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Mental Health

Medical Symbol Caduceus
Mental Health is the psychological state of someone who is functioning at a satisfactory level of emotional and behavioral adjustment. In India there are only 3 psychiatrists for every million people, compared to 124 per million in the U.S., 43.6 million American adults (aged 18 and older) who experienced a mental illness in the past year received mental health care according to a new report by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA).

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Being able to accurately analyze yourself is not easy, especially when you have to use your mind to check your mind. If the instrument you're using isn't calibrated or educated enough, then you will not be accurate with your measurements. This is why we sometimes need professional help, so that someone can help us to analyze ourselves and find out if everything is OK upstairs. But in the 21st century, finding honest and practical professional guidance is difficult with todays drug filled treatments, treatments that are more driven by money then they are facts. Health seekers must beware. You need to educate yourself in order to help yourself. Knowledge is your best medicine, and your best hopes in receiving the best care possible. Sometimes only small adjustments need to be made in order to get back to normal, as long as you know what normal was or should be. Other times you have to make many adjustments and take many steps in order to improve your health and have control over your well being. And even sometimes, you have to start from the beginning because problems can start at an early age. But the good news is, you're not broken, you just have to find a trust worthy technician to help guide you through the processes that helps maintain optimum health.  "A Check Up from the Neck Up"

Know Your Baseline
Systems Check
Reality Check
Rebooting
 

Counseling - Support - Therapies



Better Help is an affordable, private online counseling. Anytime, anywhere. Talk with a licensed, professional therapist online.


Behaviors


Behavior is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether internal or external, conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary. Most bad behaviors come from bad information and bad experiences. (Good Information + Good Experiences = Good Behavior) (Bad Information + Bad Experiences = Bad Behavior).

Behaviorism is a systematic approach to the understanding of human and animal behavior. It assumes that all behavior are either reflexes produced by a response to certain stimuli in the environment, or a consequence of that individual's history, including especially reinforcement and punishment, together with the individual's current motivational state and controlling stimuli. Thus, although behaviorists generally accept the important role of inheritance in determining behavior, they focus primarily on environmental factors, education, family and social settings.

Behavioral Script are a sequence of expected behaviors for a given situation. Scripts include default standards for the actors, props, setting, and sequence of events that are expected to occur in a particular situation.

Passive Aggressive Behavior is the indirect expression of hostility, such as through procrastination, stubbornness, sullen behavior, or deliberate or repeated failure to accomplish requested tasks for which one is (often explicitly) responsible.

Toxic Masculinity is when society tends to promote a certain set of masculine behaviors that can be harmful to men, women, and society overall. gender roles idealizing toughness, dominance, self-reliance, and the restriction of emotion can begin as early as infancy. Includes dominance, devaluation of women, extreme self-reliance, the suppression of emotions, misogyny, homophobia, greed, and violent domination. Conformity with certain traits viewed as traditionally male, such as misogyny, homophobia, and violence, can be considered "toxic" due to harmful effects on others in society, while related traits, including self-reliance and the stifling of emotions, are correlated with harm to men themselves through psychological problems such as depression, increased stress, and substance abuse. Other traditionally masculine traits such as devotion to work, pride in excelling at sports, and providing for one's family, are not considered to be toxic. Toxic masculine norms are characteristic of the unspoken code of behavior among men in American prisons. The term toxic masculinity has also been used by some in the mythopoetic men's movement in contrast to a "real" or "deep" masculinity that they say men have lost touch with in modern society.

Behavioral Cusp is any behavior change that brings an organism's behavior into contact with new contingencies that have far-reaching consequences. A behavioral cusp is a special type of behavior change because it provides the learner with opportunities to access new reinforcers, new contingencies, new environments, new related behaviors (generativeness) and competition with archaic or problem behaviors. It affects the people around the learner, and these people agree to the behavior change and support its development after the intervention is removed.

