be
an influencing factor to the response given by the interrogated
is a question that contains a controversial or
unjustified assumption (e.g., a presumption of guilt).
when someone asks a
upon more than one issue, yet allows only for one answer. This may result
in inaccuracies in the attitudes being measured for the question, as the
respondent can answer only one of the two questions, and cannot indicate
which one is being answered.
is a question that has a presupposition that is
complex. The presupposition is a proposition that is presumed to be
acceptable to the respondent when the question is asked.
is a figure of speech in the form of a question
that is asked to make a point rather than to elicit an answer. Though a
rhetorical question does not require a direct answer, in many cases it may
be intended to start a discussion
or at least draw an acknowledgement that the listener understands the
intended message. A common example is the question "Can't
you do anything right?
" This question, when posed, is intended
not to ask about the listener's ability, but rather to insinuate the
listener's lack of ability. Although sometimes amusing and even humorous,
rhetorical questions are rarely meant for pure, comedic effect.
is an implicit assumption about the world or background
belief relating to an utterance whose truth is taken for granted in
is a confession obtained by a suspect or a
under means of torture
(including enhanced interrogation techniques) or other forms of
Depending on the level of coercion
used, a forced confession is not
in revealing the truth
. The person being interrogated may agree to the
story presented to him or even make up falsehoods himself in order to
satisfy the interrogator and discontinue his
is an admission of guilt for a
for which the confessor is
not responsible. False confessions can be induced through coercion or by
the mental disorder or incompetency of the accused. Research demonstrates
that false confessions occur on a regular basis in
, which is one reason why
has established a series of rules—called "confession
rules"—to detect, and subsequently reject, false confessions. Plea
agreements typically require the defendant to stipulate to a set of facts
establishing that he/she is guilty of the offense; in the United States
federal system, before entering judgment on a guilty plea, the court must
determine that there is a factual basis for the plea.
is a formal protest
raised in court
during a trial to disallow a witness's testimony or other
evidence which would be in violation of the rules of evidence or other
List of Objections
Effects of misleading questions and hypnotic memory suggestion
on memory reports: a signal-detection analysis.
In 2002, the first author and colleagues reported data
indicating that both hypnosis and misleading questions decreased
the accuracy of
and decreased "don't know" response rates, that the
effects of misleading questions were significantly greater than
those of hypnosis, and that the two effects were additive. Using
a sample of 194 undergraduate students, the present study
replicated the findings that misleading questions reduce
accuracy and "don't know" responding but failed to replicate the
negative effect of hypnosis on memory reports. Signal detection
analysis indicated that misleading questioning produced
decreased sensitivity accompanied by higher response bias,
though affecting sensitivity more than producing a criterion
National Criminal Justice Reference Service
Ask a question
as if you are talking to a Machine
unusual for someone not to understand something the first time
that they look at it
Everyone on the planet knows that to be a fact, yet to many
people still assume and jump to conclusions. And you know why?
People forget. People forget that they know that it's not
unusual for someone not to understand something the first time
that they look at it. So you are either lying to yourself and
others, or you have a really bad memory.
Too many people can't understand the
things that will help them to understand. People cannot utilize
knowledge and information if they never learned how to utilize
knowledge and information. So what exactly is knowledge and
information. knowledge and information is the potential energy
that is in every human being. But in order to have access to
this power, you have to learn the right things at the right
time. And you also have to have access to the world most
valuable knowledge and information that the world has to offer,
and you have to be shown how to effectively and efficiently use
knowledge and information, so that you would receive the maximum
benefits from knowledge and information, and increase your
awareness about yourself and the world around you, and also have
more control, more freedom, more power, more potential, and more
are not stupid
, people just don't
have enough knowledge and information in order to accurately
understand themselves and the world around them. To say someone
one is stupid because they did not learn something that you know, is
stupid. To expect people to know something that you know, is stupid. You
cannot assume to understand someone's thinking, you should just
It's really difficult when there are
so many ignorant people, mentally challenged but
. So they can appear to be normal, but they are
far from normal, they cause more harm then good, because they
can only act functional temporally, the rest of the time they
are causing damage. But the damage goes unnoticeable to most
people, so the damage continues, which is extremely crazy. We
need to remove these people from their
and replace them with more competent people, while
at the same time, get these nonfunctioning people the help that
I have to stop being surprised and
irritated by peoples ignorance
, no one is to blame for their own
stupidity, because we know where the problem lie's, and that is
our education. We need to drastically improve education, and the
media, so that all citizens are completely educated and
informed. Otherwise this ignorance will continue to kill us
cause us problems till the day we die, and that my friend is the
future that I'm trying to stop from ever happening, and not just
for me, but for the trillions of people who will have to live
after me. If life is a cycle, then you better get on this bike
with me, because we have a lot of peddling to do.
Knowledge Peddler's Unite
In order to become intelligent, the first thing that you need to do is
to realize how ignorant you are. You can read all
the best books in the world
and go to the best colleges
, but if you are not educating yourself on the
things that make you ignorant, and if you're not taking the necessary
steps to reduce ignorant actions and thoughts, then you will always
be ignorant, even though you are very knowledgeable
Being smart is more then not being stupid.
It's a combination of many different skills
acquiring specialized knowledge over many years.
Ignorance in itself has an unusual
side effect of blinding the person from their own ignorance
So how does a person realize that they are ignorant when it’s
the ignorance itself that keeps them from realizing that they
are ignorant? Think
about when you see a doctor and the doctor tells you that you
have been diagnosed with a disease, a lot of people would say
that they never knew that they were sick.
Anton Babinski Syndrome
So there has to be a
way to diagnose
. We need some way to communicate or a test that
will say to that person that their thinking is not accurate
without saying that they are stupid, because
I don’t think that
anyone is stupid
, it's just that some of us are not thinking
correctly. There's a big difference between being stupid, and
doing stupid things. Most people have some level of
intelligence, it's just that most people are not always using
their intelligence at the right time or in the right way. We have to understand that people are not born bad,
they are simply brought up badly and thus become a bad person.
That's why most people in
have very little education as
well as very poor reading and writing skills. So people are not
born ignorant, they are just
brought up ignorantly
become an ignorant person. Now ignorant does not mean that you
are stupid. You can have a
(Intelligence Quotient) and
still be ignorant
explain this lets first define ignorance. Though the definition
of ignorance is usually defined a ‘ person who is ‘Uneducated in
general, lacking knowledge or sophistication, Unaware because of
a lack of relevant information or knowledge’. That is the more
common definition that I do not totally agree with. I would like
to define ignorance as a ‘ person who lacks a common sense that
keeps oneself from
separating opinion from fact
, a person who
dismisses information solely based on preference, a person who
assumes without questioning, and a person who has difficulty
formulating information in order to obtain a logical answer.
This to me is a more accurate meaning of the word ignorance. I
wonder if I could have the dictionary updated to include this
definition or just replace the old definition with the one above, unless
of course there is a better word in the dictionary for what is described above. Now some of you are still wondering how
can you have a high IQ and still be ignorant. To me an IQ test
is not a measure of intelligence but more of a test to measure
ones brain function. If a persons IQ is high then their ability
to process information and access their memory is exceptional,
thus their brain is functioning properly. A person with a high
IQ should be nurtured very carefully so that their ability is
not stifled and at the same time their brain is not overwhelmed
. A person with a low IQ will be treated
the same way, but they will need extra special attention to get
their brain functioning like a person with a high IQ. So if you
use my definition of ignorance you will find that there are
people with high IQ’s who are ignorant. They can process
information, but they still have trouble with separating opinion
from fact and sometimes can still dismiss information solely
based on preference. I have not yet met an intelligent person. I
have met some really smart people but I would not consider them
First, you have to admit that
you can be wrong about things.
Second, you have to admit that you
don't know enough about yourself and the world around you. Then and Only
then will you be able to effectively learn to increase your understanding
about yourself and the world around you. There is one extremely important
thing that you need to commit to, and that is learning. Otherwise, you
will be ignorant till the day you die.
If you don't know how
ignorant you are every day, then that's another day that you didn't learn
anything. And those days can easily and quickly turn into years.
Too many people just pretend that they know enough
about themselves and the world. That means that millions of people are
living in a fantasy world
of make believe.
Almost totally oblivious of the reality of this world, or the impact that
they have on themselves and other people. And the only way for people to
escape this quasi reality
, is to learn what
things in life are reality. Things that have been proven, things that have
been experienced. And one of the most important things that a person needs
to do first is to admit how ignorant they are about themselves, and how
ignorant they are about the world around them. And the only way to know
how ignorant you are, is to learn and study knowledge that would reveal
how ignorant you are, because ignorance does not reveal itself. They say
that being stupid doesn't hurt, like ignorance is bliss. That's a lie,
because being stupid does hurt, you just don't know it because you're
stupid. And the only way to know how much you're hurting yourself and
other people, is to learn why. And one of the best ways to learn is by
reading. But you can't read just anything because that would also be
stupid. You have to seek out the exact knowledge that you need that would
help increase your understanding of yourself and the world around you. You
have to take learning seriously, because everything depends on it,
When it comes to
, I look at them
as being normal and everyone else being abnormal or just not
aware of their potential, just yet. It’s really hard to
because to me intelligence must be proven in many
ways that would clearly define a person as being intelligent.
People have estimated that there are
over 3 million academically gifted students
in the United
States alone, which is an ignorant observation, because everyone
has the potential to be so called gifted. The single largest
disability that every child has is not having a school that
understands knowledge and intelligence. This goes beyond
. The U.S. is not just Neglecting Its
Smartest Kids, but all kids. Todays schools produce more
Intellectual Disabilities then they do Intellectual abilities,
and the reason that you don't know this is because you have an
. When smart kids do poorly in school, that proves
schools are flawed
Young females limit their own progress based on what
they believe about their intelligence called the "bright
". Growth mindset
describes the underlying beliefs that people have about learning and
intelligence. When students believe they can get smarter, they understand
that effort makes them stronger.
areas of intelligence
intelligence, math intelligence, music intelligence, spatial intelligence,
self intelligence and so on.
Take any person from any continent on
this planet, and everyone will say that they would prefer to be
strong then weak. It's a
humans natural instinct
to be strong,
humans would never choose to be weak, but that is exactly what
we have done with our education system. We have a very weak
education, which creates weak minds. And a weak mind doesn't
know its weak, because it is to weak to figure it out.
"Knowledge will forever govern ignorance; and a people who mean
to be their own governors must arm themselves with the power which
knowledge gives." -
"The only way to
become intelligent is to first admit that you are a moron, then
and only then, does the journey towards intelligence
begin...It's impossible to know all the answers, especially when
don't even know the questions
"The fool doth think he
is wise, but the wise man knows himself to be a fool". - (Act V,
As You Like It
"You don't know what
you do not know, until you know what you did not know."
Collins - Both Sides
is not a destination, Intelligence is a path that you take, and
staying on this path is to be intelligent."
"Intelligence is being aware of all the things that you still
don't know but making the effort to know them, while using all
the things that you do know, effectively as possible. Humans
need to feed
as well as their stomachs, we need to be hunters
and gatherers of knowledge. And we need to
preserve all the valuable knowledge
that we find and create.
We certainly don't want to end up like
, dead and gone with very little records to
"I wouldn't call people ignorant or
incompetent, people just lack the intelligence and the necessary
skills that are needed to run their life or to do their job
effectively or efficiently. Improving education and training
will help solve this problem."
just revealing how ignorant someone's behavior is, not all behaviors are
bad, just the behaviors that cause damage and suffering. Some people take
offense to having their ignorance revealed, like they feel bad for finding
out that they were wrong about something, or having someone find out about
a horrible secret they have been hiding, something embarrassing, something
shameful. So Why do some people see learning as something negative and
tedious?I didn't want to be the one to tell you this
, but since no one
else has, I guess I'm stuck with this job of having to inform you. Don't
blame the messenger, because no one is to blame, until tomorrow that is.
Maybe you will forget what you have learned today, so maybe I will have to
remind you again tomorrow, I hope not. I hope we keep learning. A better
world is waiting for us, but it will not wait forever. And this is not
just about our time, our flash in the pan, this is about all time, and the
time that trillions upon trillions of future generations who will either
have to endure life or have the pleasure to enjoy life, this choice is
ours now, and tomorrow. I choose enjoy. No one should ever have to suffer
and endure from other peoples behavior. No one. Learning needs to be the
new fad, the new relish. There is tremendous amount of pleasure that comes
from learning. Everyone should be benefiting from learning. But when some
people can't learn because they don't have access, or they refuse to
learn, then they haven't learned the most important thing about learning,
which is, you learn everyday, if not, you will struggle, and in that
struggle is when people make most of their mistakes, mistakes that do most
"I work around a lot of things,
especially my own ignorance, because if you can't get passed
your own ignorance, you're screwed."
"I have experienced things and learned
from them even before I knew what they were. Meaning that, you
do not necessarily have to have a language to explain something
in order to learn from something, that is the brilliant design
of the brain. Just like having
Your brain is like an
8 cylinder engine
. When your brain finally starts to run on
6 cylinders, you then realize that your brain has been only
running on 2 cylinders for several years. And now that you're
running on 6 cylinders, you can now improve and progress so that
you will eventually be running on all 8 cylinders, meaning that
you will eventually have full access to the power of the human
I'm still an Idiot sometimes, but not as much as I used to be
Everyone is inflicted with some form of ignorance,
. But it's the level of ignorance and the amount of
ignorance that a person has that will ultimately determine the
amount of damage that a person will do to themselves, or to
others, or to the world.
Ignorance kills more people then all
causes of death combined.
And why we hardy ever here
anything about the worlds biggest killer is because we are ignorant. So
when we finally do realize how ignorant we are, that is when learning will
finally become extremely important, and a lot more meaningful then ever
before. It's an epiphany and the great awakening all rolled up into one.
I'm still an idiot
, but I'm always learning, so I'm always
discovering more ways to do what is right. I have made a lot of
I still have many more improvements to make
Once you start the process of self examination, you are starting
an amazing journey. Making a commitment to never stop
learning about yourself and the world
around you is something that everyone needs to do. But you need to avoid being consumed by all the
problems, and by all the advancements. You need
Learn, Love and Progress
. But what is
? Thinking has bought you here and has made your life
possible, but can you understand the importance? The fact that you have
the most amazing thing called the brain should be enough to explore its
inner workings. You live because of the environment that you
grew into helped you to live, now its time to find out where
this love is coming from. When things go bad it's not about
hate, its about information going bad. That is why we have
correcting data error software
, which is another word for
learning, where we learn that
, so how
do we correct them? You can't be aware of everything or plan for
everything, but you can increase your odds of success by
continually learning and paying attention to change and the
evidence of changes to come. The one major advantage that humans
have is that we can see the future. This is what life needs to
have in order to survive. And seeing the future has nothing to
do with sight or sound, only the
learned from sight and
sound, which do not have to be experienced, only read. That is
the human advantage. If I did not tell you to turn left instead
of right, you would have made a wrong turn.
enough about intelligence to know that I'm not intelligent. And I also
know enough about intelligence to know that no one else is intelligent
either. Intelligence is a destination that I'm working on, and I hope that
intelligence would be everyone's destination too, because I don't want to
be intelligent all by myself, because that wouldn't be intelligent."
"The common curse of
mankind, - folly and ignorance". - (Act II, Scene III).
Troilus and Cressida
"I was the idiot who
didn't know any better, but I wanted to know better, but I didn't
know how. So I'm sorry it took so long, after all, I was an
idiot, but now I'm less of an idiot, which means I can continually
improve and become even smarter then I am now."
"What are the smartest
countries in the world, the answer is none. People who do
are incredibly ignorant and criminal, especially
when they use math and science
as a predictor of
good outcomes. Ignorant people cannot measure intelligence,
especially when they can't even measure their own ignorance."
"I have neither the
time nor the crayons to explain it to you."
"I can explain
it to you but I can't understand it for you."
"You couldn't pour the water out of a boot if the instructions were written on the heel."
"There is a cult of ignorance in the United States, and there
always has been. The strain of anti-intellectualism has been a constant
thread winding its way through our political and cultural life, nurtured
by the false notion that democracy means that my ignorance is just as good
as your knowledge."
, (written January 21st, 1980).
towards and the mistrust of
intellect, intellectuals, and intellectual pursuits, usually expressed as
disrespect of education, philosophy,
literature, art, and science, as impractical and contemptible.
what happens when ignorance speaks about intelligence. You have to wonder
where in the hell are ignorant people getting this information from? How
could you perceive and understand other peoples ignorance when you are not
even aware of your own ignorance, or even understand why you are
ignorant?" I understand the mistrust of certain people, because some
people pretend to be intelligent, when in fact they're criminals. But what
I don't understand is that lack of Reasoning
that you are supposed to have.
You can't create your own quasi reality and
other people for
not understanding you. You have to learn how to
and stop the
To Know, or not to Know?
Is that even a question?Epiphany
is a sudden revelation. A moment of sudden
or revelation. Epiphany
is a scientific breakthrough that allows a problem or situation to be
understood from a new and deeper perspective
. Having a depth of
is required to allow the leap of understanding.
is an enlightening or
is the process of
and reducing ignorance.
. Enlightenment is that feeling you get when you
finally release ignorance that you have been holding on to. Letting go of
your stupidity, a relief from not knowing, to a realization of knowing.
refers to the "full
of a situation".
was an intellectual and philosophical movement which
dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century. The
Enlightenment included a range of ideas centered on reason as the primary
source of authority and legitimacy, and came to advance ideals like
separation of church and state
The Great Awakening
is the period in
Human Civilization when the value of Knowledge and Information is fully
Realized. Making Human intelligence accessible to every human on the
planet. Which in turn utilizes the potential energy of every person on the
planet. Making humans feel more connected to each other, more connected to
the earth, and more connected to life itself. Creating a global awareness
of monumental proportions. It will be like experiencing life for the very
first time on levels that were never imagined. Consciousness Raising
is an arrival that has been awaited, especially of something momentous.
is a hypothetical phenomenon in which a new behavior or
idea is claimed to spread rapidly by unexplained means from one group
to all related groups once a critical number of members of one group
exhibit the new behavior or acknowledge the new idea.
