Facebook Twiter Goole Plus Linked In YouTube Blogger

Physical Health


Eat Healthy-Exercise-Sleep-Relax-Monitor The Human Body is an incredible complex machine. Don't ever take your body for granted. Everyone must fully understand the responsibilities of maintaining a strong and healthy body.
Learn to Ask Questions

First Aid - Vitals

Previous SubjectNext Subject

Knowledge is the Best Medicine
The Fountain of Youth is Knowledge

Preventive Medicine consists of measures taken for Disease Prevention, as opposed to disease treatment. Relies on anticipatory actions that can be categorized as primal, primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention.

Risk Factoring - Pain - Injury is any physical damage to the body. Causes

Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.

Preventive Healthcare consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to just disease treatment.

It's Cheaper to Prevent Diseases then it is to Treat Diseases
.
Cigarettes alone causes 5 billion dollars in heath care treatments from diseases caused by smoking.

Peer Education is an approach to health promotion, in which community members are supported to promote health-enhancing change among their peers. Peer education is the teaching or sharing of health information, values and behavior in educating others who may share similar social backgrounds or life experiences. Rather than health professionals educating members of the public, the idea behind peer education is that ordinary lay people are in the best position to encourage healthy behaviour to each other.
 
Peer Mentoring (social learning)

Prevention Science is the application of a scientific methodology that seeks to prevent or moderate major human dysfunctions before they occur.

Prevention through Design is the concept of mitigating occupational hazards by "designing them out".
Obsolete

Health Communication is the study and practice of communicating promotional health information, such as in public health campaigns, health education, and between doctor and patient. The purpose of disseminating health information is to influence personal health choices by improving health literacy. Because effective health communication must be tailored for the audience and the situation, research into health communication seeks to refine communication strategies to inform people about ways to enhance health or to avoid specific health risks. Academically, health communication is a discipline within communication studies. Health communication may variously seek to: Increase audience knowledge and awareness of a health issue. Influence behaviors and attitudes towards a health issue. Demonstrate healthy practices. Demonstrate the benefits of behavior changes to public health outcomes. Advocate a position on a health issue or policy. Increase demand or support for health services. Argue against misconceptions about health.

Transtheoretical Model assesses an individual's readiness to act on a new healthier behavior, and provides strategies, or processes of change to guide the individual through the stages of change to Action and Maintenance. It is composed of the following constructs: stages of change, processes of change, self-efficacy, decisional balance and temptations.

Self-Regulation Theory is a system of conscious personal management that involves the process of guiding one's own thoughts, behaviors, and feelings to reach goals. Self-regulation consists of several stages, and individuals must function as contributors to their own motivation, behavior, and development within a network of reciprocally interacting influences.

Salutogenesis describes an approach focusing on factors that support human health and well-being, rather than on factors that cause disease (pathogenesis)

Human Physiology is the entire structure of a human being and comprises a head, neck, trunk (which includes the thorax and abdomen), arms and hands, legs and feet. Every part of the body is composed of various types of cells, the fundamental unit of life.

Healing is the process of the restoration of health from an unbalanced, diseased or damaged organism. Healing involves the repair of living tissue, organs and the biological system as a whole and resumption of normal functioning. It is the process by which the cells in the body regenerate and repair to reduce the size of a damaged or necrotic area and replace it with new living tissue.

Respite is a (temporary) relief from harm or discomfort. The act of reprieving; postponing or remitting punishment. A pause for relaxation.

Recovery is to return to an original state. Gradual healing (through rest) after sickness or injury. The act of regaining or saving something lost (or in danger of becoming lost).

Recovery Approach (Humanistic) - Nurse you back to health is to Educate the Mind.

Cure is the end of a medical condition that helps end a person's sufferings. It may also refer to the state of being healed, or cured or make healthy again.