Adaptive Behavior is a type of behavior that is used to adjust to another type of behavior or situation. This is often characterized as a kind of behavior that allows an individual to change a nonconstructive or disruptive behavior to something more constructive. These behaviors are most often social or personal behaviors. For example, a constant repetitive action could be re-focused on something that creates or builds something. In other words, the behavior can be adapted to something else.

Behavior Modification is a type of behavior that is used to adjust to another type of behavior or situation. This is often characterized as a kind of behavior that allows an individual to change a nonconstructive or disruptive behavior to something more constructive. These behaviors are most often social or personal behaviors. For example, a constant repetitive action could be re-focused on something that creates or builds something. In other words, the behavior can be adapted to something else.

Sustainable Behavior (pdf)

Behavioural Change Theories are attempts to explain why behaviours change. These theories cite environmental, personal, and behavioural characteristics as the major factors in behavioural determination. In recent years, there has been increased interest in the application of these theories in the areas of health, education, criminology, energy and international development with the hope that understanding behavioural change will improve the services offered in these areas. PDF

Human Behavior refers to the array of every physical action and observable emotion associated with individuals, as well as the human race as a whole. While specific traits of one's personality and temperament may be more consistent, other behaviors will change as one moves from birth through adulthood. In addition to being dictated by age and genetics, behavior, driven in part by thoughts and feelings, is an insight into individual psyche, revealing among other things attitudes and values. Social behavior, a subset of human behavior, study the considerable influence of social interaction and culture. Additional influences include ethics, encircling, authority, rapport, hypnosis, persuasion and coercion.

Human Behaviors 41 subcategories, out of 41 total (wiki)

Behavioral Health is a level of psychological well-being, or an absence of mental illness. It is the "psychological state of someone who is functioning at a satisfactory level of emotional and behavioral adjustment". From the perspective of positive psychology or holism, mental health may include an individual's ability to enjoy life, and create a balance between life activities and efforts to achieve psychological resilience.

Behavioral Neuroscience is a branch of psychology that analyzes how the brain and neurotransmitters influence our behaviors, thoughts and feelings. This field can be thought of as a combination of basic psychology and neuroscience.
The application of the principles of biology to the study of physiological, genetic, and developmental mechanisms of behavior in humans and other animals. Also known as biological psychology, biopsychology, or psychobiology.

Behavioural Sciences encompasses the various disciplines and interactions among organisms in the natural world. It involves the systematic analysis and investigation of human and animal behaviour through the study of the past, controlled and naturalistic observation of the present, and disciplined scientific experimentation. It attempts to accomplish legitimate, objective conclusions through rigorous formulations and observation. Examples of behavioural sciences include psychology, psychobiology, and cognitive science.

Behavioral Neurology is a subspecialty of neurology that studies the neurological basis of behavior, memory, and cognition, the impact of neurological damage and disease upon these functions, and the treatment thereof.

Abnormal Behavior in the vivid sense of something deviating from the normal or differing from the typical (such as an aberration), is a subjectively defined behavioral characteristic, assigned to those with rare or dysfunctional conditions. Behavior is considered abnormal when it is atypical, out of the ordinary, causes some kind of impairment, or consists of undesirable behavior. Often what is abnormal, or what is not abnormal, is determined by an individual's culture. The definition of what abnormal behavior is a contentious issue in abnormal psychology. It is an assumption that abnormal behavior is a disorder that has a physical cause, specifically that it is related to the physical structure of the brain. A diagnosis of a mental disorder describes a patient who has a medical condition and the doctor makes a judgment that the patient is exhibiting abnormal behavior. The distinction being that mental disorders describe processes, not people.

Intervention is an orchestrated attempt by one or many people – usually family and friends – to get someone to seek professional help with an addiction or some kind of traumatic event or crisis, or other serious problems like a cult. The term intervention is generally used when the traumatic event involves addiction to drugs or other items. Intervention can also refer to the act of using a similar technique within a therapy session. Interventions have been used[when?][by whom?] to address serious personal problems, including alcoholism, compulsive gambling, drug abuse, compulsive eating and other eating disorders, self harm and being the victim of abuse.