Tipping Point (sociology)
is a point in time
when a group—or a large
number of group members—rapidly and dramatically changes its behavior by
widely adopting a previously rare practice.
is a term in the study of higher education used to describe
core concepts — or threshold concepts — which, once understood, transform
perception of a given subject, phenomenon, or experience. There are
certain concepts, or certain learning experiences, which resemble
passing through a portal
, from which a new
perspective opens up, allowing things formerly not perceived to come into
. This permits a new and previously inaccessible way of thinking about
something. It represents a transformed way of understanding, or
interpreting, or viewing something, without which the learner cannot
progress, and results in a reformulation of the learners’ frame of
meaning. The thresholds approach also emphasises the importance of
disciplinary contexts. As a consequence of comprehending a threshold
concept there may thus be a transformed internal view of subject matter,
subject landscape, or even world view.
Critical Point (mathematics)
of a differentiable function of a real or
is any value in its domain where its derivative is 0. Some
authors include in the critical points the limit points where the function
may be prolongated by continuity and where the derivative is not defined.
For a differentiable function
several real variables, a critical point is a value in its domain where
all partial derivatives are zero. The value of the function at a critical
point is a critical value.
is a point of a curve at which a change in the
direction of curvature occurs. A
point on a curve
at which the curve changes from being concave
(concave downward) to convex (concave upward), or vice versa. A point
where the curvature vanishes but does not change sign is sometimes called
a point of undulation or undulation point. Inflection point in business is
a time of significant change in a situation or a
is a ceremony of the passage which occurs when an individual
leaves one group to enter another. It involves a significant change of
status in society. Rites of passage have three phases: separation,
is a term applied to a range of spiritual or religious beliefs and
practices that developed in Western nations during the 1970s. Changes in
Mind, Body and Spirit.
constitutes a change in the meaning system that a
person holds as a basis for self-definition, the interpretation of life,
and overarching purposes and ultimate concerns. a fundamental change in
the place of the sacred or the character of the sacred in the life of the
refers to the attainment of insight in ultimate or hidden
truths, and to human transformation supported by various practices and
experiences. kind of ecstasy or altered state of
given a religious or spiritual meaning.
is coming to understand something clearly and distinctly. Making
real or giving the appearance of
Spanky's Story in the Little Rascals (1922 to 1944)
is receptiveness to new ideas. Open-mindedness relates
to the way in which people approach the views and knowledge of others, and
"incorporate the beliefs that others should be free to express their views
and that the value of others’ knowledge should be recognized." There are
various scales for the measurement of open-mindedness.
is the belief that
all criteria of judgment
are relative to the
individuals and situations involved, but this is being narrow-mined and
is to expand one's range of interests, activities, and
is the unexpected and fortunate discoveries, usually happening when
looking for something unrelated. Finding something nice while
looking for something else.
is an unknown and unpredictable phenomenon that leads to a
Matter of Fact
, in the
the type of knowledge that can be characterized as arising out of one's
interaction with and experience in the external world (as compared to a
Relation of Ideas). In a Kantian framework, it is equivalent to the
synthetic a posteriori. Examples:-The sun will come out tomorrow. (Not
reason but habitual)-There are people outside the room. (One cannot know
what is outside one's own experience) How We Know:-It is impossible to
"know everything."-Depend upon The Principles of Induction and The
Uniformity of Nature. -Denying these do not lead to a contradiction.
Do you Know Enough?
When you don't know something, that means that something is
invisible to you, as if it doesn't exist. And the only way to know
something, is to learn about it. But the only way that you can learn about
something is when you have access to knowledge and information along with
the abilities and skills to understand it.
Why don't you know what you've
got Till it's gone
"Finding out that
you're ignorant is probably one of the best things that will ever happen
in your life, and the worst thing that will happen in your life will be
not doing anything about your ignorance. Don't ignore the activity of
learning, it is the holy grail
Just don't think, Know
. It's not what
you think, it's what you know. It's what you know for sure, and not what
you think you know. Know. "I almost learned something today."
"All concepts are dependent on
consciousness to know them."
"What is essential is invisible to the
Antoine de Saint-Exupery
You can't understand something when
you don't have the knowledge and information that's needed to understand
it. Things will only exist in your mind when you have the knowledge that
proves something exists. There for, things will not exist or be known
to you until you learn about its existence. If people cannot understand
the importance of learning, then people will never learn anything
important, and they will never know that because that knowledge does not
exist in their mind. You don't know what you don't know, so you will never
know what you don't know, or know what you can know. So remember, you
can't know what you don't know until you learn what you don't know. The
Key is learning
How do you get people to know what they don't
By using all communication technologies effectively and
efficiently. We are only using 10%
Do you know enough about yourself
? Do you
know enough about the
What do you know
? And, is it
enough? I know enough to get buy, but what is enough? And what
is getting buy mean? You can't even get buy these questions, so how
could you know enough? Can you explain what you know? And if so,
how could it be enough? Some people just don't want to
, so they
pretend that they know enough, or, they did not know enough to
begin with, so they don't even know what they don't know. I
know. I know that I don't know everything.
But the more I know
the more of everything is possible. "I almost know a lot of
things." Keep Reading
Do you know the Basics
Do you know enough
about a particular subject in order to perform a
? Do you know what
Do you know what
What is there to
Do you understand what Learning
is? Do you know what Living in
is? Do you know why there's a
Could you know too much
You need to Have an Open
And you need to be able to Expand your Mind
and Broaden your Horizons
Curse of Knowledge
is the inability of
more informed individual to think about the problems from the perspective
of lesser informed individuals.
"Don't believe everything you
"Get Rid of Everything that you Think you Know."
"I wouldn't say that there is Limits to
Knowledge, what I would say is that there is definitely limits
to the Lack of Knowledge."
"It aint what you don't know that gets you
into trouble, it's what you think you know for sure that just
aint so." ~
asserts that in order for the thinking subject
(human reason or consciousness) to be able to know its object (the world)
at all, there must be in some sense an identity of thought and being.
Otherwise, the subject would never have access to the object and we would
have no certainty about any of our knowledge of the world. To account for
the differences between thought and being, however, as well as the
richness and diversity of each, the unity of thought and being cannot be
expressed as the abstract identity "A=A". Absolute idealism is the attempt
to demonstrate this unity using a new "speculative" philosophical method,
which requires new concepts and rules of logic.
freedom begins when one says with Socrates that he knows that he knows
nothing, and then goes on to add: Do you know what you don’t know and
therefore what you should know? If your answer is affirmative and humble,
then you are your own teacher, you are making your own assignment, and you
will be your own best critic. You will not need externally imposed
courses, nor marks, nor diplomas, nor a nod from your boss . . . in
business or in politics." -
(wiki)People Need to Stop
Pretending that they Know and stop pretending that they understand certain things.
people from learning. But it doesn't stop people from expressing their
opinions that do more harm then good. Believing
that you know something that isn't true
can do a lot of
damage. Pretending that you
understand something is one of the most damaging things that you can do to
yourself. It's more then just wrong and illogical, it's a self
inflicted learning disability. Not only will you will suffer from your own
, but other people will suffer as well.
Once you stop learning, you stop living. So instead of accelerating
towards life, you accelerate towards death, like a cancer. You have to
first admit that your ignorant in order to start the process of
Don't Know the Half of It." "Do you know how the
Stop Pretending you Know. If you never realize your own
ignorance and never admit how much you still don't know and how much you
still need to learn and understand, then you will be ignorant for the rest
of your life, and that is a complete waste of human intelligence, which is
also a complete waste of human potential and human energy.
you call it thinking when you never ask
and never seek
answers and never confirm the things you think you know, that's not
thinking, that's rumination
which is like a
,, your moving, but you're not getting anywhere.
Every person on earth makes the same mistake of
believing that they have learned enough
, and that the knowledge they have
gives them full understanding of themselves and the world around them. But
trying to figure out what you don't know is not that easy. And you must
have access to the knowledge that you need, and some guidance to navigate
through the worlds accumulated knowledge that has been collected in the
last 2,000 years or so. People naively believe that they are learning
enough because they watch the news and do some reading. Well your wrong,
you are not learning enough. Read BK101 and you will begin to learn
Everybody Knows - Leonard Cohen
(youtube) - sadly the fact is,
everyone doesn't know.What is it that fools people into believing that
they know enough?
Is it that people don't even ask what's missing? If it
were easy for people to measure their intelligence level and skills level,
then people would be more aware of their potential, and more aware of what
they know and what they don't know.
: We are largely unaware of how little we
understand. We live with the belief that we understand more than we do.
When we know about something, we find it hard to imagine that someone else
doesn’t know it. We confuse the knowledge in our heads with the knowledge
we have access to. We live in a community of
and we fail to distinguish the knowledge that is in our
heads from the knowledge outside of it. We think the knowledge we have
about how things work sits inside our skulls when in fact we’re
drawing a lot of it from the environment and from other people. most of
what is in our heads is quite
need to see the light and free yourself from the darkness of ignorance.
Intelligence is just a natural progression. To embrace Intelligence is to
can say that you don't know how to speak a particular language
. And you
can confirm this by trying to speak a language that you never learned how
to speak. You can also say that you don't know enough about yourself and
the world around you. But you don't know what you are supposed to know.
And that is where all human problems begin and persist. But what if you
had access to knowledge and information that you are supposed to know?
Would you want to know things that would give you a better understanding
of yourself and the world around you? Most people would. And now most
people can. BK101.
, also known as the
effect or creeping determinism, is the
inclination, after an event has occurred, to see the event as having been
predictable, despite there having been little or no objective basis for
The best thing that you can do
is to keep asking questions
and stop pretending that you have all the
answers. Knowing that you are a moron is a good thing, because now you
have the ability to educate yourself, and thus stop being a moron and
start becoming more intelligent.
If finding out that you were
about something makes you feel bad, then that's a good thing,
because ignorance should never feel good. The only time that ignorance
should feel good is when you finally learned to over come it.
Every person alive today carries the ignorance of
their generation, and that is a sad fact
. Education needs to be
about correcting all our ignorance instead of perpetuating our ignorance.
Ignorance is making reincarnation look like a bad thing, like it's just
another death sentence. Human life is incredibly amazing, and if everyone
were intelligent, then human life would be a million times better.
Intelligence is a natural progression, so we can't allow ignorance to slow
it down. Ignorance is not natural like
, and we can cure diseases, so we can cure ignorance, which
would cure all diseases.We use only 10% of
, the other 90% of our brain power is not utilized
effectively, that's because humans don't have the necessary knowledge and
information that would help them utilize the human brains full power and
capabilities. And the reason why humans don't have the necessary knowledge
and information is because our
only teach students 10% of what is known in the
world, the other 90% of what is known is not being transmitted. This is
why people use only 10%
of communication technology effectively
, the other 90% is used for
, advertising and
propaganda. When we have schools that teach students 99% of the human
knowledge that is known, then humans will use 99% of their brain power,
and also use technologies 99% more effectively.
"I have a
that I'm not
going to ask you. I am just going to pretend that you don't know the
answer to that question that I never asked you so that I can continue to
pretend to know something that you don't."
"knowing what to do
just as important as knowing what not to do
"Most people do not have enough
information and knowledge in order to be fully aware of
themselves or the world around them. So people never fully
understand the options or the choices that they have, or what
better decisions they could be making."
"People don't think stuff
through far enough to fully understand." "Think Twice"
"You don't know what
you don't know until you know what you did not know."
"If there's one thing
that I have learned, it's that I still have a lot to learn."
"The most damaging lies
are the ones we tell ourselves."
"One of the most important things
that a person should know is that there will always be more that they
still don't know. knowing that you don't know everything will always be
better then believing that you know everything. You will never get through
a locked door unless you have a key, and the
key is knowledge
"Know one could have
all the answers, but the more answers you do have, the better
off you will be."
"There is more information in your
in just one tiny microscopic
cell in your body, then you have in your entire brain. But not for long. (BK101).Some people are not smarter then you
people just learned a little more about certain things then you. Things that you
can also learn. So people who have more knowledge and
information then you are not smarter then you, they just seem
smarter, only because you stopped learning or you didn't have
access to the knowledge and information that you need in order
to better understand yourself and the world around you. Just
keep learning a little each day.
How will you add yesterdays learning to
today? And how will you add todays learning to the future?
Learning needs progression, if knowledge becomes
, then it becomes less
effective.You can't be any more then you know
but you can definitely be less then what you know, because you
may have forgotten important things that you have learned. So
the more you know the better. But you have to choose your
knowledge wisely, and you have to learn something new everyday,
if not, then you will have wasted a day. And if you miss too
many days, your development and progress will almost come to a
complete stop. You have to understand the potential that
knowledge gives you, but you also have to understand that
potential energy comes from action, and that action is called
learning. But you have to know what to learn
and when to learn it, otherwise, information and knowledge
becomes fragmented, and unable to be utilized collectively. So
you will not know enough to piece together a full understanding
of yourself, or the world.
"You can be more then what you know,
but not knowing that you are more then what you know, will never
be as good as knowing that you are more then what you know."
"What I think and what I know are two different things."
that you are educated
does not mean that you are
, intelligence or even
fully aware of yourself and the world around you. Being educated just
means that you went to some type of school or institution. The only way to
measure if you are competent, intelligence and aware, is to have a test
that proves that you have these abilities. A test that can't be faked or
manipulated. No multiple choice or yes or no answers. The test will have
written or verbal explanations with witnesses present during the test.
Practice testing will be available so that you can study and prepare for
the test. The final test will be a confirmation that accurately measures
your abilities and that you fully understand yourself and the world around
you. And in doing so,
you are ready to take on the world
A genius who can't tie his own shoes
knowledge is knowledge that is time and place
specific, meaning that you don't really need that particular
knowledge and information until a special set of circumstances
arises. So this type of knowledge will only benefit you when you
need to perform a particular function, like surgery, or farming,
or driving a truck, and so on. Almost every school on the planet
offers this type of knowledge. This is the main reason why
people are ignorant. Because they have been denied knowledge and
information that would give them intelligence and awareness. So
they are just educated enough to be mindless slaves who are
easily manipulated and controlled. Though many people will
immediately say this is false, they will have a very difficult
time explaining why they believe this is false. And this is when
the realization happens, or, this is when they enter a state of
denial. So what valuable knowledge and information is missing
from education, and what knowledge and information is missing
from the news and our media outlets. They are supposedly paid to
inform us of our reality, but they are not doing this
effectively or efficiently. In fact they are
doing the opposite
most of the time.
High Functioning Addict
can't be aware of EverythingGenius in one area of your life
not necessary mean that you're a genius in other areas of your
life. You've learn this, but not that. Anyone is capable of a
genius action, but that doesn't make that person a genius. Just
because an insane person shows signs of genius does not mean
that there is a connection or a correlation between genius and
insanity. That's like saying that because a person did something
genius, they must also be insane. One does not imply the other,
because they are two separate things. Two things are not
necessarily connected just because they share the same space.
don't necessarily mean
. And just because someone is suffering from
does not make that person crazy or broken. We have to be
very careful with our
. When we narrowly define things, we never see the
whole picture. So we never fully understand, or, do we know the
correct actions to take. So a label is just a starting point,
because it doesn't fully explain the contents. When we give a
label or use a label, we must also give the instructions and the
reasons, otherwise, a label could be more dangerous then
helpful. Don't judge a book by it's cover is also an incomplete
sentence. What book? Who's cover? Why this book?
Just because someone
has more knowledge then you, or more schooling then you, this
does not guarantee that this particular person is smarter the
you. It mostly comes down to who has the right information at
the right time, and if you are doing more harm then good. So
don't ever underestimate your value, and don't ever
underestimate the value of learning, because the more you know
the better your odds will be at making better decisions. So
choose what to learn and when to learn it very wisely. Choosing
correctly what to eat everyday has many benefits, and choosing
what to learn everyday has even more benefits.
Being smart is that ability to have good relationships, to
listen well, to treat people fairly with honestly. Being smart
is that ability to control emotions, to make good decisions, to
have good awareness.
Having more valuable knowledge that gives a greater
understanding does not mean that you will stop making mistakes,
but mistakes will be less frequently.
It's impossible to know everything, but it is possible to know
most of the important things. When smart people don't know
something they have the knowledge and skills to learn what they
need to learn, thus they are good at solving problems and good
at making the best decisions. Being intelligent means you
actually seek to understand what you know and the way things
work. Being smart is having a good bullshit detector, or being
able to tell when someone is lying, and being able to
distinguish sense from nonsense. But you still may be
susceptible to falling into certain traps of falsehood or mind
manipulation. Being smart is being able to control and use
accomplish certain goals. Having extensive knowledge of the mind
and body, and how to use mind and body functions to achieve
goals, like last for days without food, or survive extreme cold
or heat without dying.
is knowledge that accumulates over many months
or even years as you learn more. And as you learn more, you
increase your understanding of yourself and the world around
you. So you become more aware, and have more potential, and have
more abilities and more skills. Though specialized knowledge
shares the same function as accumulated knowledge, specialized
knowledge is limited to a specific need. Everyone needs a
foundation of knowledge and information
that provides them
with a full understanding of themselves and the world around
them. Intelligence is the goal.
BK101 is not everything there is to know
, but it will help you to
know more about things in life then you ever thought possible.