Fund Medical Treatments for People in Need

Ethics in The Medical Industry

Palliative Care - Elderly Care


Doctor - Physician


Doctor or physician is a professional who practices medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments. Physicians may focus their practice on certain disease categories, types of patients and methods of treatment—known as specialties—or they may assume responsibility for the provision of continuing and comprehensive medical care to individuals, families, and communities—known as general practice. Medical practice properly requires both a detailed knowledge of the academic disciplines (such as anatomy and physiology) underlying diseases and their treatment—the science of medicine—and also a decent competence in its applied practice—the art or craft of medicine. National Rural Health Association states that rural areas could be short 45,000
doctors by 2020. And other trade groups warn those numbers of unfilled positions could loom even larger. Since 2010, more than 70 rural hospitals have closed.

Nurse (care giving)

Early Historical Doctors: Herophilos Greek Physician 335–280 or 255 BC) - (Galen Greek Physician AD 129 – c.200/c.216) Galenic Corpus

Health Care Provider is an individual who provides preventive, curative, promotional or rehabilitative health care services in a systematic way to people, families or communities. A health professional may operate within all branches of health care, including medicine, surgery, dentistry, midwifery, pharmacy, psychology, nursing or allied health professions. A health professional may also be a public/community health expert working for the common good of the society.

Compare Doctors (ratings)

The Global Standard (ICHOM) value-based health care focusing on health outcomes.

Errors made by Doctors

Medicine Categories (wiki)
Medicine Categories (wiki)

Medical Terminology is language used to precisely describe the human body including its components, processes, conditions affecting it, and procedures performed upon in. It is to be used in the field of medicine. Notable aspects of medical terminology include the use of Latin terms and regular morphology, with the same suffixes and prefixes use quite consistently for a particular meaning. This regular morphology means that once reasonable number of morphemes are learned it becomes easy to understand very precise terms build up from these morphemes. A lot of medical language is anatomical terminology, concerning itself with the names of various parts of the body.
Medical Terms Definitions


Surgery


Surgeon is a doctor who performs operations, which is a medical procedure involving an incision with instruments; performed to repair damage or arrest disease in a living body. Incision is cutting of or into body tissues or organs. Surgeons may be physicians, podiatrists, dentists, or veterinarians.

Surgery Encyclopedia
Universal Anesthesia Machine
Onebreath low-cost Ventilator
Surgery Simulator
Color Coded Surgery (video)
Ultrasound Surgery (video) Web

Robotic Surgery

Invasive Surgical Procedure refers to surgical techniques that limit the size of incisions needed and so lessens wound healing time, associated pain and risk of infection. An endovascular aneurysm repair as an example of minimally invasive surgery is much less invasive in that it involves much smaller incisions, than the corresponding open surgery procedure of open aortic surgery.

O-Arm Surgical Imaging
Laparoscopic
3D Holographic Imaging
Body Browser (youtube)

Surgery Costs by State
Health Cost Institute
Fraud


Organ Transplants


Organ Transplantation is a medical procedure in which an organ is removed from one body and placed in the body of a recipient, to replace a damaged or missing organ. The donor and recipient may be at the same location, or organs may be transported from a donor site to another location. Organs and/or tissues that are transplanted within the same person's body are called autografts. Transplants that are recently performed between two subjects of the same species are called allografts. Allografts can either be from a living or cadaveric source.

Organ Donation is when a person allows to be removed, legally, either by consent while the donor is alive or after death with the assent of the next of kin. Donation may be for research, or, more commonly healthy transplantable organs and tissues may be donated to be transplanted into another person. Common transplantations include: kidneys, heart, liver, pancreas, intestines, lungs, bones, bone marrow, skin, and corneas. Some organs and tissues can be donated by living donors, such as a kidney or part of the liver, but most donations occur after the donor has died. As of August 1, 2016, there are 120,004 people waiting for life-saving organ transplants in the US. Of these, 96,645 await kidney transplants. While views of organ donation are positive there is a large gap between the numbers of registered donors compared to those awaiting organ donations on a global level.