Deprogramming refers to measures that claim to assist a person who holds a controversial belief system in changing those beliefs and abandon allegiance to the religious, political, economic, or social group associated with the belief system. The dictionary definition of deprogramming is "to free" or "to retrain" someone from specific beliefs, some controversial methods and practices of self-identified "deprogrammers" have involved kidnapping, false imprisonment, and coercion, which have sometimes resulted in criminal convictions of the deprogrammers. Some deprogramming regimens are designed for individuals taken against their will, which has led to controversies over freedom of religion, kidnapping, and civil rights, as well as the violence which is sometimes involved.

Exit Counseling - Brain Washing
Inhibition
Behavioral Interventions
Behavioral Interventions

Drug Interventions Programme addiction treatment and other support, thereby reducing drug-related harm and reducing offending behaviour.

Community reinforcement approach and family training is a behavior therapy approach for treating addiction that uses operant conditioning to help people learn to reduce the power of their addictions and enjoy healthy life. CRAFT combines CRA with family training, which equips family and friends with supportive techniques to encourage their loved ones to begin and continue treatment, and provides defenses against addiction's damaging effects on loved ones.

Emergency Psychiatry Interventions is the clinical application of psychiatry in emergency settings. Conditions requiring psychiatric interventions may include attempted suicide, substance abuse, depression, psychosis, violence or other rapid changes in behavior. Psychiatric emergency services are rendered by professionals in the fields of medicine, nursing, psychology and social work. The demand for emergency psychiatric services has rapidly increased throughout the world since the 1960s, especially in urban areas. Care for patients in situations involving emergency psychiatry is complex. Individuals may arrive in psychiatric emergency service settings through their own voluntary request, a referral from another health professional, or through involuntary commitment. Care of patients requiring psychiatric intervention usually encompasses crisis stabilization of many serious and potentially life-threatening conditions which could include acute or chronic mental disorders or symptoms similar to those conditions.

Involuntary Psychiatric Hold allows a qualified officer or clinician to involuntarily confine a person deemed to have certain mental disorders for up to 14 days, following being involuntarily held for 72 hours under a Section 5150 hold.

Involuntary Psychiatric Hold (5150)
Ventura Early Intervention Prevention Services

Behaviour Therapy referring to psychotherapy, behaviour analytical, or a combination of the two therapies. In its broadest sense, the methods focus on either just behaviours or in combination with thoughts and feelings that might be causing them. Those who practice behaviour therapy tend to look more at specific, learned behaviours and how the environment influences those behaviours. Those who practice behaviour therapy are called behaviourists. They tend to look for treatment outcomes that are objectively measurable. Behaviour therapy does not involve one specific method but it has a wide range of techniques that can be used to treat a person's psychological problems. Behaviour therapy breaks down into four disciplines: applied behaviour analysis (ABA), the Teaching Family Model (TFM), Positive Behavior Support (PBS) and cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). ABA focuses on the application of learning theory to assess potential behaviour-change procedures and CBT focuses on the thoughts and feelings behind mental health conditions with treatment plans in psychotherapy to lessen the issue,

Applied Behavior Analysis is a scientific discipline concerned with analyzing the principles of learning theory and systematically applying this technology to change behavior of social significance. It is the applied form of behavior analysis; the other two forms are radical behaviorism (or the philosophy of the science) and the experimental analysis of behavior (or experimental research).

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy is a psychosocial Behavior Intervention that is the most widely used evidence-based practice for treating mental disorders. Guided by empirical research, CBT focuses on the development of personal coping strategies that target solving current problems and changing unhelpful patterns in cognitions (e.g., thoughts, beliefs, and attitudes), behaviors, and emotional regulation. It was originally designed to treat depression, and is now used for a number of mental health conditions.