Reading every encyclopedia wont make
you smart. Having a great
you smart either. Remembering mundane details might get you on a
meaningless game show like Jeopardy, but it does not mean that
you are smart or intelligent. It's not how much knowledge and
information you have, it's how effective and efficient you are
in using that knowledge and information to improve life. That is
truly what makes a person intelligent. So it's not what you
have, or how much you have, it's how you use what you have that
ends up being the most important aspect. That should be the top
priority of every educational institution on the planet, but
it's not. But for BK101, this is the top priority. This website
may have some of the worlds most valuable knowledge and
information, but if you never learn how to formulate knowledge
and information correctly, and use it effectively and
efficiently, then the benefits from knowledge and information
will never materialize. If you are not
then you are most likely adding to the problems that we have.
"Ignorance kills more people then all causes of death combined" Preventable
for adaptive and positive behavior
that enable humans to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of
everyday life; Competency
in Decision making,
thinking/lateral thinking, Critical thinking/perspicacity,
Effective communication, Interpersonal relationships, Self
Coping with stress
, trauma and loss, Resilience.
(PDF) - Mind Set
are a combination of interpersonal people
skills, social skills, communication skills, character traits, attitudes,
career attributes and emotional intelligence quotient (EQ) among others
that enable people to effectively navigate their environment, work well
with others, perform well, and achieve their goals with complementing hard
Life Skills-Based Education
are abilities for adaptive and
positive behavior that enable individuals to deal effectively with the
demands and challenges of everyday life.
Evolution of Human Intelligence
is closely tied to the
and to the origin of language
. The timeline of human evolution spans
approximately 7 million years, from the separation of the Pan genus until
the emergence of behavioral modernity by 50,000 years ago. The first 3
million years of this timeline concern Sahelanthropus, the following 2
million concern Australopithecus and the final 2 million span the history
of actual human genus in the Paleolithic era. Many traits of human
intelligence, such as empathy, theory of mind
, mourning, ritual, and the
use of symbols and tools, are apparent in great apes although in less
sophisticated forms than found in humans, such as great ape language.
Outline of Human Intelligence
has been defined in many different ways including one's capacity
for logic, abstract thought, understanding, self-awareness,
communication, learning, emotional knowledge, memory, planning,
creativity and problem solving. It can be more generally
described as the ability to perceive information, and retain it
as knowledge to be applied towards adaptive behaviors within an
(Gq) is the ability to comprehend
quantitative concepts and relationships and to manipulate numerical
. Includes the breadth and depth of a
person's acquired knowledge, the ability to communicate one's knowledge,
and the ability to reason using previously learned experiences or
is the ability to learn and
. The ability to reason
, form concepts, and
using unfamiliar information or novel procedures.
There are the pathways that encode prior
knowledge and experience, which we call 'crystallized intelligence.' And
there are adaptive reasoning and problem-solving skills that are quite
flexible, called 'fluid intelligence. Crystallized intelligence
robust connections, the result of months or years of neural traffic on
well-worn pathways. Fluid intelligence
involves weaker, more
transient pathways and connections
that are formed when the brain tackles unique or unusual problems.
requires both the ability to flexibly reach nearby,
easy-to-access states -- to support crystallized intelligence -- but also
the ability to adapt and reach difficult-to-access states -- to support
does not originate from a single
brain region or network. Emerging
evidence instead suggests that intelligence reflects the
ability to flexibly transition between network states.Reading and writing ability
(Grw) includes basic reading and
writing skills.Short-term memory
(Gsm) is the ability to apprehend and
hold information in immediate awareness, and then use it within a few
seconds.Long-term storage and retrieval
(Glr) is the ability to
and fluently retrieve it later in the
process of thinking
(Gv) is the ability to perceive, analyze, synthesize,
and think with visual patterns
, including the ability to store and recall
visual representations.Auditory processing
(Ga) is the ability to
analyze, synthesize, and discriminate auditory stimuli
, including the
ability to process and discriminate speech sounds that may be presented
under distorted conditions.Processing speed
(Gs) is the ability to
perform automatic cognitive tasks, particularly when measured under
pressure to maintain focused attention
Decision - Reaction Time - Speed
reflects the immediacy with which an individual can react to stimuli or a
task (typically measured in seconds or fractions of seconds; it is not to
be confused with Gs, which typically is measured in intervals of 2–3
Exercise Games Mental chronometry
is the use of response time in
to infer the content, duration, and temporal
sequencing of cognitive operations.
are eight abilities,
musical–rhythmic, visual–spatial, verbal–linguistic, logical–mathematical,
bodily–kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic.
: Logical Intelligence - Empathetic ‘Social’
Intelligence - Creative ‘Abstract’ Intelligence - Artistic ‘Sensory’
Intelligence - Mnemonic Intelligence - Parallel ‘Active’ Intelligence.
Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
is how well an individual
deals with environmental changes throughout their lifespan. Componential,
experiential, and practical. Mental activity directed toward purposive
adaptation to, selection and shaping of, real-world environments relevant
to one's life. Metacomponents are executive processes used in problem
solving and decision making that involve the majority of managing our
mind. They tell the mind how to act. Metacomponents are also sometimes
referred to as a homunculus. A homunculus is a fictitious or metaphorical
"person" inside our head that controls our actions, and which is often
seen to invite an infinite regress of homunculi controlling each other
(Sternberg, 1985). Sternberg's next set of components, performance
components, are the processes that actually carry out the actions the
metacomponents dictate. These are the basic processes that allow us to do
tasks, such as perceiving problems in our long-term memory, perceiving
relations between objects, and applying relations to another set of terms
(Sternberg, 1997). The last set of components, knowledge-acquisition
components, are used in obtaining new information. These components
complete tasks that involve selectively choosing relevant information from
a mix of information, some of it relevant and some of it irrelevant. These
components can also be used to selectively combine the various pieces of
information they have gathered. Gifted individuals are proficient in using
these components because they are able to learn new information at a
greater rate (Sternberg, 1997).
Howard Gardner Spatial Intelligence
- Word Smart
- Five W'sSelf
Music SmartProblem Solving
- Frame of Reference
is a term used by some philosophers,
psychologists, and developmental theorists to indicate spiritual parallels
with IQ (Intelligence Quotient) and EQ (Emotional Quotient).
Intelligence, Creativity, Synthesized
Improving fluid intelligence
with training on working
memory, The ability to reason and to solve new problems
independently of previously acquired knowledge.
is a movement founded in 1964 in the Harlem
section of the borough of Manhattan, New York City, with the concept that
ten percent of the people in the world know the truth of existence, and
those elites and agents opt to keep eighty-five percent of the world in
ignorance and under their controlling thumb; the remaining five percent
are those who know the truth and are determined to enlighten the rest.
(sometimes referred to as the Nation of Gods and Earths). Gods and Earths
sometimes refer to themselves as scientists, implying their search for
knowledge and proof.
Seven Levels of intelligence and three types of genius
Link between Sensory Discriminations and Intelligence
Switching skills on by turning off part of the Brain
Brain Stimulation makes the impossible problem solvable
Videos About Intelligent People
Science Specials - Beautiful Minds
Season 1 Episode 86 | Aired on 01/28/2015 | TV-G | 2 hr. 17 min
My Brilliant Brain - Make Me a Genius (Episode 1)
The Genius in All of Us, David Shenk
you Teach Multiple Intelligences
NatGeo "My Brilliant Brain" featuring Susan Polgar
Phenomenon (film, 1996)
On his birthday, mechanic George Malley (John
Travolta) sees a flash of light and proceeds to exhibit extraordinary
mental abilities. He becomes a genius, even showing an ability to move
objects with his mind. George wishes to help people, but the government
wants to take him in for observation.
Brain Function Examinations
will vary depending on the skills that you
need to have Assessed
. Most tests
are intended to assess a variety of mental abilities and skills. These
tests are more about measuring abilities then they are about measuring
intelligence. That's because many things contribute to being intelligent.
The only real intelligence test so far is life itself, which is measured
in many different ways, like how good of a person you are, your
accomplishments, your impact on the world, the choices you made, how well
you lived your life, your input to output ratio based on how much you took
form the world and how much you gave back, and so on and so on. This is
why tests should have real life examples. This way people could actually
apply the skills they learned to real life situations and see and
experience the benefits for themselves. This would help reaffirm the
accuracy of the tests, and also help update the tests if the feedback
reveals any errors in the test that need to be improved. Types of
- Competence IQ
= MA/CA x 100
(CA) multiplied by 100).
is a total score derived from several standardized tests
designed to assess skills like Analogies (mathematical and verbal),
Pattern driven (spatial and mathematical), Classification, Visual, Spatial
and Logical. Fluid intelligence (Gf) includes
the broad ability to reason, form concepts, and solve problems using
unfamiliar information or novel procedures. Crystallized
(Gc) includes the breadth and depth of a person's
acquired knowledge, the ability to communicate one's knowledge, and the
ability to reason using previously learned experiences or procedures.
(Gq) is the ability to
comprehend quantitative concepts and relationships and to manipulate
numerical symbols. Reading and writing ability
(Grw) includes basic reading and writing skills.
(Gsm) is the ability to apprehend and hold
information in immediate awareness, and then use it within a few seconds.
Long-term storage and retrieval
the ability to store information and fluently retrieve it later in the
process of thinking.
(Gv) is the ability to perceive, analyze,
synthesize, and think with visual patterns, including the ability to store
and recall visual representations. Auditory
(Ga) is the ability to analyze, synthesize, and
discriminate auditory stimuli, including the ability to process and
discriminate speech sounds that may be presented under distorted
conditions. Processing speed
the ability to perform automatic cognitive tasks, particularly when
measured under pressure to maintain focused attention.
reflects the immediacy with which an individual can react to stimuli or a
task (typically measured in seconds or fractions of seconds; it is not to
be confused with Gs, which typically is measured in intervals of 2–3
Advanced IQ Test
is the practice by IQ test publishers of
labeling IQ score ranges with category names such as "superior" or
"average". There are several publishers of tests of cognitive abilities.
No two publishers use exactly the same classification labels, which have
changed from time to time since the beginning of intelligence testing in
the early twentieth century.
is the substantial and long-sustained increase in both fluid and
test scores measured in many parts of the world
from roughly 1930 to the present day. When intelligence
quotient (IQ) tests are initially standardized using a sample of
test-takers, by convention the average of the test results is set to 100
and their standard deviation is set to 15 or 16 IQ points. When IQ tests
are revised, they are again standardized using a new sample of
test-takers, usually born more recently than the first. Again, the average
result is set to 100. However, when the new test subjects take the older
tests, in almost every case their average scores are significantly above
looks at how a specific child, at a specific
age—usually today, now—performs intellectually, compared to average
intellectual performance for that physical age, measured in years. The
physical age of the child is compared to the intellectual performance of
the child, based on performance in tests and live assessments by a
psychologist. Scores achieved by the child in question are compared to
scores in the middle of a bell curve for children of the same age.
However, mental age varies according to what kind of intelligence is
measured. A child's intellectual age can be average for his physical age
but the same child's emotional intelligence can be immature for his
physical age. In this psychologists often remark girls are more
emotionally mature than boys in the tween years. Also, a six-year-old
child intellectually gifted in Piaget terms can remain a three-year-old
child in terms of emotional maturity. Mental age was once considered a
is the use of response time in perceptual-motor
tasks to infer the content, duration, and temporal sequencing of cognitive
is a score designed to assess a subject's level
of general education. Though related to intelligence quotient, there is no
direct correlation between the two. A person of high IQ, may have a low EQ,
and vice versa. A person's EQ is generally found by dividing the results
of their Wide Range Achievement Test by their IQ and multiplying by 100,
or by dividing their Education Age by their Chronological Age and
multiplying by 100.
Self-Test of Intelligence
is a psychological test that someone can
take to measure one's own intelligence. a self-test of intelligence
normally consists of a series of verbal and non-verbal intellectual tasks
and puzzles. These tests usually give the taker instructions on how to
complete the tasks and offer a performance score after the test has been
completed. These self-tests can be performed in various ways that are
quick, easy, and can be done at home or on the go. Web sites on the
internet, apps for mobile devices, and one or more books are popular
choices for taking these tests. There are two ways that one can look at
intelligence: either as an innate, intrinsic, static characteristic of a
person; or as a characteristic that is acquired which can be influenced by
the environment and that can be improved on. These opposing points of view
are part of a more general nature vs. nurture (or hereditarianism vs.
environmentalist) debate that dates back to Ancient Greeks like Plato and
Aristotle. Implicit theories of intelligence can be at the basis of the
chosen point of view, and whether or not the results of a self-test of
intelligence are considered definitive or can be improved upon may depend
on this. Self-tests of intelligence can contribute to the self-assessed
intelligence (SAI) of a person, where SAI can be defined as people's
estimates of their cognitive abilities in relation to the overall
are specifically designed tasks used to
measure a psychological function known to be linked to a particular brain
structure or pathway. Tests are used for research into brain function and
in a clinical setting for the diagnosis of deficits. They usually involve
the systematic administration of clearly defined procedures in a formal
environment. Neuropsychological tests are typically administered to a
single person working with an examiner in a quiet office environment, free
from distractions. As such, it can be argued that neuropsychological tests
at times offer an estimate of a person's peak level of cognitive
performance. Neuropsychological tests are a core component of the process
of conducting neuropsychological assessment, along with personal,
interpersonal and contextual factors. Most neuropsychological tests in
current use are based on traditional psychometric theory. In this model, a
person's raw score on a test is compared to a large general population
normative sample, that should ideally be drawn from a comparable
population to the person being examined. Normative studies frequently
provide data stratified by age, level of education, and/or ethnicity,
where such factors have been shown by research to affect performance on a
particular test. This allows for a person's performance to be compared to
a suitable control group, and thus provide a fair assessment of their
current cognitive function.
Mensa Brain Test
Thurstone Test of Mental Alertness
Implicit Association Test
is a measure within social
psychology designed to detect the strength of a person's automatic
association between mental representations of objects (concepts) in
are a set of cognitive processes – including attentional
control, inhibitory control
memory, and cognitive flexibility, as well as reasoning, problem solving,
and planning – that are necessary for the cognitive control of behavior:
selecting and successfully monitoring behaviors
that facilitate the
attainment of chosen goals. Executive functions gradually develop and
change across the lifespan of an individual and can be improved at any
time over the course of a person's life. Similarly, these cognitive
processes can be adversely affected by a variety of events which affect an
individual. Levels of
is defined as the ability of an individual to perform the various mental
activities most closely associated with learning and problem solving.
Examples include verbal, spatial, psychomotor, and processing-speed
ability. Cognition mainly refers to things like memory, the ability to
learn new information, speech, understanding of written material.
is the mental action or process of acquiring
knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses.
It encompasses processes such as knowledge, attention, memory and working
memory, judgment and evaluation, reasoning and "computation", problem
solving and decision making, comprehension and production of language,
Researchers Develop New Tool to Assess Individual’s Level of Wisdom
is the study of mental processes such as "attention
". Much of the work
derived from cognitive psychology has been integrated into various other
modern disciplines of psychological study, including
as been described as the mental ability to switch between
thinking about two different concepts, and to think about
. Cognitive flexibility is usually described as one of
. Two subcategories of cognitive flexibility are
task switching and cognitive shifting, depending on whether the change
happens unconsciously or consciously, respectively.
Can’t Switch Your Focus? Your Brain Might Not Be Wired for It
are assessments of the cognitive capabilities of
humans and other animals. Tests administered to humans include various
forms of IQ tests; those administered to animals include the mirror test
(a test of visual self-awareness
) and the T maze test (which tests
learning ability). Such study is important to research concerning the
philosophy of mind and psychology
, as well as determination of human and
intended to estimate students' learned reasoning and
problem solving abilities through a battery of verbal, quantitative, and
nonverbal test items.
scientifically based tool to measure and improve cognitive performance.
G Factor (psychometrics)
is a construct developed in psychometric
investigations of cognitive abilities and human intelligence. It is a
variable that summarizes positive correlations among different cognitive
tasks, reflecting the fact that an individual's performance on one type of
cognitive task tends to be comparable to that person's performance on
other kinds of cognitive tasks. The g factor typically accounts for 40 to
50 percent of the between-individual performance differences on a given
cognitive test, and composite scores ("IQ scores") based on many tests are
frequently regarded as estimates of individuals' standing on the g factor.
The terms IQ, general intelligence, general cognitive ability, general
mental ability, or simply intelligence are often used interchangeably to
refer to this common core shared by cognitive tests. The g factor targets
a particular measure of general intelligence. (also known as general
intelligence, general mental ability or general intelligence factor).
Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities
is a set of intelligence
tests administered to children from age two right up to the oldest adults
(with norms utilizing individuals in their 90s).
Quantitative Reasoning, Participants must
determine numerical sequences and determine a two-dimensional numerical
pattern. Concept Formation:
Participants must identify rules that make up geometric figures after
being exposed to concepts. Analysis Synthesis:
General Sequential Reasoning, Participants must analyze the structure of
an incomplete logic puzzle and solve the missing parts.
Visualization, Participants must choose geometric designs that match
another design which have been physically rotated to a different position.
Participants must select
the component parts of whole shape. Pattern
Visual Memory, Participants must study five images,
remember them and recognize them in a larger set of other arranged images.
Participants must quickly find and circle two identical numbers in a row
of six numbers in 3 minutes. Decision Speed:
Mental Comparison Speed, Participants must quickly analyze a row of images
and mark two images that are the most closely related in 3 minutes.
Perceptual Speed & Rate of Test
Taking, Participants must mark drawings that are identical to the first
drawing in the row in 3 mins. Rapid Picture
Naming Facility, Participants must quickly name a series of
pictures as fast as possible. Retrieval Fluency:
Ideational Fluency, Participants must state as many words from specified
categories as possible in 1 minute. Visual
Delayed, Associative Memory, Participants must
recall and relearn (after a 30-minute to 8-day delay) symbols presented in
Visual-Auditory Learning. Memory For Names:
Associative Memory, Participants must remember an increasingly large
number of names of novel cartoon characters. Sound
Phonetic Coding Synthesis, Participants must listen to a
series of individual syllables, individual phonemes, or both that form
words and name the complete words. Incomplete
Phonetic Coding Analysis, Participants must listen to words
with one or more phonemes missing and name the complete words.