120,000 Americans are on waiting lists, 30 Americans a day either die on the waiting list or are removed from it because they have become too ill to receive a transplant. Every day, about 75 people in the United States get an organ transplant. About 130 new people are put on transplant waiting lists each day

One Legacy
Organ Donor (gov)
Paired Donation
Paired Kidney Exchange

Matching Donors and Recipients, These usually include: Blood type, Body size, Severity of patient's medical condition, Distance between the donor's hospital and the patient's hospital, The patient's waiting time, Whether the patient is available (for example, whether the patient can be contacted and has no current infection or other temporary reason that transplant cannot take place). Depending on the organ, however, some factors become more important. For example, some organs can survive outside the body longer than others. So the distance between the donor's hospital and the potential recipient's hospital must be taken into consideration.

Can an organ recipient choose an organ from a younger person? Putting a kidney from a 70 year old donor into a 20 year old recipient is not a great idea. In the reverse situation a 20 year old kidney transplanted into a 70 year old will be exposed to an aging environment: high blood pressure, other organs which are not functioning optimally and it will not last as long as it would in a 20 year old recipient (assuming the etiology is not prone to recurrence). A 70 year old kidney would probably last longer in a
20 year old than in another 70 year old but sometimes young and otherwise healthy patients have a greater tendency to reject than older ones. In any case, some sort of age matching makes sense if feasible. The biological age of the transplanted organ won't change after it has been transplanted. Almost everyone can be an organ donor, no matter what your age.

Can people of different races and ethnicities match each other? Yes. People of different ethnicities frequently match each other.
How are donated organs distributed? Organs are matched to patients based on a number of factors, including blood and tissue
typing, medical need, time on the waiting list, and geographical location.

More than 100,000 people in the United States are waiting for a new kidney. 500,000 are on dialysis.

Living Donations of a kidney can be made to a family member, friend, or anyone on the waiting list.

Dialysis is a process for removing waste and excess water from the blood and is used primarily as an artificial replacement for lost kidney function in people with kidney failure. Dialysis may be used for those with an acute disturbance in kidney function (acute kidney injury, previously acute renal failure) or progressive but chronically worsening kidney function—a state known as chronic kidney disease stage 5 (previously chronic kidney failure or end-stage renal disease).
Dialysis: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (HBO) (youtube)

Allotransplantation is the transplantation of cells, tissues, or organs, to a recipient from a genetically non-identical donor of the same species. The transplant is called an allograft, allogeneic transplant, or homograft. Most human tissue and organ transplants are allografts.

Xenotransplantation is the transplantation of living cells, tissues or organs from one species to another. Such cells, tissues or organs are called xenografts or xenotransplants. It is contrasted with allotransplantation (from other individual of same species), Syngeneic transplantation (Grafts transplanted between two genetically identical individuals of the same species) and Autotransplantation (from one part of the body to another in the same person).

Transplant Recipients Receive Memories of the Organ Donor

Circumventricular Organs are structures in the brain that are characterized by their extensive vasculature and lack of a normal blood brain barrier (BBB). The CVOs allow for the linkage between the central nervous system and peripheral blood flow; additionally they are an integral part of neuroendocrine function. The lack of a blood brain barrier allows the CVOs to act as an alternative route for peptides and hormones in the neural tissue to the peripheral blood stream, while still protecting it from toxic substances. CVOs can be classified as either sensory or secretory organs. The sensory organs include the area postrema (AP), the subfornical organ (SFO) and the vascular organ of lamina terminalis. They have the ability to sense plasma molecules and then pass that information into other regions of the brain. Through this, they provide direct information to the autonomic nervous system from the systemic circulation. The secretory organs include the subcommissural organ (SCO), the posterior pituitary, the pineal gland, the median eminence and the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. These organs are responsible for secreting hormones and glycoproteins into the peripheral vascular system using feedback from both the brain environment and external stimuli. All of the circumventricular organs, besides the SCO, contain extensive vasculature and fenestrated capillaries which leads to a ‘leaky’ BBB at the site of the organs. Furthermore, all CVOs contain neural tissue, allowing them to play a role in the neuroendocrine system. It is highly debated if the choroid plexus can be included as a CVO. It has a high concentration of fenestrated capillaries, but its lack of neural tissue and its primary role of producing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) usually excludes the choroid plexus from the CVO classification. Research has also linked CVOs to body fluid regulation, cardiovascular functions, immune responses, thirst, feeding behavior and reproductive behavior