Cognitive Emotional Brain (pdf)

Dialectical Behavior Therapy is a Therapy designed to help people suffering from mood disorders as well as those who need to change patterns of behavior that are not helpful, such as self-harm, suicidal ideation, and substance abuse. This approach works towards helping people increase their emotional and cognitive regulation by learning about the triggers that lead to reactive states and helping to assess which coping skills to apply in the sequence of events, thoughts, feelings, and behaviors to help avoid undesired reactions. DBT assumes that people are doing their best but lack the skills needed to succeed, or are influenced by positive or negative reinforcement that interferes with their ability to function appropriately.

Quantitative Analysis of Behavior uses quantitative models in the experimental analysis of behavior.

Behavioural Despair Test is a test, centered on a rodent's response to the threat of drowning, whose result has been interpreted as measuring susceptibility to negative mood. It is commonly used to measure the effectiveness of antidepressants, although significant criticisms of its interpretation have been made.

Developmental-Behavioral Screening and Surveillance is early detection of children with developmental-behavioral delays and disabilities to make sure that those with difficulties receive the benefits of early intervention.

Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System is a health survey that looks at behavioral risk factors.

Resources for Behavioral Health Problems
Advanced Behavioral Health
Behaviorology 
National Council for Behavioral Health
Ideas 42
Behavior Advisor
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)
Behavioral Health Resources
ACT Engage Behavior Assessment
How Epigenetics Can Affect Ants’ Behavior (youtube)
Behavioral Medicine Research
UCLA Center for Behavior, Evolution, and Culture
Behavior
My Childs Behavior 

Subject Related Pages
Behavioral Addiction
Addictions
Anxiety - Trauma
Introvert - Extrovert
Assessments
Punishment
Placebos
Toxoplasmosis
Hormones
Epigenetics
Programing - Modify
Learning Methods - Learned Behavior
Smart Drugs
Self Smart
Interpersonal intelligence
Child Development


Alzheimer's


Alzheimer's Association 2016 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures.
Alzheimer's disease is the 6th leading cause of death in the United States. More than 5 million Americans are living with Alzheimer's. Every 66 seconds, someone in the United States develops Alzheimer's disease. More than 3 million US cases per year. Nearly half of care contributors -- those who are caregivers of someone with Alzheimer's and/or contribute financially to their care -- cut back on their own expenses (including food, transportation and medical care) to pay for dementia-related care of a family member or friend. In 2015, 15.9 million caregivers provided an estimated 18.1 billion hours of unpaid care valued at more than $221 billion. Alzheimer's is the only cause of death among the top 10 in America that cannot be prevented, cured, or even slowed. There are approximately 700,000 people dying each year because they have Alzheimer's. 1 in 3 seniors dies with Alzheimer's or another dementia. Deaths from Alzheimer's disease rose by 55 percent over the last 15 years.

Alzheimer's Association
Alzheimer's Foundation
Support for older adults with memory loss and their families

Alanna Shaikh (video and interactive text)
Samuel Chen: Alzheimer can be Cured (video and interactive text)

Alzheimer Disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time. It is the cause of 60% to 70% of cases of dementia. The most common early symptom is difficulty in remembering recent events (short-term memory loss). As the disease advances, symptoms can include problems with language, disorientation (including easily getting lost), mood swings, loss of motivation, not managing self care, and behavioral issues. As a person's condition declines, they often withdraw from family and society. Gradually, bodily functions are lost, ultimately leading to death. Although the speed of progression can vary, the average life expectancy following diagnosis is three to nine years.

Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease

Beta Amyloid denotes peptides of 36–43 amino acids that are crucially involved in Alzheimer's disease as the main component of the amyloid plaques found in the brains of Alzheimer patients.

Plaques - Tangles
Amyloid Plaques
Blood Brain Barrier

Senile Plaques are extracellular deposits of amyloid beta in the grey matter of the brain. Degenerative neural structures and an abundance of microglia and astrocytes can be associated with senile plaque deposits. These deposits can also be a byproduct of senescence (ageing). However, large numbers of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are characteristic features of Alzheimer's disease. Abnormal neurites in senile plaques are composed primarily of paired helical filaments, a component of neurofibrillary tangles. The plaques are variable in shape and size, but are on average 50 µm in size. In Alzheimer's disease they are primarily composed of amyloid beta peptides. These polypeptides tend to aggregate and are believed to be neurotoxic.