Discrimination, Participants must indicate whether pairs of complex sound
patterns are the same or different. The patterns may differ in pitch,
rhythm, or sound content. Auditory Working Memory:
Working Memory, Participants must listen to a mixed series of words and
digits and then to rearrange them by first saying the words in order and
then the numbers. Numbers Reversed:
Memory, Participants must repeat a series of random numbers backward.
Memory For Words:
Memory Span, Participants
must repeat lists of unrelated words in the correct sequence.
Memory For Sentences:
Participants must repeat complete sentences.
Lexical Knowledge, Participants must name
familiar and unfamiliar pictured objects. Verbal
Language Development & Lexical Knowledge,
Participants must name familiar and unfamiliar pictured objects and then
say words similar in meaning to word presented, say words that are
opposites in meaning to the word presented, and complete phrases with
words that complete analogies. General
Participants must provide characteristics of objects
by responding to questions, such as “Where you would find . . .?” and
“What you would do with . . .? Academic Knowledge:
General Information, Participants must provide information about
biological and physical sciences, history, geography, government,
economics, art, music, and literature. Oral
Listening Ability, Participants must listen to a
short passage and orally supply the word missing at the end of the
passage. Story Recall:
Participants must listen to a short passage and describe the details.
Working memory capacity,
Participants must listen to a series of numbers and animal words mixed
together and answer questions regarding the sequence.
Participants have to identify the correct number in a series of number
that correctly completed the series. Ex. (2,4,?,8,10.....).
Participants must quickly find and circle identical letters and patterns.
Visualization, Participants must identify two sets of 2D pieces that form
a specific shape. Participants must also identify two sets of 3D rotated
blocks that match another shape. Phonological
Phonetic coding, Word fluency, Participants must name
words that beings with a certain sound. Participants must also use parts
of words to create new ones. Nonword Repetition:
Phonetic coding, Participants must listen to a nonsense word and repeat
the word exactly. Segmentation:
coding, Participants must listen to words and break it into syllables and
- Cognitive Failures
quantify speech and language patterns to help
monitor cognitive and mental diseases.
Four Stages of Competence
is the process of progressing from
incompetence to competence in a skill.
The individual does not understand or
know how to do something and does not necessarily recognize the deficit.
They may deny the usefulness of the skill. The individual must recognize
their own incompetence, and the value of the new skill, before moving on
to the next stage. The length of time an individual spends in this stage
depends on the strength of the stimulus to learn.
individual does not understand or know how to do something, he or she does
recognize the deficit, as well as the value of a new skill in addressing
the deficit. The making of mistakes can be integral to the learning
process at this stage.Conscious competence:
The individual understands or knows how to do something. However,
demonstrating the skill or knowledge requires concentration. It may be
broken down into steps, and there is heavy conscious involvement in
executing the new skill.Unconscious competence:
The individual has had so much practice with a skill that it has become
"second nature" and can be performed easily. As a result, the skill can be
performed while executing another task. The individual may be able to
teach it to others, depending upon how and when it was learned.
a systematic method of evaluating the intellectual and
emotional functioning of soldiers. The test measured "verbal ability,
numerical ability, ability to follow directions, and knowledge of
information". Scores on the Army Alpha were used to determine a soldier's
capability of serving, his job classification, and his potential for a
leadership position. Soldiers who were illiterate or foreign speaking
would take the Army Beta, the nonverbal equivalent of the exam.
is a popular group intelligence test used to assess the
aptitude of prospective employees for learning and problem-solving in a
range of occupations. The Wonderlic is available in 12 different languages
and is often used in college, entry level jobs, and team-making efforts.
It consists of 50 multiple choice questions to be answered in 12 minutes.
The test was developed by Eldon F. Wonderlic. The score is calculated as
the number of correct answers given in the allotted time. A score of 20 is
intended to indicate average intelligence (corresponding to an
intelligence quotient of 100). Wonderlic, Inc. claims a score of 10 points
or more suggests a person is literate. A new version was released in
January 2007 called the Wonderlic Contemporary Cognitive Ability Test
(formerly known as the Wonderlic Personnel Test – Revised), containing
questions more appropriate to the 21st century; it is available both
online and in printed form, whereas the original test is only available on
paper. The Wonderlic test was based on another test called the Otis
Self-Administering Test of Mental Ability.Gifted
is a student whose mental capacities develop ahead of chronological
Mini Mental State Examination
is a 30-point questionnaire that is used extensively in clinical and
research settings to measure cognitive impairment. -
Mental Health Assessments
Attentional Network Task (ANT)
Attention Networks Test
Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System
50 things everyone should know how to do
Mom Block Design
assessment of human intelligence. It is thought to tap
and motor skill
The test-taker uses hand movements to rearrange
have various color patterns on different sides to match a pattern. The
items in a block design test can be scored both by accuracy in matching
the pattern and by speed in completing each item.
nonverbal intelligence test
is a performance test designed to be an IQ test. The test
taker must, using 16 colored cubes, replicate the patterns displayed on a
series of test cards. The design of the test was motivated by a belief
that the test could easily be administered to persons with language or
standard apparatus for measuring choice reaction time, especially in
relationship to differences in intelligence.
Odd Man Out Test
box is normally used for measuring choice reaction times in which the
participant in the experiment is tested on their ability to recognize
which of the eight lights of the Jensen box is illuminated, as quickly as
possible. However, in the Odd Man Out RT test, there are three lights that
are “illuminated on each trial, two that are relatively close together and
one that is further apart." The individual in the experiment is
responsible to identify the stimulus that is the “Odd-Man-Out” in the
scenario. The Odd-Man-Out RT test correlates with “Intelligent Quotients
(IQ) in the range of 0.30 to 0.60, a reliable and substantial effect.”
This correlation range is typically higher than the correlations to IQ
found among Reaction Time Tests.
is a test of
s designed to measure psychological planning capacity and
foresight. It is a nonverbal test of intelligence. The test consists of a
set of mazes for the subject to solve. The mazes are of varying
complexity. The test runs for 15–60 minutes, allowing the subject to solve
as many mazes as possible. The test serves as a supplementary subtest of
Wechsler intelligence scale.
Bracken School Readiness Assessment
test assesses six basic skills:
Student must identify common colors
by name. Letters:
Students must identify
upper-case and lower-case letters. Numbers and
Student must identify single- and double-digit numerals,
and must count objects. Sizes:
demonstrate knowledge of words used to depict size (e.g., tall, wide,
Student must match or
differentiate objects based on a specific characteristic.
Student must identify basic shapes
McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities
is a psychological test given
to young children. "the McCarthy scales present a carefully constructed
individual test of human ability. In the General Cognitive Index (CGI):
Pictorial Memory, Word
Knowledge, Verbal Memory I, Verbal Memory II, Verbal Fluency, Opposite
Building, Puzzle Solving, Tapping Sequence, Right-Left Orientation,
Draw-a-design, Draw-a-child, Conceptual Grouping.
Number Questions, Numerical Memory I, Numerical
Memory II, Counting and Sorting in the Additional Scales.
Pictorial Memory, Tapping Sequence,
Verbal Memory I and II, Numerical Memory I and II.
Leg Coordination, Arm Coordination, Imitative Action,
Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children
is a clinical instrument
(psychological diagnostic test) for assessing cognitive development.
assembles several foam triangles to match a picture.
the child looks a photographs of one or two faces
for 5 seconds and then selects the correct face/faces shown in a
difference pose from a selection. Block Counting:
The child counts the number of blocks in a picture of a stack of blocks,
some of the blocks are partially hidden.
The child selects one picture from a set of 4
or 5 which does not belong with the set. Rover:
The child moves a toy dog to a bone on a grid that contains several
obstacles trying to find the quickest path to the bone.
The child mentally fills
in the gaps in a partially completed inkblot drawing and names or
describes the object/action depicted in the drawing. Pattern Reasoning
(ages 5 and 6). Story Completion (ages 5 and 6). Sequential/Gsm.
The assessor reads the names of
common objects, the child the touches a series of silhouettes of these
objects in the same order they were read out in.
The assessor reads a string of numbers and the child
repeats the string in the same order. The strings range from 2 to 9
digits. Hand Movements:
the child copies a
series of taps the examiner makes on the table with the fist, palm or side
of the hand. Planning/Gf. Pattern Reasoning
(ages 7–18): the child is shown a series of stimulus that form a logical
linear pattern with one stimulus missing. The child selects the missing
stimulus from several options. Story Completion
(ages 7–18): the child is shown a row of pictures that tell a story, some
pictures are missing. The child selects several pictures from a selection
that are needed to complete the story and places them in the correct
location. Learning/Glr. Atlantis:
assessor teaches the child nonsense names for pictures of fish, shells and
plants. The child then has to point to the correct picture when read out
the nonsense name. Atlantis Delayed:
child repeats the Atlantis subtest 15–25 minutes later to demonstrate
delayed recall. Rebus:
the assessor teaches
the child the word or concept associated with a rebus (drawing) and the
child reads aloud phrases and sentences composed of these rebuses.
the child repeats the Rebus
subtest 15–25 minutes later to demonstrate delayed recall of paired
associates. Knowledge(Gc) included in the CHC model only.
the examiner says several
characteristics of a concrete or abstract verbal concept, and the child
has to point to it or name it. Expressive
measures the Childs ability to say the correct names of
objects and Verbal Knowledge:
selects from an array for 6 pictures the one that corresponds to a
vocabulary word or answers a general information question.
Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test
s an untimed test of receptive
vocabulary for Standard American English and is intended to provide a
quick estimate of verbal ability and scholastic aptitude. The test is
given verbally and takes from twenty to thirty minutes to complete. No
reading is required by the individual, and scoring is rapid. For its
administration, the examiner presents a series of pictures to each person.
There are four pictures to a page, and each is numbered. The examiner
speaks a word describing one of the pictures and asks the individual to
point to or say the number of the picture that the word describes. Item
responses can also be made by multiple choice selection depending on the
age of the person being tested. The total score can be converted to a
percentile rank, mental age, or a standard deviation IQ score. Although
desirable, no special training is required to properly administer and
score the PPVT-IV. The test publisher recommends that anyone interpreting
or explaining the test scores should have knowledge in psychological
testing and statistics.
Ammons Quick Test
help assess premorbid intelligence. It is a passive
response picture-vocabulary test. The Quick Test (QT) can be administered
to the physically handicapped as well as individuals with attention span
deficits. The QT results correlate well with the Wechsler Adult
Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Full Scale IQ. The Quick Test raw score of 46
translates to a WAIS IQ score of 110, which is in the high average range
of intellectual functioning for an adult.
Otis-Lennon School Ability Test
is a test of abstract thinking and
reasoning ability of children pre-K to 18. The Otis-Lennon is a
group-administered (except preschool), multiple choice, taken with pencil
and paper, measures verbal, quantitative, and spatial reasoning ability.
The test yields verbal and nonverbal scores, from which a total score is
derived, called a School Ability Index (SAI). The SAI is a normalized
standard score with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 16. With the
exception of pre-K, the test is administered in groups.
Raven's Progressive Matrices
is a nonverbal group test typically used
in educational settings. It is usually a 60-item test used in measuring
abstract reasoning and regarded as a non-verbal estimate of
. All of the questions on the Raven's progressives
consist of visual geometric design with a missing piece. The test taker is
given six to eight choices to pick from and fill in the missing piece.
Leiter International Performance Scale
is an intelligence test in the
form of a strict performance scale. It was designed for children and
adolescents ages 2 to 18, although it can yield an intelligence quotient
(IQ) and a measure of logical ability for all ages.The Leiter contains 10
subtests organized into four domains: Fluid Intelligence, Visualization,
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children
primary index scores (i.e., Verbal Comprehension Index, Visual Spatial
Index, Fluid Reasoning Index, Working Memory Index, and Processing Speed
Index) that represent a child's abilities in more discrete cognitive
domains. Five ancillary composite scores can be derived from various
combinations of primary or primary and secondary subtests.
Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI)
is a very short form
of estimating intellectual functioning.
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
is an IQ test designed to measure
intelligence and cognitive ability in adults and older adolescents.
Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence
intelligence test designed for children ages 2 years 6 months to 7 years 7
months provides subtest and composite scores that represent intellectual
functioning in verbal and performance cognitive domains, as well as
providing a composite score that represents a child’s general intellectual
ability (i.e., Full Scale IQ).
intelligence tests appropriate for children and adults from two and a half
to forty years old. The tests are called nonverbal because they can be
administered without having to use written or spoken language. The manuals
also contain verbal instructions, but the spoken text does not contain
extra information compared to the non-verbal instructions. The way the
tests are administered is adjusted to the communicative abilities of the
subject in order to create a natural test situation. The tests provide an
intelligence score that indicates how someone performs in comparison with
other persons from the same age.
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale
is an individually administered
cognitive ability and intelligence test that is used to diagnose
developmental or intellectual deficiencies in young children. The test
measures five weighted factors and consists of both verbal and nonverbal
subtests. The five factors being tested are knowledge, quantitative
reasoning, visual-spatial processing, working memory, and fluid reasoning.
"Le Regard", Prehension Provoked by a Tactile Stimulus, Prehension
Provoked by a Visual Perception, Recognition of Food, Quest of Food
Complicated by a Slight Mechanical Difficulty, Execution of Simple
Commands and Imitation of Simple Gestures, Verbal Knowledge of Objects,
Verbal Knowledge of Pictures, Naming of Designated Objects, Immediate
Comparison of Two Lines of Unequal Lengths, Repetition of Three Figures,
Comparison of Two Weights, Suggestibility, Verbal Definition of Known
Objects, Repetition of Sentences of Fifteen Words, Comparison of Known
Objects from Memory, Exercise of Memory on Pictures, Drawing a Design from
Memory, Immediate Repetition of Figures, Resemblances of Several Known
Objects Given from Memory, Comparison of Lengths, Five Weights to be
Placed in Order, Gap in Weights, Exercise upon Rhymes, Verbal Gaps to be
Filled, Synthesis of Three Words in One Sentence, Reply to an Abstract
Question, Reversal of the Hands of a Clock, Paper Cutting, Definitions of
is the application of individual and collective
to weigh data and test
hypotheses within a secret socio-cultural context. The analyst must
correlate the similarities among
and extract a
(youtube) - Documentary is about IQ testing and Testing for
Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales
is an individually
administered test of intelligence that includes a co-normed, supplemental
measure of memory. It is appropriate for individuals ages 3–94. Guess
What: Participants are given around two to four clues to solve the concept
or the object being described. Verbal Reasoning:
Participants must complete propositional statements that essentially forms
a verbal analogy. This section measures verbal-analytical reasoning
ability. Odd item out:
choose which picture does not belong in a set of five to seven pictures.
It's a form of non-verbal analogy that measures spatial ability, visual
imagery and other non-verbal skills. What's
Participants must figure out the missing element in an
incomplete picture. Verbal memory:
Participants have to listen to, memorize and repeat back a series of
sentences and stories that are read to them. Measures encoding, storing
and recalling aspects of memory. Non-verbal
Participants are shown a picture for five seconds and then
must identify the same picture among a series of different set of
pictures. Measures encoding, storing and recognition of visual stimuli.
High School Diploma
does not confirm intelligence, then what does it confirm?
Miller Analogies Test
is a standardized test used both for graduate
school admissions in the United States and entrance to high I.Q.
societies. The MAT consists of 120 questions in 60 minutes (formerly 100
questions in 50 minutes). Unlike other graduate school admissions exams
such as the GRE, the Miller Analogies Test is verbal or computer based.
The test aims to measure an individual's logical and analytical reasoning
through the use of partial analogies. A sample test question might be
Composing :: Monet : a. painting, b.
composing, c. writing, d. orating. This should be read as "Bach is to (:)
Composing as (::) Monet is to (:) _______." The answer would be a.
painting because just as Bach is most known for composing music, Monet is
most known for his painting. The open slot may appear in any of the four
positions. Unlike analogies found on past editions of the GRE and the SAT,
the MAT's analogies demand a broad knowledge of Western culture, testing
subjects such as science, music, literature, philosophy, mathematics, art,
and history. Thus, exemplary success on the MAT requires more than a
nuanced and cultivated vocabulary.
Multidimensional Aptitude Battery II
is a group-administered
intelligence test that is supposed to measure Verbal, Performance and Full
Scale IQ. The battery consists of 10 subtests and is used for various
professional, medical, military, government, law enforcement and
employment settings. The test-retest reliability based on timed
performance correlates with values of 0.95 for the verbal section, 0.96
for the performance section and 0.97 for the full scale.
Assess general knowledge about
diverse topics. Comprehension:
ability to analyze social situations, identify appropriate behavior, and
explain why certain laws and customs are practiced.
Assess the ability to solve
numerical problems, reasoning and problem solving abilities.
Assess the ability to
recognize, compare and reason the likeness and differences between
individual objects. Vocabulary:
learned words, verbal concepts and ability to store, categorize and
retrieve information appropriately. Digit symbol:
Assess ability to learn new coding system and using it in context.
Assess ability to
identify and solve missing elements in picture.
Assess ability to visualize abstract objects in different
positions within 2 dimensional space. Picture
Ability to identify a meaningful sequence from a
random sequence. Object assembly:
to identify an object by solving left-to right sequences of disarranged
requires a person to recognize which mechanical principle is
suggested by a test item. The underlying concepts measured by these items
include sounds and heat conduction, velocity, gravity, and force. A number
of tests of mechanical comprehension and mechanical aptitude have been
developed and are predictive of performance in manufacturing/production
and technical type jobs, for instance.