Specialist in medicine is a branch of medical practice. After completing medical school, physicians or surgeons usually further their medical education in a specific specialty of medicine by completing a multiple year residency to become a medical specialist

Medical Specialists (webmd)
More Specialties

Board Certification is the process by which a physician or other professional in the United States demonstrates a mastery of basic knowledge and skills through written, practical, or simulator-based testing.

Accreditation


Doctor Exams


Physical Examination is the process by which a medical professional investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease. It generally follows the taking of the medical history—an account of the symptoms as experienced by the patient. Together with the medical history, the physical examination aids in determining the correct diagnosis and devising the treatment plan. This data then becomes part of the medical record.

Baseline

Medical History is information gained by a physician by asking specific questions, either of the patient or of other people who know the person and can give suitable information (in this case, it is sometimes called heteroanamnesis), with the aim of obtaining information useful in formulating a diagnosis and providing medical care to the patient. The medically relevant complaints reported by the patient or others familiar with the patient are referred to as symptoms, in contrast with clinical signs, which are ascertained by direct examination on the part of medical personnel. Most health encounters will result in some form of history being taken

Diagnostic Test or Medical Test is a kind of medical procedure performed to detect, diagnose, or monitor diseases, disease processes, susceptibility, and determine a course of treatment. It is related to clinical chemistry and molecular diagnostics, and the procedures are typically performed in a medical laboratory.

Vitals are body functions essential for life.

Heart Info
Blood Work
Food
First Aid

Prognosis is a medical term for predicting the likely outcome of one's current standing.

Diagnosis is the identification of the nature and cause of a certain phenomenon.

Medical Diagnosis is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs.

Testing and Examinations

Assessment Errors (observation flaws)

Monitoring (medicine) is the observation of a disease, condition or one or several medical parameters over time. It can be performed by continuously measuring certain parameters by using a medical monitor (for example, by continuously measuring vital signs by a bedside monitor), and/or by repeatedly performing medical tests (such as blood glucose monitoring with a glucose meter in people with diabetes mellitus). Transmitting data from a monitor to a distant monitoring station is known as telemetry or biotelemetry.

Bioinformatics are methods and software tools for understanding biological data.

Body Burden Test

Triage is the process of determining the priority of patients' treatments based on the severity of their condition.

Endopat non-invasive assessment of Endothelial Dysfunction (arterial health), is a functional test for early detection of underlying disease progression

Biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease.

Pathology is a significant component of the causal study of disease and a major field in modern medicine and diagnosis.

Autopsy is a highly specialized surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause and manner of death and to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present. It is usually performed by a specialized medical doctor called a pathologist. Also known as a post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum.


Diagnostic Tests - Advanced Sensors


Biomarker is a measurable indicator of the severity or presence of some disease state. More generally a biomarker is anything that can be used as an indicator of a particular disease state or some other physiological state of an organism.

Biosense
Lab on a Chip
Jack Andraka

Microfluidics deals with the behaviour, precise control and manipulation of fluids that are geometrically constrained to a small, typically sub-millimeter, scale.

Smartphone Tools
Smartphone Blood Test
Bio-Sensor Patch Monitor
Wearable Sensors
GlucoWatch G2 Biographer
Body Parts on a Chip (video)

Organ on a Chip is a multi-channel 3-D microfluidic cell culture chip that simulates the activities, mechanics and physiological response of entire organs and organ systems, a type of artificial organ. 