Neurofibrillary Tangle are aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau protein that are most commonly known as a primary marker of Alzheimer's disease. Their presence is also found in numerous other diseases known as tauopathies. Little is known about their exact relationship to the different pathologies.

Tauopathy belongs to a class of neurodegenerative diseases associated with the pathological aggregation of tau protein in neurofibrillary or gliofibrillary tangles in the human brain. Tangles are formed by hyperphosphorylation of a microtubule-associated protein known as tau, causing it to aggregate in an insoluble form. (These aggregations of hyperphosphorylated tau protein are also referred to as paired helical filaments). The precise mechanism of tangle formation is not completely understood, and it is still controversial as to whether tangles are a primary causative factor in the disease or play a more peripheral role.
Tau Imaging

Delirium is an organically caused decline from a previously baseline level of mental function. It often has a fluctuating course,  attentional deficits, and disorganization of behavior. It typically involves other cognitive deficits, changes in arousal (hyperactive, hypoactive, or mixed), perceptual deficits, altered sleep-wake cycle, and psychotic features such as hallucinations and delusions. Delirium itself is not a disease, but rather a set of symptoms.

Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning. Other common symptoms include emotional problems, problems with language, and a decrease in motivation. A person's consciousness is usually not affected. A dementia diagnosis requires a change from a person's usual mental functioning and a greater decline than one would expect due to aging. These diseases also have a significant effect on a person's caregivers. Dementia is to die but not be dead, a living death.

Frontotemporal Dementia is the clinical presentation of frontotemporal lobar degeneration, which is characterized by progressive neuronal loss predominantly involving the frontal or temporal lobes, and typical loss of over 70% of spindle neurons, while other neuron types remain intact.

Frontal Lobe Disorder is an impairment of the frontal lobe that occurs due to disease or head trauma.

Benadryl is Linked to Higher Dementia Risk
Nonprescription Diphenhydramine

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig's disease and motor neurone disease (MND), is a specific disease that causes the death of neurons which control voluntary muscles. Some also use the term motor neuron disease for a group of conditions of which ALS is the most common. ALS is characterized by stiff muscles, muscle twitching, and gradually worsening weakness due to muscles decreasing in size. This results in difficulty speaking, swallowing, and eventually breathing. The cause is not known in 90% to 95% of cases. About 5–10% of cases are inherited from a person's parents. About half of these genetic cases are due to one of two specific genes. The diagnosis is based on a person's signs and symptoms with testing done to rule out other potential causes. No cure for ALS is known.

Amyloidosis is a group of diseases in which abnormal protein, known as amyloid fibrils, builds up in tissue. Symptoms depend on the type and are often variable. They may include diarrhea, weight loss, feeling tired, enlargement of the tongue, bleeding, numbness, feeling faint with standing, swelling of the legs, or enlargement of the spleen. There are about 30 different type of amyloidosis, each due to a specific protein misfolding. Some are genetic while others are acquired. They are grouped into localized and systemic forms. The four most common types of systemic disease are light chain (AL), inflammation (AA), dialysis (Aβ2M), and hereditary and old age (ATTR). Diagnosis may be suspected when protein is found in the urine, organ enlargement is present, or problems are found with multiple peripheral nerves and it is unclear why. Diagnosis is confirmed by tissue biopsy. Due to the variable presentation, a diagnosis can often take some time to reach. Treatment is geared towards decreasing the amount of the involved protein. This may sometimes be achieved by determining and treating the underlying cause. AL amyloidosis occurs in about 3–13 per million people per year and AA amyloidosis in about 2 per million people per year. The usual age of onset of these two types is 55 to 60 years old. Without treatment life expectancy is between half and four years. In the developed world about 1 per 1,000 people die from amyloidosis. Amyloidosis has been described since at least 163.