New Brain Mapping Technique highlights relationship between Connectivity
. Using these morphometric similarity networks (MSNs), the
researchers were able to build up a map showing how well connected the
'hubs' -- the major connection points between different regions of the
-- were. They found a link
between the connectivity in the MSNs in brain regions linked to higher
order functions -- such as problem solving and language -- and
IQ scores are predictive in measuring the ability of a person to
have more occupational success, higher income, and better
physical and mental health. But higher IQ scores do not
determine the value of success, it only determines the increased
chances of success. But you have to
an iq test does not define success. This is more then just
getting a job, it's knowing that the work you do is valuable.
It's not about how much money you made, it's how you impacted
the world. Did you use and abuse the world and make everyone pay
for it? Or did you improve the world that produced measurable
benefits for other people? Once you accurately measure the
inputs and outputs of a persons life, it paints a much clearer
picture about what real success is.
There is too much
in these tests, just like in our
. Just remembering ignorant facts is not a test.
"I would not say that "Wisdom comes with
, because knowledge comes from
and seeking out facts. Though older
people may have more experiences
, they don't always learn from
those experiences the way they should. If you stop seeking
knowledge and stop learning, then wisdom and old age will never
So what do I consider
? First review the
below and then I will tell you my definitions that I believe should be
added. To be endowed and privileged enough to be
labeled with intelligent characteristics you should also have these
added qualities. A person who has common sense, a person who
separates opinion from fact, a person who does not dismiss
solely based on preference, a person who does not
, a person who can formulate information in
order to obtain a logical answer, A person who can
a person who is knowledgeable
of the Human Brain
a person who possesses
Discipline and Self-Control
, a person who knows
Good from Bad
from wrong and lives buy it,
a person who is not corruptible, a
Never Stops Learning
, a person who knows that being a
are the two greatest
responsibilities of an intelligent person, a person who is
constantly striving to always possess and honor the qualities of
intelligence, a person who teaches the qualities of
intelligence, a person who knows they will still
but now will learn from them and move on. So the next time you
want to call someone intelligent remember these qualities. You
should never call a child intelligent or gifted. You should
instead tell them that they have the abilities to be intelligent
or gifted. This way they will know that to be intelligent or
gifted is a life long process that is much more then a label
that someone gives you. If you find someone who considers
themselves to be intelligent then show them these definitions.
They should be able to prove these qualities, but a truly
intelligent person should say that they are constantly striving
to acquire all these qualities in order to one day possess them
all and even add some new ones. I look at these qualities as the
foundation of a
F = T (upside-down triangle or
to maximize future options
. Knowing when to
the correct action at the correct time
Being intelligent is being able to
approach intellectual road blocks from new angles. Being
intelligent is the ability to borrow tools from one discipline
to solve problems in another. Being intelligent is having many
different hobbies that can lead to creative breakthroughs. Being
intelligent is being able to slow down multitasking, having one
project take center stage for a series of hours or days. Leaving
the other projects to linger in the margins of consciousness,
but still being able to take ideas from the projects at the
margins. Being intelligent is being able to think outside the
box, letting the mind wander and dream, processing new
information, making new connections, and developing new thinking
strategies.To determine how
dysfunctional you are you first have to determine how functional
. That's like trying to figure out
how smart you are,
which is not easy because intelligence is not totally defined
yet, with too much of your understanding being determined by your
own perception. The only way to determine intelligence is to
have an exact list of questions and problems that test your skills and
knowledge. How much intelligence does the IQ test really
determine? Very little because it's an overall test of skills and
knowledge and not an exact test of what makes a person
intelligent. Define intelligence, then define the test.
Takes the 1964 Louisiana Literacy Test
- (The test was a
"I am so clever that sometimes I don't understand a single
word of what I am saying."
"A fool thinks himself to be wise, but a wise man knows
himself to be a fool."
"You're smart, it's
just that your understanding of the world is not totally
accurate, or complete."
"Be careful who you
because intellectuals are not always
intelligent, they have mostly been schooled, thus they are most
likely to be still ignorant and very vulnerable to corruption."
“The key to
attaining a higher level of intelligence is to make your years
of study qualitatively rich. We don't simply absorb information
- we internalize it and make it our own by finding some way to
put this knowledge to practical use.”
gradually and finally understanding just how incredibly
important knowledge and information is to a human."
Education Sayings and Quotes
is having the capacity for
and reason especially to a high degree. Possessing sound
Exercising or showing good judgment
. Endowed with the
capacity to Reason
. Having good
or a high mental capacity; quick to
"Intelligence is making good decisions and examining things
carefully. Intelligence is always learning."
has been defined in many different ways
including one's capacity for logic
learning, emotional knowledge
and problem solving.
It can be more generally described as the ability to perceive information,
it as knowledge to be applied towards adaptive behaviors within
an environment or context.
is a person who uses intelligence rather than
person who uses the mind creatively. The capacity for rational thought or
"Intelligence is not a level of
achievement, it is a way of life. And the levels are just temporary steps that
lead to greater and even larger steps, some of which have not yet been
are a set of cognitive processes –
cognitive flexibility, as well as reasoning,
, and planning
– that are necessary for the cognitive control
is a person whose
spans a significant
number of different subject areas; such a person is known to draw on
complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.
is the depth, polish and breadth that education
confers. The Latin word educāre means to bring out or
; hence an
educated person has come to think critically and logically. An erudite
person has both deep and broad familiarity with general subjects and is
usually knowledgeable in a particular subject, by virtue of study and
extensive reading of the subject's literature.
a type of wisdom relevant to practical things,
requiring an ability to discern how or why to act virtuously and encourage
practical virtue, excellence of character, in others.
is showing mental alertness and
resourcefulness. Characterized by quickness and ease in
Capable of independent and apparently intelligent action.
is the behavior of an electronic, software or
other system where the output is dependent on the sequence or timing of
other uncontrollable events. It becomes a bug when events do not happen in
the order the programmer intended.Thinking
is a person who has a lot of
common sense and knows what's going on in the world. This person knows
what every type of person has to deal with daily and
groups of people
and how to act around them
. This person also knows all
the current sh*t going on in the streets and the ghetto and everywhere
else and knows how to make his own right decisions, knows how to deal with
different situations and has his own
independent state of mind
. A street
smart person isn't stubborn
to sh*t and
basic ability to perceive
understand, and judge things that are shared by ("common
") nearly all people and can reasonably be expected of nearly all
people without need for debate
is being full of promise and potential.
is having or marked by unusual and impressive
intelligence. Surpassing excellence.
is the ability to respond to the environment
in an appropriate manner. This response is generally learned rather than
instinctive. Maturity also encompasses being aware of the correct time and
place to behave and knowing when to act, according to the circumstances
and the culture of the society one lives in. Adult development and
maturity theories include the purpose in life concept, in which maturity
emphasizes a clear comprehension of life's purpose, directedness, and
intentionality, which contributes to the feeling that life is meaningful.Prudent
is being careful and sensible; marked by sound judgment.
is being mentally perceptive and responsive.
What is Mindset
is the trait of being
considerate and thoughtful
of others. The trait of being observant and
is marked by the exercise of good judgment or common sense
in practical matters. Having or prompted by
or erudition or enlightenment.
The trait of utilizing knowledge and experience with common
sense and insight. Ability to apply knowledge or
experience or understanding or common sense and insight.
The quality of being prudent and sensible. Knowing the
is the ability to think and act using knowledge, experience,
understanding, common sense, and insight.
is the body of ideas or explanations
as true by the public or by experts in a field.
(wiki) - Assumptions
is having no limits or
boundaries in time, space, extent, or magnitude.
is a wise and
is the quality or state of being reasonable,
based on facts or reason. Rationality implies the conformity of one's
beliefs with one's reasons to believe, or of one's actions with one's
reasons for action.
is acting in a way that maximizes utility
is someone who has attained the wisdom which a
was a person or agency considered to provide wise and
insightful counsel or prophetic predictions or precognition of the future,
inspired by the gods.
is a philosophical concept regarding wisdom.
"Wisdom does not
come with age, wisdom only comes from learning. And learning only comes
from having access to valuable knowledge and information that increases
your understanding of yourself and the world around you, and then learning
how to use knowledge and information effectively and efficiently."
is exhibiting or requiring the exercise
of great wisdom, especially in making difficult decisions.
is having worldly knowledge and refinement and Social skill. Ahead
in development; complex or intricate; Intellectually appealing.
is the power of creative imagination. Intelligence as
manifested in being quick and witty. Mentally quick and resourceful. Showing inventiveness and skill.
is the quality of being able to cope with a difficult
situation. The ability to deal resourcefully with
is being at a higher level in training or knowledge or skill; Ahead in
development; complex or intricate. Farther along in physical or
mental development; Ahead of the times. (of societies) highly
developed especially in technology or industry. Contribute to
the progress or growth of; Develop in a positive way; Move
is to be wise enough
, experienced enough, or well
not to have done something wrong. To be wise enough to behave in
a more responsible or acceptable
way. You can know better, but,
if you don't apply the right information at the right time, then
knowing better will not help you, so you will most likely make
the same mistakes again and again.
a Process, a Procedure
is having deep insight; great depth of knowledge or thought. Wisdom that
is recondite and abstruse and profound. Intellectual depth;
penetrating knowledge; keen insight; etc. The intellectual
ability to penetrate deeply into
accumulation of knowledge or skill
that results from direct
participation in events or activities.
The content of direct observation or participation in an event. Go or live through. Have firsthand knowledge of states,
situations, emotions, or sensations.
Go through (mental or physical states or experiences) Undergo an
emotional sensation or be in a particular state of mind.
is the knowledge or mastery of an event or
subject gained through involvement in or exposure to it.
Experience does not always mean that you are learning the right
is the cognitive condition of someone who understands.
Delicate discrimination (especially of esthetic values)
of that which is obscure. The mental
ability to understand and discriminate between relations.
The trait of judging wisely and objectively.
is acutely insightful and wise. Skillful in
statecraft or management.
is an inference
about the future
(or about some
hypothetical situation) based on known
. A calculation of the
of a function outside the
range of known values.Genius
is someone who has exceptional intellectual ability and
originality. Unusual mental ability. Someone who is dazzlingly
in any field. Exceptional
is a person who displays exceptional intellectual ability,
creative productivity, universality in genres or originality, typically to
a degree that is associated with the achievement of new advances in a
domain of knowledge. Most
Genius happen between the ages of 30 and 40 years of age.
and Reasonable Judgment
that guide reasoning within a given field or
The branch of philosophy that analyzes
The system of operations performed by a computer that underlies
the machine's representation of
is generally held to consist of the systematic study
of the form of arguments. A valid argument is one where there is a
specific relation of logical support between the assumptions of the
argument and its conclusion.
classical propositional and predicate logic to
include operators expressing
is a kind of non-classical logic requiring the antecedent and consequent
of implications to be relevantly related. They may be viewed as a family
of substructural or modal logics.
is fallible, twisted or
circular reasoning that when dissected is wrong, does not make sense or
does not explain the situation rationally.
is a person, such as a philosopher or a mathematician, whose
topic of scholarly study is logic.
are simple, first-order logic knowledge representations of natural
language sentences formed by the conjunction of concept predicates related
through shared arguments.
is a collection of formal systems used in
mathematics, philosophy, linguistics, and computer science
is an assignment of meaning to the
symbols of a formal language.
is a type of probabilistic logic that
explicitly takes uncertainty and belief ownership into account.
is a pattern of reasoning rendered
by a flaw
in its logical structure that can neatly be expressed in a
standard logic system, for example propositional logic.
identifies a class of formal logics that
have been most intensively studied and most widely used.
is a rule of inference leading to a
refutation theorem-proving technique for sentences in propositional logic
and first-order logic. In other words, iteratively applying the resolution
rule in a suitable way allows for telling whether a propositional formula
is satisfiable and for proving that a first-order formula is unsatisfiable.
Attempting to prove a satisfiable first-order formula as unsatisfiable may
result in a nonterminating computation; this problem doesn't occur in
is a logic lacking one of the usual
structural rules (e.g. of classical and intuitionistic logic), such as
weakening, contraction, exchange or associativity. Two of the more
significant substructural logics are relevant logic and linear logic.
asserted that only statements
observation are cognitively meaningful.
is being capable of or reflecting the
capability for correct and
Based on known statements or events or conditions.
Marked by an orderly, logical, and aesthetically consistent
relation of parts.
Capable of thinking and expressing yourself in a clear and
is thinking that is coherent and logical. Endowed with the capacity
to reason. Decide by reasoning; draw or come to a conclusion.
determines whether the
can be determined for that rule, based solely on the truth of
the premises. (deductive logic, logical deduction, bottom up logic).
Reasoning from the general to the particular (or from
cause to effect
(TI) is a form of
deductive reasoning that allows one to derive a relation between items
that have not been explicitly compared before. In a general form, TI is
the ability to deduce that if Item B is related to Item C and Item C is
related to Item D, then Item B must be related to Item D.
is deductive reasoning in which a
conclusion is derived from two premises
attempts to support a determination of the rule. It
a rule after numerous
are taken to be a conclusion
that follows from a precondition in terms of such a rule.
Problem of Induction
is the philosophical question of
whether inductive reasoning leads to knowledge understood in the classic
philosophical sense, since it focuses on the alleged lack of
for either: Generalizing about the properties of a class of objects based
on some number of observations
of particular instances of that class
(e.g., the inference that "all swans we have seen are white, and,
therefore, all swans are white", before the discovery of black swans) or
Presupposing that a sequence of events in the future will occur as it
always has in the past (e.g., that the laws of physics will hold as they
have always been observed to hold). Hume called this the principle of
uniformity of nature.
is a mathematical proof
used to prove a given statement about any well-ordered set. Most commonly,
it is used to establish statements for the set of all natural numbers.
is a form of logical inference
which goes from an
which accounts for the observation, ideally
seeking to find the simplest and most likely explanation
. In abductive
reasoning, unlike in deductive reasoning, the premises do not guarantee
the conclusion. One can understand abductive reasoning as "inference to
the best explanation".
How Logical Are
You? (Psychology of Reasoning)
is the process of identifying causality:
the relationship between a
cause and its effect
is an emotion-biased decision-making phenomenon
studied in cognitive science and social psychology. This term describes
the role of motivation in cognitive processes such as decision-making and
attitude change in a number of paradigms, including: Cognitive dissonance
reduction, Beliefs about others on whom one's own outcomes depend.
Evaluation of evidence related to one's own outcomes.
is a software system that generates
from available knowledge using logical techniques such as
deduction and induction.
are fundamental axiomatic rules upon which
itself is often
considered to be based. The formulation and clarification of such rules
have a long tradition in the history of philosophy and logic. Generally
they are taken as laws that guide and underlie everyone's
However such classical ideas are often questioned or rejected in more
recent developments, such as intuitionistic logic, dialetheism and fuzzy
a statement (in mathematics often shown in symbolic form) that is so
evident or well-established, that it is accepted without controversy or
Procedural Reasoning System
is a framework for
constructing real-time reasoning systems that can perform complex tasks in
Dual Process Theory
provides an account of how a phenomenon can occur in two different ways,
or as a result of two different processes.
Case Based Reasoning
- Problem Solving
is the quality or state of being reasonable, based on
or reason. Rationality implies the conformity of one's beliefs with
one's reasons to believe, or of one's actions with one's reasons for
action. "Rationality" has different specialized meanings in economics,
sociology, psychology, evolutionary biology, and political science.
is using reason guided by the
is the view that "regards reason as the chief
source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source
of knowledge or justification". More formally, rationalism is defined as a
methodology or a theory "in which the criterion of the truth is not
sensory but intellectual and deductive".
Rational Choice Theory
is a statement that does not seem likely to be true
when assessed using intuition, common sense, or gut feelings.
Evidence Based Practice
is the ease with which information is
processed. Perceptual fluency is the ease of processing stimuli based on
manipulations to perceptual quality. Retrieval fluency is the ease with
which information can be retrieved from memory.
describes ways of understanding and predicting
the natural and social world, without the use of rigorous methodologies.
is an inference method that
can be described (in lay terms) as working backward from the goal(s). It
is used in automated theorem provers, inference engines, proof assistants
and other artificial intelligence applications. In game theory, its
application to (simpler) subgames in order to find a solution to the game
is called backward induction. In chess, it is called retrograde analysis,
and it is used to generate tablebases
for chess endgames for computer
chess. Backward chaining is implemented in logic programming by SLD
resolution. Both rules are based on the modus ponens
. It is one of the two most commonly used methods of
reasoning with inference rules and logical implications – the other is
forward chaining. Backward chaining systems usually employ a depth-first
is an agent that has clear preferences
uncertainty via expected values of
or functions of variables, and always chooses to perform the action with
the optimal expected outcome for itself from among all feasible actions. A
rational agent can be anything that makes decisions, typically a person,
firm, machine, or software. Rational agents are also studied in the fields
of cognitive science
, including the
philosophy of practical reason.
The misunderstood limits of folk science: an illusion of
is the form of
that bases all
knowledge on perceptual
intuition or revelation
is a concept of intuitive probability. It
means a very high degree of probability, sufficient for action, but short
of absolute or mathematical certainty.
The Goal is
and Mathematical Optimization
is a formal theory of exemplar based
Can your decisions become more rational when thought in another
language? A university of Chicago study showed that Korean
citizens who thought in foreign languages reduced their overall
is a rational motive for a belief or action. An explanation of the
cause of some phenomenon. The capacity for
thought or inference or
discrimination. The state of having good sense and sound
A justification for something existing or happening. A
fact that logically justifies some premise or conclusion.
Show to be right by providing justification or proof. Defend,
explain, clear away, or make excuses for by reasoning.
Decide by reasoning; draw or come to a conclusion. Think
logically. Knowing the difference between
is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, applying
logic, establishing and verifying facts, and changing or justifying
practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.
are operations that affect mental contents.
Initially, operations of reasoning have been the object of logic alone.
is certain classes of mental states
that most people believe in do not exist.