Brain Maintenance - Brain Food - Exercise - Learning - Laptops for Seniors - Memory

Influence of Education and Occupation on the incidence of Alzheimer's Disease

Alzheimer's disease or other forms of dementia are declining for people who are more educated.

Educated people are healthier overall, so keep learning, especially new and valuable knowledge and information.

Non-invasive Ultrasound Restores Memory

Alzheimer's Insulin Nose Spray

Donepezil is a medication used in the palliative treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

The Brain is directly connected to the immune system by meningeal lymphatic vessels. Every neurological disease has an immune component. Lymphatic System

Brain Inflammation

Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease is an incurable and universally fatal neurodegenerative disease. CJD is at times called a human form of mad cow disease (bovine spongiform encephalopathy or BSE). However, given that BSE is believed to be the cause of Variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans, the two are often confused. CJD is caused by an infectious agent called a prion. Prions are misfolded proteins that replicate by converting their properly folded counterparts, in their host, to the same misfolded structure they possess. CJD causes the brain tissue to degenerate rapidly, and as the disease destroys the brain, the brain develops holes and the texture changes to resemble that of a kitchen sponge.

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis also known as Lou Gehrig's disease and motor neurone disease (MND), is a specific disease that causes the death of neurons which control voluntary muscles. Some also use the term motor neuron disease for a group of conditions of which ALS is the most common. ALS is characterized by stiff muscles, muscle twitching, and gradually worsening weakness due to muscles decreasing in size. This results in difficulty speaking, swallowing, and eventually breathing. The cause is not known in 90% to 95% of cases. About 5–10% of cases are inherited from a person's parents. About half of these genetic cases are due to one of two specific genes. The diagnosis is based on a person's signs and symptoms with testing done to rule out other potential causes. No cure for ALS is known.

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy commonly known as mad cow disease, is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy and fatal neurodegenerative disease in cattle that may be passed to humans who have eaten infected flesh. BSE causes a spongiform degeneration of the brain and spinal cord. BSE has a long incubation period, of 2.5 to 5 years, usually affecting adult cattle at a peak age onset of four to five years. BSE is caused by a misfolded protein—a prion. In the United Kingdom, the country worst affected by an epidemic in 1986–1998, more than 180,000 cattle were infected and 4.4 million slaughtered during the eradication program.

Researchers unravel how acidic conditions favor protein misfolding in deadly diseases. - PH

Serum Amyloid A proteins are a family of apolipoproteins associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in plasma. Different isoforms of SAA are expressed constitutively (constitutive SAAs) at different levels or in response to inflammatory stimuli (acute phase SAAs). These proteins are produced predominantly by the liver. Lipids

Prion is an infectious agent composed entirely of Protein material, called PrP (short for prion protein), that can fold in multiple, structurally distinct ways, at least one of which is transmissible to other prion proteins, leading to disease that is similar to viral infection. They are suspected to be the cause of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) among other diseases.

Human Enzyme known as cyclophilin 40 or CyP40, was found to preserve brain neurons and rescued cognitive deficits in a mouse model.

Klotho (biology) is an Enzyme that in humans is encoded by the KL gene. This gene encodes a type-I membrane protein that is related to β-glucuronidases. Reduced production of this protein has been observed in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF), and this may be one of the factors underlying the degenerative processes (e.g., arteriosclerosis, osteoporosis, and skin atrophy) seen in CRF. Also, mutations within this protein have been associated with ageing, bone loss and alcohol consumption. Transgenic mice that overexpress Klotho live longer than wild-type mice.

Beta-Secretase 1 is an Enzyme that in humans is encoded by the BACE1 gene. BACE1 is an aspartic-acid protease important in the formation of myelin sheaths in peripheral nerve cells. The transmembrane protein contains two active site aspartate residues in its extracellular protein domain and may function as a dimer.

Human cyclophilin 40 is a heat shock protein that exhibits altered intracellular localization following heat shock.

Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide is a coenzyme found in all living cells. The compound is a dinucleotide, because it consists of two nucleotides joined through their phosphate groups. One nucleotide contains an adenine base and the other nicotinamide. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide exists in two forms, an oxidized and reduced form abbreviated as NAD+ and NADH respectively. In metabolism, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is involved in redox reactions, carrying electrons from one reaction to another. The coenzyme is, therefore, found in two forms in cells: NAD+ is an oxidizing agent – it accepts electrons from other molecules and becomes reduced. This reaction forms NADH, which can then be used as a reducing agent to donate electrons. These electron transfer reactions are the main function of NAD. However, it is also used in other cellular processes, the most notable one being a substrate of enzymes that add or remove chemical groups from proteins, in posttranslational modifications. Because of the importance of these functions, the enzymes involved in NAD metabolism are targets for drug discovery. In organisms, NAD can be synthesized from simple building-blocks (de novo) from the amino acids tryptophan or aspartic acid. In an alternative fashion, more complex components of the coenzymes are taken up from food as the vitamin called niacin. Similar compounds are released by reactions that break down the structure of NAD. These preformed components then pass through a salvage pathway that recycles them back into the active form. Some NAD is also converted into nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP); the chemistry of this related coenzyme is similar to that of NAD, but it has different roles in metabolism. Although NAD+ is written with a superscript plus sign because of the formal charge on a particular nitrogen atom, at physiological pH for the most part it is actually a singly charged anion (charge of minus 1), while NADH is a doubly charged anion.

Age-Associated Increase in BMP Signaling inhibits Hippocampal Neurogenesis

Alzheimer's Caregiver Buddy help caregivers manage their personal stress, navigate family conflict and reach a 24/7 helpline.

Mental Health Questions


Beware


Don't Believe everything that you Hear

When seeking help always get a second or third opinion from a professional source or a very intelligent well trusted friend or family member. There's a lot of fraud, false medical claims and Doctors over prescribing medications. So please do your homework especially with medications and treatment alternatives. Be positive and be hopeful but don't be Gullible. Not all Doctors are Honest or Educated so its not just about who you can trust. 

Alert is to warn or arouse to a sense of danger or call to a state of preparedness. Engaged in or accustomed to close observation. Mentally perceptive and responsive. Condition of heightened watchfulness or preparation for action.

The National Council Against Health Fraud
Quack Watch
Skeptic
Pseudoscientific
Skepticism
Questioning
Information Sources

Suicide
Depression
Happiness
Sanity
Sleeping
Memory
Marijuana Drug War 
Media Literacy
Victims of Crimes

Routines
Interpersonal intelligence (People Smart)

Sexual Relationships

Drug Abuse
Addictions
Drug Abuse Recovery
Substance Abuse Treatments
Drug Rehabilitation
Alcohol
Prescription Drug Abuse
Tobacco Cigarettes Dangers
Therapy
Counseling
Support Groups
Learning Methods
Mental Health Resources
                 
Meditation
Relaxation - Hypnosis - Natural Therapy's
Breathing
Scents
Vibrations
Sound Shapes
Take a Break
Silence

Pharmaceutical Industry
Stethoscope PhotoThings you should definitely know about the pharmaceutical industry
Research
Bias in Research
Research not being shared
DSM
Pharmaceutical Drugs in Public Drinking Water
Deaths and Over Doses from Prescription Drugs
Drug Errors
Women and Men have differences when it comes to Medication
Smart Drugs don't make you smarter
Citizen Science - Do It Yourself Chemistry
Placebos
          
A Personal Experience with Using Drugs
Knowledge is the Greatest Drug in the World..
Have you taken your Knowledge Dose Today?"
Crutch
Tolerance
Plants
Parameters
Gambling
Program
Change
High Functioning