Levels of Thinking
nature or meaning
of. To become
of through the
. Characterized by understanding based on
comprehension and discernment
mentally. The trait of judging
is a psychological process related to an
or physical object, such
as a person, situation, or message whereby one is able to think about it
and use concepts to deal adequately with that object. Understanding is a
relation between the knower and an object of understanding. Understanding
implies abilities and dispositions with respect to an object of knowledge
sufficient to support intelligent behavior. PDF
is having or showing
knowledge or understanding or realization or perception.
One extremely important aspect of understanding is the ability to know
that there is another side to a story
another point of view, another way
to look at something
, to have an open mind, avoiding
jumping to conclusions
fully understand and get the meaning of something.
An Essay Concerning Human
is a distinct
feature or element in a problem. A characteristic to be considered.
Type II Errors
is a penetrating discernment—a clarity of
vision or intellect which provides a deep understanding and insight.Meanings
is to comprehend. Sound practical judgment. The faculty through which
the external world is fully understood.
Become aware of, not through
but instinctively. A
natural appreciation or ability. A general conscious
Perceive by a physical sensation, e.g., coming from the skin or
muscles. Detect some circumstance or entity automatically.
The meaning of a word or expression; the way in which a word or
expression or situation can be interpreted.
involved in drawing a conclusion or
making a logical judgment
on the basis of
and prior conclusions rather than on the basis of
. Knowing the
are steps in reasoning, moving from premises to
List of Rules of Inference
is making a
in order to show a
similarity in some respect. An inference that if things
agree in some respects they probably
, is a cognitive process of
from a particular subject (the
analogue or source) to another (the target), or a linguistic expression
corresponding to such a process
. In a
narrower sense, analogy is an inference or an
from one particular to
another particular, as opposed to deduction, induction, and abduction,
where at least one of the premises or the conclusion is general. The word
analogy can also refer to the relation
between the source and the target themselves, which is often, though not
necessarily, a similarity
, as in the
biological notion of analogy. Analogy plays a significant role in problem
solving, as well as decision making, argumentation, perception,
generalization, memory, creativity, invention, prediction, emotion,
explanation, conceptualization and communication.
is to consider in detail and subject to an analysis in order
to discover essential features or meaning.
Make a mathematical, chemical, or grammatical analysis of; break
down into components or essential features.
Break down into components or essential features.
of the component
parts of a whole and their
in making up the whole. The abstract
separation of a whole into its constituent parts in order to study the
parts and their relations
A form of literary criticism
in which the
of a piece
of writing is analyzed
A branch of mathematics involving calculus
and the theory of
limits; sequences and series and integration and
A set of
for exploring underlying motives and a
method of treating various
is the process of breaking a complex topic or
substance into smaller parts
in order to gain a better understanding of
is the discovery, interpretation, and communication
. Especially valuable in areas rich with recorded information,
analytics relies on the simultaneous application of
programming and operations research to quantify performance. Analytics
often favors data visualization
to communicate insight.
is the application of individual and collective
data and test hypotheses within a secret socio-cultural context. The
analyst must correlate the similarities among
and extract a
is the ability to
or solve both
complex and uncomplicated problems by making decisions that are sensible
given the available information. Such
include demonstration of the
to apply logical thinking to breaking complex problems into their
is the branch of mathematical analysis that
investigates functions of complex numbers. It is useful in many branches
of mathematics, including algebraic geometry, number theory, analytic
combinatorics, applied mathematics; as well as in physics, including the
branches of hydrodynamics, thermodynamics, and particularly quantum
mechanics. By extension, use of complex analysis also has applications in
engineering fields such as nuclear, aerospace, mechanical and electrical
engineering. As a differentiable function of a complex variable is equal
to the sum of its Taylor series (that is, it is analytic), complex
analysis is particularly concerned with analytic functions of a complex
variable (that is, holomorphic functions).
is the branch of mathematics
dealing with limits and related theories, such as differentiation,
integration, measure, infinite series, and analytic functions. These
theories are usually studied in the context of real and complex numbers
and functions. Analysis evolved from calculus, which involves the
elementary concepts and techniques of analysis. Analysis may be
distinguished from geometry; however, it can be applied to any space of
mathematical objects that has a definition of nearness (a topological
space) or specific distances between objects (a metric space).
(wiki) - Sanity
is a systematic determination of a
merit, worth and significance
, using criteria governed by a set of
standards. It can assist an organization, program, project or any other
intervention or initiative to assess any aim, realisable concept/proposal,
or any alternative, to help in decision-making
; or to ascertain the degree
of achievement or value in regard to the aim and objectives and results of
any such action that has been completed. The primary purpose of
evaluation, in addition to gaining insight into prior or existing
initiatives, is to enable reflection and assist in the identification of
by which a medical professional
investigates the body of a
patient for signs of disease
. It generally follows the taking of the
medical history—an account of the symptoms
as experienced by the patient.
Together with the medical history, the
determining the correct diagnosis
and devising the treatment plan. This
data then becomes part of the medical record
is preparing or putting through a prescribed
. Subject to
a process or treatment, with the aim of readying for some
purpose, improving, or remedying a condition. Perform
mathematical and logical operations on (data) according to
in order to obtain the required
information. Deal with in a routine way.
is concerned with practical matters. Guided by practical
and observation rather than
Consider the practical effects of the objects of
your conception. Then, your conception of those effects is the whole of
your conception of the object.
is being or involving basic
or principles. Far-reaching and thoroughgoing in
effect especially on the nature of something. Any
that could be considered important to the
understanding of a particular business.
is a conceptual process by which general rules
are derived from the usage and classification of specific
examples, literal ("real" or "concrete") signifiers, first principles, or
thought based on the model
are a particular kind of mathematically based
techniques for the specification, development and verification of software
and hardware systems.
is to gain
of (an area not known or experienced) by extrapolating. Estimate
the value of. Draw from specific cases for more general cases. Extend
the application of (a method or conclusion, esp. one based on
to an unknown situation by assuming that existing trends will
continue or similar methods will be applicable.
is the process of estimating, beyond the original
observation range, the
value of a variable on the basis of its relationship with another
is the capacity to assess situations or circumstances shrewdly and
to draw sound conclusions.
The mental ability to understand and discriminate between
relations. The act of judging
a person or situation
The cognitive process of reaching a
or drawing conclusions.
is to evaluate
, ability, extent, value
or significance of.
is the evaluation
to make a decision.
is a formal charge of
brought against a person;
the act of imputing blame
or guilt. An assertion that someone is guilty of a
What is a Judge
is the capacity to assess situations or circumstances shrewdly and
to draw sound conclusions.
is free from error; adapting to fact or
. In accord with
accepted standards of usage or procedure
To achieve accuracy. Alter or regulate so as to achieve accuracy
or conform to a standard.
is a statement that makes something
the relevant structure
or operation or circumstances etc..
Thought that makes something comprehensible. The act of
explaining; making something plain or intelligible.
is to determine the essential
quality of. Give a definition
for the meaning of a word.
Determine the nature of.
is a message describing
how something is to be done. Something that provides direction
as to a decision or course of action. A formal
statement of a command or injunction to do something. The
of attention or energy on something. Showing the
is someone who shows the way
. Something that offers
. Someone who can find paths through unexplored
having something represented accurately or precisely. Show the form or outline
of. Determine the essential quality of.
Trace the shape of. Make a mark or lines on a surface. Describe
in vivid detail.
is to represent in words especially with sharpness and detail. To
give an account or representation of in
Give a description of.
is to establish after a calculation,
, or study. Reach, make, or come to a decision about
Find out, learn
, or determine with certainty, usually by making
an inquiry or other effort.
is one of a number of things from
which only one can be chosen. Serving or used in place of
Necessitating a choice between mutually exclusive
The freedom or right to choose. Choice
is something capable of being apprehended or
. Express clearly, and loud enough to be heard distinctly.
is a course of
aimed at demonstrating a truth or
falsehood; the methodical process of logical reasoning.
is something (such as a
fact or circumstance
) that shows an action
to be reasonable or necessary.
A statement in explanation of some action or
. The act of
defending or explaining or making excuses for by reasoning.
Theory of Justification
is a part of
attempts to understand the justification of propositions and beliefs.
Epistemologists are concerned with various epistemic features of belief,
which include the ideas of justification
, and probability
. Of these
four terms, the term that has been most widely used and discussed by the
early 21st century is "warrant". Loosely speaking, justification is the
reason that someone (properly) holds a belief. When a claim is in doubt,
justification can be used to support the claim and reduce or remove the
doubt. Justification can use empiricism (the
(the appeal to criteria and
authority), or logical deduction
are a basic generalization that is accepted as true and
that can be used as a basis for reasoning or
A rule or standard especially of good behavior. A basic
A rule or law concerning a natural phenomenon or the function of
a complex system.
Rule of personal conduct. (law) an explanation of the
fundamental reasons (especially an explanation of the working of
device in terms of laws of nature) Knowing the differences
between a Lie
is a law
that has to be, or usually is to be
followed, or can be desirably followed, or is an inevitable
something, such as the laws observed in nature or the way that a system is
constructed. The principles of such a system are understood by its users
as the essential characteristics of the
, or reflecting
system's designed purpose, and the effective
or use of which would
be impossible if any one of the principles was to be ignored.
is a position or opinion or
after consideration. An intuitive
. The proposition arrived at by logical
reasoning (such as the proposition that must follow from the
major and minor premises of a syllogism
The act of making up your mind about something.
The truth as Far as you know
is to decide by reasoning; draw
or come to a conclusion. Reach a conclusion after a
is to bring to a close or end. The
temporal end; the concluding time.
Problem Solving Words
I still love you, even knowing that you only have a
Half a Brain
But I would love you a lot more if you had a whole brain that
was full of valuable knowledge and information. Then when we are
together, we would have more potential, more options, more
control, more power, more freedom, and more
possibilities...Well, that's what whole brain people do any way,
How would you explain intelligence to someone who isn't
Smart and intelligent cannot be used to describe a person
unless you explain why. Smart and intelligent only describes a
particular action, an action that is known to be logical. That
was a smart thing to do, that was an intelligent thing to do. So
to say "That Person is Smart", you have to say why? Did they do
a smart thing, or is it they can do particular things that
require specialized knowledge? So in order to be smart or
intelligent you have to perform intelligent actions. So only
that particular action is smart and not necessarily the person
performing the action. But if you would like to be considered
smart then you would have to be known as the person who
performed the most intelligent actions. And to prove that you
would have to be extremely intelligent." Good luck...it's not a
problem, it's a challenge...
You're very bright and aware, keep learning...
Human Operating System (HOS)
HOS is another way of describing your
knowledge. The constructs that you use when understanding yourself and the
world around you.
The Human Brain is the most powerful machine on
, so it makes perfect sense that the most powerful machine in
the world should have the most powerful software
in the world. Types Of Operating Systems
is a comprehensive computer model
is an analytical tool used to make conceptual
conceptual frameworks capture something real and do this in a way that is
easy to remember and apply.
is a category of real-time dynamic, business
analytics that delivers visibility and insight into data, streaming events
and business operations. OI solutions run queries against streaming data
feeds and event data to deliver analytic results as
. OI provides organizations the ability to make decisions and
immediately act on these analytic insights, through manual or automated
endowing a robot with intelligent behavior
by providing it with a
architecture that will allow it to learn and reason about how
to behave in response to complex goals in a complex world.
is a way of characterizing the most basic
problem of intelligent systems:
what to do next
is an autonomous entity which observes
upon an environment using actuators and directs its activity towards
is a class of
use various artificial intelligence computing approaches like
, Bayesian probability, fuzzy logic,
, evolutionary computation and genetic algorithms.
(machine learning) -
What would be the
for Learning? You would have to write a lot of
is a piece of software designed to update a computer
program or its supporting data, to fix or improve it.
Organizing Knowledge Cognitively
is a system of grouping and
categorizing our brain to use, sort and store information. System changes
and adapts as the amount of knowledge about a particular subject changes
Artificial Curiosity and Creativity
research that aims to develop software and hardware with
similar to those of the animal or human brain.Human Operators Manual
has been updated.
Life Operators Manual
(youtube - Tom Shadyac, Michael D.
Palm sented Life's Operating Manual)
Human Source Code
Refactoring The Human Body
Category-Based Intrinsic Motivation
of your thoughts, being aware of
how you feel. An examination of the mind, questioning accuracy.
is the set of cognitive faculties
that enables consciousness, perception,
thinking, judgment, and memory—a characteristic of humans, but which also
may apply to other life forms.
Language of Thought Hypothesis
is when language controls thinking
to the way that computer software
This is your
is more then a skill that one needs to learn,
awareness is about having a full understanding of
cause and effect
, and how everything in this world, in one
way or another, is
are a set of applications
that watch over a user’s shoulder and
suggest information relevant to the current situation. While query-based
memory aids help with direct recall, remembrance agents are an augmented
associative memory. For example, the word-processor version of the RA
continuously updates a list of documents
relevant to what’s being typed or
read in an emacs buffer. These suggested documents can be any text files
that might be relevant to what you are currently writing or reading. They
might be old emails related to the mail you are currently reading, or
abstracts from papers and newspaper articles that discuss the topic of
your writing.Working Memory
is the system
responsible for the transient
holding and processing
of new and already-stored
recalling past experiences and knowledge from memory. To Keep in
mind for attention or consideration. This is an important
process for reasoning
. Working memory is a
theoretical framework that refers to structures and processes
used for temporarily storing and manipulating information. What
information do we have? What information are we receiving? What
is the appropriate action
? Most of the time people are in
automatic mode, and rarely use the processing power of the human
brain. That's because not enough people are teaching this skill
or learning this skill.
is when existing memories are recalled
and modified with new knowledge.
Development of Autonomy in Adolescence
is the ability to do things without occupying
the mind with the low-level details required, allowing it to become an
automatic response pattern or habit. It is usually the result of learning,
repetition, and practice.
refers to the total amount of mental effort being used
in the working memory. Intrinsic cognitive load is the effort associated
with a specific topic. Extraneous cognitive load
refers to the way
information or tasks are presented to a learner. And, germane cognitive
load refers to the work put into creating a permanent store of knowledge,
or a schema.
is an Organized Pattern of Thought or
Manual Controls and
is a type of implicit memory (unconscious memory)
and long-term memory which aids the performance of particular types of
tasks without conscious awareness of these previous experiences.
Procedural memory guides the processes we perform and most frequently
resides below the level of conscious awareness. When needed, procedural
memories are automatically retrieved and utilized for the execution of the
integrated procedures involved in both cognitive and motor skills, from
tying shoes to flying an airplane to reading. Procedural memories are
accessed and used without the need for conscious control or attention.
Procedural memory is created through procedural learning or, repeating a
complex activity over and over again until all of the relevant neural
systems work together to automatically produce the activity. Implicit
procedural learning is essential for the development of any motor skill or
brains have a basic algorithm that enables our intelligence
Imagine using a
and having no
system controls and
, and at the same time having no coordination
or management of priorities. You would have a very difficult
time trying to accomplish even the simplest task. Now imagine a
Human without an operating system. Well you can’t, because you
don’t know what a Human Operating System is yet. Just like if
you never used a computer you would have no idea what it would
be like using a computer without an operating system. Most of us
have a crappie operating system already thanks to our
dysfunctional education system
. We should have been given an
Open Sourced Operating System
instead of a
and dysfunctional operating system
. So let me give you a brief description of what a Human
Operating System is like, or supposed to be like. Remember that
the original definition of a computer was “A human who preformed
calculations”. But when the electronic computer was developed
then the definition changed or evolved. Not understanding the immediate
similarities between a computer and a
was a huge
mistake. While the computer went through incredible advances and
improvements in a short period of time, the human counter part
did not. In less then 50 years an
computer went from being the size of a house and costing 3
million dollars to the size of a book costing less then $500.00.
Of course the
was not followed or most likely ignored when we
designed cars and other consumer items. Because If cars had gone
through those same improvements a car today would get a thousand
miles to the gallon and cost the same as a computer. This was
, which is a
that is still
happening today. (Pyramids
of Waste aka The Light bulb Conspiracy, 2010
). So if we made
the same advances and improvements in educating the human brain we would
have hundreds of millions of intellectuals solving all the worlds
problems. But sadly today we only have a few thousand intellectuals that
are mostly being exploited and underutilized.
"When you first
turn on your computer you want your computer to be ready to accomplish the
actions that you need to have done. When you first wake up every day, you
want your brain to be ready to accomplish actions that you need to have
done. You don't want your brain to randomly process information all the
time. You need to be able to manually switch on the brain and focus on
your current needs
. If not, then
you will always be distracted
inefficient, and not just with your actions, but with your thoughts as
is a set of instructions
executed directly by a
computer's central processing unit (CPU). Each instruction performs a very
specific task, such as a load, a jump, or an ALU operation on a unit of
data in a CPU register or memory. Every program directly executed by a CPU
is made up of a series of such
is any collection of computer instructions
(possibly with comments), written using a human-readable computer
language, usually as ordinary text.
encoded information or computer instructions
, in contrast to the physical
hardware from which the system is built.
An HOS will need to be activated, like
- Operating Systems
"We update our appliances, our TV's, our
phones, our computers, but we never update our brains, why? Why
did everything else improved fairly quickly except for our
Similarities between a Computer and the Human Brain
This is not to say that a computer and the human brain are the
same, because there are many differences. But when you examine the similarities, you begin to understand
the genius in the design of both machines. So instead of a computer just being a tool
for processing information, it
has become a reflection of ourselves, and not just an extension of
ourselves. On or Off
the similarities between a computer and the Human brain
are used to process information
, perform calculations,
and carry out responsibilities and priorities. A
computer is also doing things behind the scenes just like the
Like when the brain tells the heart to beat
faster or slower, telling the lungs to breath more air, and
telling the immune system to fight infections. A computer has
many parts. A Human brain also has many parts. Knowing and
understanding computer parts helps with maintaining its proper
operation. Knowing and
understanding the parts of the human
will also have the same benefit.
What happens to a human
when they don’t get their
of information and
knowledge like computers do when they get their
of virus definitions? People also get 'The
Blue Screen of Death
'. People have that blank stare of
ignorance on their face, not knowing what to do and not knowing
what to say. Is this just a computer malfunction or people
just behaving badly? Understanding the differences between
an ignorant person and a highly educated person is similar to
understanding the differences between a computer and a human brain.
Damages or malfunctions in either a computer or a human brain can make
understanding anything nearly impossible.
can easily look more intelligent to an ignorant
person, while a highly educated person will see the same intelligent
machine as having many limits. So this conversation about the similarities
between a computer and the human brain can only be clearly understood when
people are more educated about both. Don't ever assume
that you know enough
. You can only make a point
about a specific set of circumstances. You can not
about all the differences or the similarities, because
there are just too many variables
It's not so unusual to think
that there are similarities between a computer and a human
, after all, computers are made by humans. And the humans
who designed these computers have a high degree of knowledge
about language and logic. So your computer engineer and your
computer programmers possess a system of tools and language that
are very useful to educators. Teaching a computer has some of
the same instruction elements as teaching a human. The language,
the structure, the organizing, the processing, the allocating,
the actions and the desired outputs.
If people understood how a computer works, understood its
language and its
computational abilities, understood how the system works and
communicates, you can easily see similarities in its logic, logic
that was created by a human. To come up with a source code was understanding how we
learn. If you look at the whole computer as a engineering design, you see
many effective ways to process information.
When humans learn
useful knowledge, that Knowledge writes algorithms in the brain in order
to make effective and efficient use of that knowledge, which is similar to
AI algorithms. So we are coming full circle
Humans algorithms are chemical based, and
are digital based.
Why is the Human Brain
similar to a
is the attribution of human traits,
emotions, and intentions to
and is considered to be an innate tendency of human psychology.
is a Human Global Brain.
(Time-Based Structure - Space-Based Structure)
Why is Behavior like a Computer Program
is having been
Having the unity destroyed. Break or cause to break into pieces.
File System Fragmentation
is the tendency of a file system
to lay out the contents of files non-contiguously to allow in-place
modification of their contents. It is a special case of data
fragmentation. File system fragmentation increases disk head movement or
seek time, which are known to hinder throughput. In addition, file systems
cannot sustain unlimited fragmentation. The correction to existing
fragmentation is to reorganize files and free space back into contiguous
areas, a process called defragmentation.
is a phenomenon in which
used inefficiently, reducing capacity or performance and often both. The
exact consequences of fragmentation depend on the specific system of
storage allocation in use and the particular form of fragmentation. In
many cases, fragmentation leads to storage space being "wasted", and in
that case the term also refers to the wasted space itself. For other
systems (e.g. the FAT file system) the space used to store given data
(e.g. files) is the same regardless of the degree of fragmentation (from
none to extreme).
Emptying Disk Space
is a process that reduces the amount of
fragmentation. It does this by physically organizing the contents of the
mass storage device used to store files into the smallest number of
contiguous regions (fragments). It also attempts to create larger regions
of free space using compaction to impede the return of fragmentation. Some
defragmentation utilities try to keep smaller files within a single
directory together, as they are often accessed in sequence.
Defragmentation is advantageous and relevant to file systems on
electromechanical disk drives. The movement of the hard drive's read/write
heads over different areas of the disk when accessing fragmented files is
slower, compared to accessing the entire contents of a non-fragmented file
sequentially without moving the read/write heads to seek other fragments.
divided against itself
will be ruined, and a house divided
against itself will fall."
You don't need a Computer Chip implanted
in your Body
correct and free from
(words, letters, numbers, diagrams, symbols)
is the ability to apply knowledge and
Information into the correct
to achieve a
Wisdom is showing good
and good judgment by
Wisdom is also understanding the future and the different events that
might happen, being
because some changes might be indications that bigger changes
are coming so good
is a language with a set of instructions that computers (or person) use to
perform specific operations or to exhibit desired behaviors.
is a series of steps to be carried out or
to be accomplished. A
of projects or services intended to meet a public need.
that a computer can interpret and execute. Similar to
of some composite
An operation that affects mental contents.
is a set of instructions
resources and provides common services
for computer programs,
input and output and Memory Allocation
. Acts as an
A collection of software (Information) that manages computer hardware
resources and provides common services for computer programs.
The operating system is a vital component of the
computer system. Application programs usually require an operating system to
function. Software that controls the execution of computer programs and may provide
Time-sharing operating systems
for efficient use of the system
and may also include accounting for cost allocation of
, printing, and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and
operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer
, although the application code
is usually executed directly by
the hardware and will frequently make a system call to an OS function or be
interrupted by it. Operating systems can be found on almost any device that
contains a computer—from cellular phones and video game consoles to
Real-Time Operating System
is used to
, industrial systems
. Has very little
capability and no end-user utilities.
RTOS is an operating system (OS) intended to serve
real-time applications that process
data as it comes in, typically without buffer delays. Processing time
requirements (including any OS delay) are measured in tenths of seconds or
shorter increments of time. They either are event driven or time sharing.
Event driven systems
between tasks based on their
while time sharing systems switch the task based on clock
interrupts. A key characteristic of an RTOS is the level of its
consistency concerning the amount of time it takes to accept and complete
an application's task; the variability is jitter. A hard real-time
operating system has less jitter than a soft real-time
. The chief design goal is not high throughput, but
rather a guarantee of a soft or hard performance category. An RTOS that
can usually or generally meet a deadline is a soft real-time OS, but if it
can meet a deadline deterministically it is a hard real-time OS. An RTOS
has an advanced
flexibility enables a wider, computer-system orchestration of process
priorities, but a real-time OS is more frequently dedicated to a narrow
set of applications. Key factors in a real-time OS are minimal interrupt
latency and minimal thread switching latency; a real-time OS is valued
more for how quickly or how predictably it can respond than for the amount
of work it can perform in a given period of time.
describes hardware and software systems subject to a
"real-time constraint", for example from event to system response.
Real-time programs must guarantee response within specified time
constraints, often referred to as "deadlines". The correctness of these
types of systems depends on their temporal aspects as well as their
functional aspects. Real-time responses are often understood to be in the
order of milliseconds, and sometimes microseconds. A system not specified
as operating in real time cannot usually guarantee a response within any
timeframe, although typical or expected response times may be given. A
real-time system has been described as one which "controls an environment
by receiving data, processing them, and returning the results sufficiently
quickly to affect the
at that time." The term "real-time" is also used in
simulation to mean that the simulation's clock runs at the same speed as a
real clock, and in process control and enterprise systems to mean "without
significant delay". Real-time software may use one or more of the
following: synchronous programming languages, real-time operating systems,
and real-time networks, each of which provide essential frameworks on
which to build a real-time software application. Systems used for many
mission critical applications must be real-time, such as for control of
fly-by-wire aircraft, or anti-lock brakes on a vehicle, which must produce
maximum deceleration but intermittently stop braking to prevent skidding.
Real-time processing fails if not completed within a specified deadline
relative to an event; deadlines must always be met, regardless of system
is an action or occurrence recognized by software,
from the external environment, that may be handled by
the software. Computer events can be generated or triggered by the system,
by the user or in other ways. Typically, events are handled synchronously
with the program flow, that is, the software may have one or more
dedicated places where events are handled, frequently an event loop. A
source of events includes the user, who may interact with the software by
way of, for example, keystrokes on the keyboard. Another source is a
hardware device such as a timer. Software can also trigger its own set of
events into the event loop, e.g. to communicate the completion of a task.
Software that changes its behavior in response to events is said to be
event-driven, often with the goal of being interactive.
is a form of
processing that permits other processing to continue
before the transmission has finished. Input and output (I/O) operations on
a computer can be extremely slow compared to the processing of data. An
I/O device can incorporate mechanical devices that must physically move,
such as a hard drive seeking a track to read or write; this is often
orders of magnitude slower than the switching of electric current. For
example, during a disk operation that takes ten milliseconds to perform, a
processor that is clocked at one gigahertz could have performed ten
million instruction-processing cycles.
is the act of temporarily interrupting a task
being carried out by a computer system, without requiring its cooperation,
and with the intention of resuming the task at a later time. Such changes
of the executed task are known as context switches. It is normally carried
out by a privileged task or part of the system known as a preemptive
scheduler, which has the power to preempt, or interrupt, and later resume,
other tasks in the system.Focus
Single-User Operating System
has a reliable single hard-wired program
designed to run one program at a time so that it runs on time consistently to
insure safe operation.
Single-User Multi-Tasking Operating System
runs several programs in
operation at the same time. Like desktop and laptop computers
, and humans.
allows for input from several different users at the same
Robot Operating System
is a collection of software frameworks for robot software development,
) providing operating system-like
functionality on a heterogeneous computer cluster. ROS provides standard
operating system services such as hardware abstraction, low-level device
control, implementation of commonly used functionality, message-passing
between processes, and package management. Running sets of ROS-based
processes are represented in a graph architecture where processing takes
place in nodes that may receive, post and multiplex sensor, control,
state, planning, actuator and other messages. Despite the importance of
reactivity and low latency in robot control, ROS, itself, is not a
real-time OS (RTOS), though it is possible to integrate ROS with real-time
code. The lack of support for real-time systems is being addressed in the
creation of ROS 2.0. Software in the ROS Ecosystem can be separated into
three groups: language-and platform-independent tools used for building
and distributing ROS-based software; ROS client library implementations
such as roscpp, rospy, and roslisp; packages containing
application-related code which uses one or more ROS client libraries.
(AI).Human Operating System
to be loaded in
. In order
for human to develop, development must be in
That means that education and what we learn should have
sequential order. But no one has defined what to learn or when
to learn it. Computer programmers wrote the code for an
operating system, teachers will write the language for a
learning system. The code in our
makes us who we are
physically, and we didn't even have to write our DNA code
because some one already wrote the code for us. But humans must
manually input knowledge and information
, because we are not
born with the
knowledge that helps us form our personalities, and helps us
understand ourselves and the world around us. This is why an
education must be high quality, developing humans into
intelligent people should be
wrote the code to make computers fully
functional, God or evolution wrote the DNA code for humans so
that humans could be fully functional. That is why we need a
high quality education, so that every human mind is developed to
be fully functional. We have already witnessed the benefits of a
good education, we just haven't defined what a good education
should be, but we are close.
Windows Operating System
50 million lines of code
is computer software that provides services to software
applications beyond those available from the operating system. It can be
described as "software glue". Middleware makes it easier for software
developers to implement communication and input/output, so they can focus
on the specific purpose of their application. Collaboration
is a characteristic of a product or system, whose
understood, to work with other products or systems, present or future, in
either implementation or access, without any restrictions.
is to perform as expected when applied. (computer science)
in which the result is completely specified
by a rule (especially the processing that results from a single instruction)
is an organized structure for arranging or classifying.
or process for obtaining an objective. A complex of methods or
rules governing behavior
. An ordered manner; orderliness by virtue of being methodical and well
Instrumentality that combines interrelated interacting artifacts
designed to work as a coherent entity.
is to cause to be
or ordered or operating according to some principle or
Arrange by Systematic
and united effort.
An integrated set of attitudes and beliefs. A person's
of self with regard to position and time and place and
is an act of formulating a
for a definite course of action. Have the will and intention to carry out some action.
The cognitive process of thinking about what you will do in the event of
Make a design of; plan out in systematic, often graphic form.
The act or process of drawing up plans or layouts for some project or enterprise.
Input - Process - OutputBinary
is a pre-compiled, pre-linked program that is ready to run under a
given operating system; a binary for one operating system will
not run on a different operating system.
The computer operating system software is a written language
that explains and defines its responsibilities when controlling
applications, programs, other software, system controls,
hardware and so on and so on. The Human Operating System is also
that also explains and defines its
responsibilities. The Human Operating System language is based
that helps with carrying out human responsibilities
and human functions. The
for mechanical operations that interface with the computer
responsibilities and computer functions. The computer operating
system language took years to write and went through many
changes and advances and is still improving. The Human Operating
System language will also take years to write and will also go
through many improvements and advances. Most of the Human
Operating System language has already been written but it needs
to be organized and written in the proper language in order for
it to be correctly processed by the human brain. Just like the
computer language ‘COBOL
that is used to communicate actions and commands before it is converted
into its raw binary code of zero’s and ones, the Human Operating System
language will also need some conversion in order for it to be correctly
understood by the human brain.
Operating System Source Code
(Programmed Logic for
(can you tell the difference)
Cohesion (computer science)
refers to the degree to which
the elements of a module belong together. Thus, cohesion measures the
strength of relationship between pieces of functionality within a given
module. For example, in highly cohesive systems functionality is strongly
Encapsulation (object-oriented programming)
is used to refer
to one of two related but distinct notions, and sometimes to the
combination thereof: A language mechanism for restricting direct access to
some of the object's components. A language construct that facilitates the
bundling of data with the methods (or other functions) operating on that
is a method of designing modular
communication protocols in which logically separate functions in the
network are abstracted from their underlying structures by inclusion or
information hiding within higher level objects.
is not pertinent to the matter under consideration.
Statistically unrelated. Having a set of mutually perpendicular axes;
meeting at right angles.
paradigm based on the
concept of "objects", which may contain data, in the form of fields, often
known as attributes; and code, in the form of procedures, often known as
methods. A feature of objects is that an object's procedures can access
and often modify the data fields of the object with which they are
associated (objects have a notion of "this" or "self"). Object
is a programming paradigm, derived
from structured programming, based upon the concept of the procedure call.
Procedures, also known as routines, subroutines, or functions (not to be
confused with mathematical functions, but similar to those used in
functional programming), simply contain a series of computational steps to
be carried out. Any given procedure might be called at any point during a
program's execution, including by other procedures or itself.
millions of lines of code
for the computer operating system to work. Just think if
programmers were used to write educational lessons for the
. We just don’t need programmers for that. We
need educators, teachers and intellectuals. That is why literacy
is one of the most important skills every human should possess.
Books and the written
was the single greatest advancement in human
history to date. When more humans had access to knowledge and
books, which took hundreds of years, we had the most prevalent
advancements in our history. Now our important advancements will
come from understanding this knowledge and how we use it.
describes the property two vectors have when
they are perpendicular to each other. Each vector will advance
indefinitely into space, never to intersect. Well designed software is
orthogonal. Each of its components can be altered without effecting other
components. Making precise changes with predictable outcomes is easy." -
between a Computer and the Human Brain
in computers are actually similar to the
synapses and neurons
in the human brain. And the Integrated Circuits
, or IC’s, of a
computer are also similar in design to synapses and neurons,
which are also either on or off
. Humans have a processor similar
in design as a computer does. The similarities between a
computer and a human are uncanny. So in a sense we have actually
been, accidentally or indirectly, building a Human Operating
, and in a way being totally unaware of these
will become teachers and not just
programmers. Of course the Human Operating System is not a new
idea. Just like many inventions and
in our past we
are just again realizing the true potential of our knowledge.
Computational theory of mind, connectionism, cognitive
psychology, cognitive science, neuroscience and philosophy of
mind have all been around for a long time. So instead of humans
mostly running off their Radom Access Memory, or RAM, we should
all have a Human Operating System that helps us govern our lives
and keeps us aware and continually learning while at the same
time improving ourselves and our world. The
human brain is a
. Some people are walking around with a few
of information while others are walking around with
thousands of Gigs of information. People with less information will always
be at a disadvantage internally and externally.
The main difference
between analog and digital computers is not in what they do, but how they
do it. Analog
computers process information in a continuous fashion and can handle a
wide range of naturally occurring processes. An analog computer receives
one or more variables and produces a result that represents the
relationships between the input variables. Perhaps the simplest example of
an analog computer is an oscilloscope. It receives vertical and horizontal
signals, and produces a visual trace on the oscilloscope screen. The
oscilloscope does not truly compute, but puts the input signals in the
desired relationship. More generally, the relationship is called a
function. Electronic analog devices are capable of producing various
mathematical and logical functions, including logarithms, integration, and
differentiation. Some complex functions may not be solvable with digital
computers, but analog computers can usually handle them well. The main
disadvantage of analog computers is that they are hardwired and designed
to process only a limited number of functions by means of dedicated
electronic devices. This deficit is eliminated in digital computers.
Digital computers represent information in
(zeros) or 1's (ones). A "0" usually stands for low voltage (close to zero
volts), and a "1" means that a voltage (usually 5 V or 3.3 V) is present.
One wire connection is represented by one bit of information. The value of
the bit is "0" or "1." Two bits can represent two wires. Each bit can have
the values of "0" or "1" at different times, which allows to represent
four unique states or events with the values 00, 01, 10, and 11. The state
00 means that both wires have no voltage applied at a given time, and 11
means that both wires have the nominal voltages present at the same time.
By increasing the number of wire connections, long strings of 0's and 1's
(words) can be produced. Each unique combination of 0's and 1's is decoded
and represents a unique number, or information in general. A set of
related wires is referred to as a bus. A bus can have 64 or more wire
connections arranged in parallel and is controlled by a microprocessor.
The microprocessor determines what kind of information is put on the bus
at a specific time. It could be memory address, content of the memory
address, or operating code (instruction to perform an action). The
transfer of information over the bus is controlled by a software program.
The arrangement allows the use of the same hardware (the same physical
devices) to process very different information at different times. Since
the computing is done one variable at a time and is controlled by a timing
protocol, a digital computer does serial processing of information. This
statement is not totally correct, because all bits of the same word are
processed concurrently. But in the analog computer, all input variables
can be processed at the same time, which allows parallel processing.
Overall, the analog computer better reflects the natural world because
specific functions are associated with dedicated wires and circuitry. Also
human senses have dedicated sensors with direct neural connections to the
brain. Each human eye has about 120 high-quality megapixels. A really good
digital camera has about 16 megapixels. The numbers of megapixels between
the eye and the camera are not that dramatically different, but the
digital camera has no permanent wire connections between the physical
sensors and the optical, computational, and memory functions of the
camera. The microprocessor input and output need to be multiplexed to
properly channel the flow of the arriving and exiting information.