Lyme Disease


Deer Tick Adult Female Lyme Disease is an infectious disease caused by bacteria of the Borrelia type. The most common sign of infection is an expanding area of redness, known as erythema migrans, that begins at the site of a tick bite about a week after it has occurred. The rash is typically neither itchy nor painful. Approximately 25–50% of infected people do not develop a rash. Other early symptoms may include fever, headache and feeling tired. If untreated, symptoms may include loss of the ability to move one or both sides of the face, joint pains, severe headaches with neck stiffness, or heart palpitations, among others. Months to years later, repeated episodes of joint pain and swelling may occur. Occasionally, people develop shooting pains or tingling in their arms and legs. Despite appropriate treatment, about 10 to 20% of people develop joint pains, memory problems, and feel tired for at least six months. Lyme disease is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected ticks of the Ixodes genus. Usually, the tick must be attached for 36 to 48 hours before the bacteria can spread. In North America, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Borrelia mayonii are the cause. In Europe and Asia, the bacteria Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii are also causes of the disease. The disease does not appear to be transmissible between people, by other animals, or through food. Diagnosis is based upon a combination of symptoms, history of tick exposure, and possibly testing for specific antibodies in the blood. Blood tests are often negative in the early stages of the disease. Testing of individual ticks is not typically useful. Prevention includes efforts to prevent tick bites such as by wearing long pants and using DEET. Using pesticides to reduce tick numbers may also be effective. Ticks can be removed using tweezers. If the removed tick was full of blood, a single dose of doxycycline may be used to prevent development of infection, but is not generally recommended since development of infection is rare. If an infection develops, a number of antibiotics are effective, including doxycycline, amoxicillin, and cefuroxime. Treatment is usually for two or three weeks.Some people develop a fever and muscle and joint pains from treatment which may last for one or two days. In those who develop persistent symptoms, long-term antibiotic therapy has not been found to be useful. Lyme disease is the most common disease spread by ticks in the Northern Hemisphere. It is estimated to affect 300,000 people a year in the United States and 65,000 people a year in Europe. Infections are most common in the spring and early summer. Lyme disease was diagnosed as a separate condition for the first time in 1975 in Old Lyme, Connecticut. It was originally mistaken for juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. The bacterium involved was first described in 1981 by Willy Burgdorfer. Chronic symptoms are well described and are known as post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome, although it is often called chronic Lyme disease. Some healthcare providers claim that it is due to ongoing infection; however, this is not believed to be true. A previous vaccine is no longer available. Research is ongoing to develop new vaccines.

Protection Against Ticks
Some Ticks may carry Lyme disease and other diseases so here are some useful tips. Wear light colored clothing so the ticks can be easily spotted. If is hunting season, then of course it’s a good idea to wear orange. Apply insect repellent to skin and clothing and tuck pants into socks. Examine clothing and skin for ticks often. Make sure your pet has a good flea collar too. Remove them immediately with tweezers near to the ticks head close to the skin. Do not use flammable liquid or matches to remove ticks. After removing tick disinfect with soap and water, rubbing alcohol or hydrogen peroxide. Record date and location of tick bite and if flu like conditions appear please see a doctor. Risk of disease is reduced if tick is removed in 36 hours.

American Lyme Disease Foundation
Lyme Ticks

Powassan Virus is a virus transmitted by ticks. The disease it causes is named after the town of Powassan, Ontario, where it was identified in a young boy who eventually died from it.

A man in his 40s was infected with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) this summer through contact with his pet dog who had passed SFTS onto him. The man became infected with the disease after stroking and massaging his dog, which had previously been bitten by an ixodid tick -- an arachnid that spreads SFTS.

Since the early '90s, reported cases of Lyme disease have tripled, to about 30,000 cases each year. And the CDC thinks the actual number is 10 times higher.

Lyme Disease Map of North Eastern U.S.

Under our Skin (hulu)
A great documentary about Lyme Disease that shows how incompetent and corrupt some doctors are. So you are actually fighting two diseases instead of just one. Creating two types of Biofilms

When Anti-trust becomes Anti-human, Disinformation becomes the biggest cause of cancer.



The Thinker Man