Similarly, the functional heart of a digital computer only time-shares its
faculties with the attached devices: memory, camera, speaker, or printer.
If such an arrangement existed in the human brain, you could do only one
function at a time. You could look, then think, and then stretch out your
hand to pick up an object. But you could not speak, see, hear, think,
move, and feel at the same time. These problems could be solved by
operating numerous microprocessors concurrently, but the hardware would be
too difficult to design, too bulky to package, and too expensive to
implement. By contrast, parallel processing poses no problem in the human
brain. Neurons are tiny, come to life in huge numbers, and form
connections spontaneously. Just as important is energy efficiency. Human
brains require negligible amounts of energy, and power dissipation does
not overheat the brain. A computer as complex as the human brain would
need its own power plant with megawatts of power, and a heat sink the size
of a city.
People and animals come in various shapes and sizes, and
with many imperfections. Living things are not designed to last unchanged
a lifetime. Living bodies interact with the environment and adjust to it.
Furry animals shed their coats in the summer and grow more hair in the
winter. A crab sheds its protective shell when it becomes small and grows
a new one. A shark loses its teeth and replaces them with a new set. A
lizard loses its tail and grows a new one. A polar bear has developed a
special fur to negotiate the cold environment of the Arctic ocean. A seal
insulates itself with extra blubber. A tree in a hot climate moves its
leaves vertically to reduce evaporation. All living things respond to
their surroundings, change their "mental strategies", and also modify
their bodies. The reason for these abilities is that living organisms are
not only biological machines, but also manufacturing plants that support
reproduction, maintenance, and remodeling of the organisms in response to
environmental effects. No man-made machine can do this.
to think that neurons
, given that they fire an
action potential if they reach a certain threshold, and otherwise do not
fire. This superficial similarity to digital
“1’s and 0’s”
belies a wide
variety of continuous and non-linear processes that directly influence
neuronal processing. Inside each and every neuron is a leaky integrator
circuit, composed of a variety of ion channels and continuously
fluctuating membrane potentials.
"The brain works somewhat
like both a computer and a chemical factory. Brain cells produce
electrical signals and send them from cell to cell along
pathways called circuits. As in a computer, these circuits
receive, process, store, and retrieve information. Unlike a
computer, however, the brain creates its electrical signals by
chemical means. The proper functioning of the brain depends on
many complicated chemical substances produced by brain cells."
"People will normally look at software
before they load it on to their computer, but for some reason
people don't bother to carefully look at the information that
they take into their mind on a daily basis. It's like reading
without having any comprehension. If you are not fully aware of
what you're feeding into your mind, then learning doesn't
"If you consume healthy food, it will give you energy for a day,
but if you consume a little bit of knowledge each day
, you will
have energy for your entire life."
do you think you need
to ask in order to fully understand something?
Before the Human Operating System language is written here
are a few things that will outline some of its structure.
The Human Operating System will be continually learning and
improving so it will never become stagnate or repetitive.
Human Operating System will not be able to keep you from making
mistakes, but it will make you better at learning from mistakes.
Human Operating System will not dehumanize you or deprive you
of human qualities, but it will make you more aware of how
important those qualities are.
Human Operating System will not keep you from spontaneity, but
it will make you more aware of your actions.
Human Operating System will not stop you from loving, but it
will make you more aware of how important love is.
Human Operating System will have complete knowledge and control
of the human brain, for this is where the Human Operating System
resides, communicates and moves through the metaphysical world.
Human Operating System will have complete knowledge and control
of the human body that it operates in, for this is how it
communicates and moves through the physical world.
Human Operating System will be a coordinator and manager of
responsibilities and priorities and act like a conscience.
The Human Operating System will be a Collective Intelligent
Consensus where everyone is a contributor.
The Human Operating System is not Mind Control or in anyway
Mind Programming. The Human Operating System is Systems
with some elements becoming
but always flexible. You are the manager who is in
control of your mind. If you do not know how to manage your own
mind then you are vulnerable to manipulation and propaganda,
which can create a distorted sense of reality. And when your
sense of reality becomes distorted you are always vulnerable to
mind controlling manipulation. A great source of mind
controlling manipulation is your
, If you do not believe this
or realize this, it means that you have a distorted sense of
reality and are very vulnerable to manipulation and propaganda.
You are not a free thinker, your are merely a robot waiting for
your next command.
The Human Operating System (HOS)
will consist of all the
Disciplines in Basic Knowledge 101
as well as a
made up of
, Thinking Styles,
to help increase the capacity to think
logically about the relationships among concepts and situations
and to justify and ultimately prove the correctness of a
mathematical procedure or assertion.
When the HOS
it will also be used as Artificial Intelligence. The only
difference is AI will have fixed parameters, because knowing
what AI is supposed to do creates stability and consistency,
something that you can count on, unlike a human. Ai will be like
having a very intelligent friend who keeps you aware and up to
Continued from above
.. (off on a tangent)
It’s kind of weird that the Windows OS is very similar to our
dysfunctional education system
. They both
improvements and growth, which of course harms everyone, and
everything. We can no longer afford to allow this to continue.
If we are to improve and prosper we need to do what’s right for
the good of everyone and not just what’s right for the sake of a
single corporation, or a few individuals. The separation of State and People is
ridicules and absurd. If a law infringes on the rights and
freedoms of the individual, our groups of individuals, then that
is not a law for it is an attack on itself. America has more
lawyers then most nations combined, and this is the best that we
can come up with? If you cannot fully explain your reasoning
then you have no reason to be there. The power of decision needs
to be openly debated and not decided in the dark behind closed
doors. But, here we are.
The Internet is reconnecting people to the worlds most valuable knowledge and information that was either
is the combined intelligence of millions of people
from all over the world. You would be a fool not to be part of
it. It is truly the single greatest resource that we have. But
at the moment not enough people are using the
correctly or effectively. But once we improve that, we will
immediately start seeing the power of the internet come alive. Millions of people
coming together to use their collective skills and intelligence
to make improvements, and to repair the damage that we have done
to ourselves and to our planet. This will create jobs for everyone,
it will help connect people to needed services, it will help people locate food and
water, it will give people access to information and give people access
to education, which has already begun. But it's not at the rate
that would ultimately utilize the potential of every man, women
and child on the planet. But we are getting there. And once we
do, the 21st
century is going to be the biggest defining moment in human
history. This will be way beyond the
Coming of Age
Rite of Passage
. It is
on the grandest scale.
is a process whereby larger entities arise through
interactions among smaller or simpler
entities such that the larger
entities exhibit properties the smaller/simpler entities do not exhibit.
is shared or group intelligence that emerges
from the collaboration
, and competition of many
individuals and appears in consensus decision making
Not Popular Belief
is shared knowledge
arrived at by individuals and groups.
is the shared pool of knowledge and
information in the memories of two or more members of a social group.
is the set of
and moral attitudes which operate as a unifying force within society.
products and services are created and value
is added through social networks
operating on large or global scales.
Personal Learning Network
is an informal learning network
that consists of the people a
learner interacts with and derives knowledge from in a personal learning
environment. In a PLN, a person
makes a connection with
with the specific intent that some type of learning
will occur because of that connection. Personal learning networks share a
close association with the concept of
personal learning environments
Social Learning Environments
of the Crowd
is the collective opinion of a group of
individuals rather than that of a
interconnects all humans and their technological artifacts. As this
network stores ever more information, takes over ever more functions of
coordination and communication from traditional organizations, and becomes
increasingly intelligent, it increasingly plays the role of a brain for
the planet Earth.
help world citizens make the best use of universal information resources
and make the best contribution to world peace.
term for a group of close advisers, prized for their expertise in
is the collective behavior of decentralized, self-organized systems,
natural or artificial.
is the study of how people and entities
relay information through mass media
large segments of the population at the same time.
Artificial Neural Network
is the collection of computer resources from multiple locations to reach a
is a model in which components located on networked computers communicate
and coordinate their actions by passing messages.
is an association of two or more individuals, companies, organizations or
governments (or any combination of these entities) with the objective of
participating in a common activity or pooling their resources for
achieving a common goal.
characterizes the intentionality
that occurs when two or more individuals undertake a task together.
Examples include two individuals carrying a heavy table up a flight of
stairs or dancing a tango.
is a group of people produce a sequence of
utterances that performs a cognitive act.
refers to action taken together by a group
of people whose goal is to enhance their status and achieve a common
is intelligence collected from
publicly available sources.
is to identify the most important vertices within a
characterizes multi-agent, distributed systems
where each agent, human or machine, is uniquely positioned, with autonomy
to contribute to a problem-solving network. Collaborative autonomy of
organisms in their ecosystems makes evolution possible.
is a form of collective action that
occurs when large numbers of people work independently on a single
project, often modular in its nature. Such projects typically take place
on the internet using social software and computer-supported collaboration
tools such as wiki technologies, which provide a potentially infinite
substrate within which the collaboration may be situated.
Collaborative Innovation Network
is a social construct used to describe innovative teams.
deploys models of the extended mind by
taking as the fundamental unit of analysis "a collection of individuals
and artifacts and their relations to each other in a particular work
describes a new model of socioeconomic
production in which large numbers of people work cooperatively (usually
over the Internet). Commons-based projects generally have less rigid
hierarchical structures than those under more traditional business models.
Often—but not always—commons-based projects are designed without a need
for financial compensation for contributors.
is computationally intensive science that is carried out in highly
distributed network environments, or science that uses immense data sets
that require grid computing; the term sometimes includes technologies that
enable distributed collaboration, such as the Access Grid.
is an educational software designed to help and support
knowledge building communities
One mind can't do it all, but 7 billion minds
could. The internet gives us the ability to connect all of us. A
brain that can connect to all of its parts.
Internet is more then an amazing tool, the internet is also a
symbol of human power and potential. Because we know that when
we work together we are stronger, and when we work together we
are also more effective, and we are also more efficient. The
internet is a realization of Human Intelligence. Because we now
know that When we make communication and collaboration easier,
we can solve any problem. Merging
the Power of Multiple Brains Peer-to-Peer Knowledge Sharing
"It's not the connection that makes you
smarter, it's how you use that connection that makes you
Internet of Things
The Internet of Things
(IoT) is the network
objects or "things" embedded with electronics, software,
, and network connectivity, which enables these objects
to collect and exchange data. The Internet of Things allows
objects to be
sensed and controlled remotely
, creating opportunities for more direct
integration between the physical world and computer-based
systems, and resulting in improved efficiency, accuracy and
The Education of Things
learning about all the things that you can control, internally
resulting in improved efficiency, accuracy and economic benefit.
The Connection of Things
learning about all the different ways that
things are connected in our world
, understanding cause and
effects and how all actions and inactions have an effect,
whether they are internally or externally, or near or far away.
(CPS) is a system of collaborating
computational elements controlling physical entities. Today, a
precursor generation of cyber-physical systems can be found in
areas as diverse as aerospace, automotive, chemical processes,
civil infrastructure, energy, healthcare, manufacturing,
transportation, entertainment, and consumer appliances. This
generation is often referred to as embedded systems. In embedded
systems the emphasis tends to be more on the computational
elements, and less on an intense link between the computational
and physical elements.
The Natural Physical System is
is a computer system with a dedicated
function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often
with real-time computing constraints. It is embedded as part of
a complete device often including hardware and mechanical parts.
Embedded systems control many devices
in common use today.
Percent of all microprocessors being manufactured are used in
The Environmental System
network of natural embedded systems.
One of the great things about the internet is that you could
have information and knowledge that is not that valuable to you
or someone near you, but on the other side of the planet, that
information and knowledge could be extremely valuable. And you
only have to share that bit of information and knowledge only
once, because it can be shared and copied over and over again,
in almost the exact same way that
our DNA gets passed on
internet is a
mimic of life
"Another great thing about the internet is
that knowledge and information can be
now, which makes even more knowledge and
information accessible to more people. But even though the
internet can be translated into many different languages, there
that have not yet been translated and
digitized, and there are still
billion people who don’t have access to the internet
People want information and knowledge that's easy to follow,
whether in conversation, education, videos or in writing. And we
have already been working on improving this problem, using
websites and the internet. We can make a website that makes
information easy to follow, and at the same time, dynamic enough
to handle a more experienced user who's looking for unique
services and information.
"When you educate people,
. When people are more knowledgeable about themselves and
the world around them, people make better decisions and make
better choices. We need to use our communication tools like TV,
Radio and Newspapers more effectively, so that we can
Communicate our most valuable knowledge and information and give
people more access to the Facts, this way people will finally
have the means to make the necessary improvements that are
"When I'm online and I find something
interesting that I'm reading, I usually ask "what can I learn
" And since I do most of my reading online, I can
instantly get more information about the subject that I'm
reading about, which means I learn a lot more about the subject
and have a much better understanding about the subject. The
internet is awesome. It's the greatest learning tool on the planet."
One of my best friends is a machine
it's more then a machine, it's a connection to human collective
most Intelligent person I know
is the Internet Machine. But the
is not really a person, it's persons. The
Internet is a collective intelligence
made up of millions of people collaborating
. After all, we are
the strongest when we work together
, and we are the smartest when
we put our heads together. Enormous potential and strength
is staring us right in the face. It's time to wake up and pay
attention. You will never have a single machine or a single
human that is capable of answering every question that you have,
but collectively, our potential to learn increases by one
thousand percent. Let go of your
, let go of the self and
embrace the whole, our true strength awaits us.
the first 48 years of my life socializing and experiencing as many things
as I could. But I didn't learn enough just socializing and experiencing.
My most important and valuable learning came from reading. And everything
important that I read I saved on BK101. That saves every human on earth
over 50,000 hours of work
Which was the time I spent locating valuable knowledge and information,
collecting valuable knowledge and information, organizing valuable
knowledge and information and sharing valuable knowledge and information.
I also save you the time from having to learn all the necessary skills
that was needed in order to Locate, collect, organize and share valuable
knowledge and information. And when you add up all the human knowledge
that other people shared, this human potential is worth trillions of
dollars, which you could easily deposit into your own personal bank called
the Human Brain. I could have never done this without
Standing on the Shoulder's of Giants
but now the Giant just got a whole lot bigger. This is more then the
Elephant in the Room
, which is an idiom for an obvious problem or risk
no one wants to discuss, or a condition of groupthink no one wants to
challenge. It is based on the idea/thought that something as conspicuous
as an elephant can appear to be overlooked in codified social
interactions, and that the sociology/psychology of repression also
operates on the macro scale. This is our future, our hope, our power, our
potential, our love of life.
"Collaborating and working with people
can be very productive and insightful. But when I'm alone I can
focus better on getting things done, so I work better on my own.
And that's one the the great things about the
, I can be
alone but still be connected to millions of people, it's
Human Search Engine
"Taking your work home with you is not
always a bad thing, you need time to think."
the Sleeper has Awaken
"Waking up is not just what
you do after you sleep, it's also what you do after you realize
that you were never fully awake."
A tremendous Leap Forward, but this
time we can actually see where we are going...
Blaming the Internet for Ignorant Behavior is like blaming knowledge for Stupidity
To say that the internet is the
reason for people being radicalized is very ignorant
, and a
dangerous lie. That
is like saying that phone lines radicalized people. People on
the internet did not click on an add and accidentally get
radicalized, oops my bad.
People don't seek out radicalized ideas. People are searching
for answers. And sometimes people come across the wrong
information at the wrong time. So
could radicalize people,
could radicalize people,
could radicalize people, and people could radicalize
people. The internet is our savior. But it is not without
People misuse technology
. And people don't have enough
skills and knowledge to
accurately analyze information
. So don't blame the tools
moron. Blame our
and our irresponsible
Saying that the internet is radicalized people is like saying
that electricity is radicalizing people
. Plus it's just stupid
to use the internet to say how bad the internet is. It's like
shooting someone with a gun just to say how dangerous a gun is.
Anything can be misused, that includes
, that includes
, that includes
. We don't
power when a
politician commits a crime
, we blame the person who is too
ignorant to use something effectively and efficiently. and
morally. When we improving education this ignorant behavior will
cease to exist, as well as all ignorant behavior.
"The internet helping people become
radicalized is like saying that too much
radicalization. That's when they take away our freedoms,
then everyone gets punished, except for the people doing the
punishing of course."
There are many things involved that create
. People get radicalized by there experiences and
from the misinterpretation of information. Talk to any radical
and they will all have a story about when they experienced a
traumatic event that changed them, usually the death of family
or friends, and also knowing others who have lost people close
to them. All humans take to a cause, because they feel that they
have no other choices. People who start a
not radicals. They feel threatened, and they feel they have no
other choice but to fight. To blame this
inanimate object is insane. I truly know that people want to
make a difference, and they want to stop this insane violence,
and to stop this insane behavior, but we can't attack things
that are doing more good then harm. You want to dispute the
horrible schools we have, then I'm right there with you. But if
you want to attack the technology that people use to
knowledge and information
, and if you want to attack peoples
right to communicate, and you want to attack peoples right to
inform themselves, then you will create more anger and many more
problems. Millions of people have signed petitions already
committing themselves to
protecting the internet
. We don't want to attack our ability
just because some people ignorantly believe that
is the cause of our problems. And because of the internet, you
will not be able to hide that ignorance. So my suggestion. Help
, help us improve life for every person on the
planet. Help us improve the methods for
informing the public
that people are more aware of their choices and options, so they
become the masters of their own destinies, and not controlled by
some outside ignorant behavior.
The Internet did not cause
people to leave their Religion or their Church
. Religions and Churches
failed to advance and progress at the same rate as technology and human
knowledge did. You still have time to catch up.
Questions to ask Machines
No Future in War
Do you need a Computer
Chip implanted in your Brain
"If you are to benefit from someone's thinking, then you better give them time to think."