Diagnostic Paper, Whiteside's
Electrochemical Sensing in Paper-Based Microfluidic Device
Claros Diagnostic Lab
Materials that Compute
Theranos
Paper Test Strip for Diagnosing Diseases
In Vitro Diagnostics (wiki)
Ph Levels
Variable Tech Gadgets

Lab Testing Facilities - Heart Diagnostics

Flexible Electronics

Stretchable Biofuel Cells extract Energy from Sweat to power Wearable Devices. A team of engineers has developed stretchable fuel cells that extract energy from sweat and are capable of powering electronics, such as LEDs and Bluetooth radios. The biofuel cells generate 10 times more power per surface area than any existing wearable biofuel cells. The devices could be used to power a range of wearable devices.

Self-Powered Paper-Based Electrochemical Devices 'SPEDs' may lead to new medical-diagnostic tools. A new medical-diagnostic device made out of paper detects biomarkers and identifies diseases by performing electrochemical analyses -- powered only by the user's touch -- and reads out the color-coded test results, making it easy for non-experts to understand.
The top layer of the SPED is fabricated using untreated cellulose paper with patterned hydrophobic "domains" that define channels that wick up blood samples for testing. These "microfluidic channels" allow for accurate assays that change color to indicate specific testing results. A machine-vision diagnostic application also was created to automatically identify and quantify each of these "colorimetric" tests from a digital image of the SPED, perhaps taken with a cellphone, to provide fast diagnostic results to the user and to facilitate remote-expert consultation. The bottom layer of the SPED is a "triboelectric generator," or TEG, which generates the electric current necessary to run the diagnostic test simply by rubbing or pressing it. The researchers also designed an inexpensive handheld device called a potentiostat, which is easily plugged into the SPED to automate the diagnostic tests so that they can be performed by untrained users. The battery powering the potentiostat can be recharged using the TEG built into the SPEDs. The SPEDs were used to detect biomarkers such as glucose, uric acid and L-lactate, ketones,
and white blood cells, which indicate factors related to liver and kidney function, malnutrition and anemia. Future versions of the technology will contain several additional layers for more complex assays to detect diseases such as dengue fever, yellow fever,
malaria, HIV and hepatitis.

Beautifully Designed, Human-Centered Technologies (Shift Labs)

Food Sensors - Sensors (ai)


Food - Nutrition



Exercise - Sports




Body


The Human Body is the entire structure of a human being. It is composed of many different types of cells that together create tissues and subsequently organ systems. They ensure homeostasis and viability of human body. It comprises a head, neck, trunk (which includes the thorax and abdomen), arms and hands, legs and feet. The study of the human body involves anatomy, physiology, histology and embryology. The body varies anatomically in known ways. Physiology focuses on the systems and Organs of the human body and their functions. Many systems and mechanisms interact in order to maintain homeostasis, with safe levels of substances such as sugar and oxygen in the blood. The body is studied by health professionals, physiologists, anatomists, and by artists to assist them in their work.

Systems of the Human Body Body Systems
Cardiovascular - Circulatory System: Circulates blood around the body via the Heart, arteries and veins, delivering oxygen and nutrients to organs and cells and carrying their waste products away.

Blood Vessel are the part of the circulatory system that transports blood throughout the human body. There are three major types of blood vessels: the Arteries, which carry the blood away from the heart; the Capillaries, which enable the actual exchange of water and chemicals between the blood and the tissues; and the veins, which carry blood from the capillaries back toward the heart.

Vasodilation refers to the widening of blood vessels. It results from relaxation of smooth muscle cells within the vessel walls, in particular in the large veins (called venodilators), large arteries, and smaller arterioles. The process is the opposite of vasoconstriction,, which is the narrowing of blood vessels.

Digestive System - Excretory System: Mechanical and chemical processes that provide nutrients via the mouth, esophagus, stomach and intestines. Eliminates waste from the body.

Microbes

Endocrine System: Provides chemical communications within the body using hormones.

Integumentary System - Exocrine System: Skin, hair, nails, sweat and other exocrine glands.

Lymphatic System - Immune System: The system comprising a network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph. Defends the body against disease-causing agents. Lymphatic System is part of the circulatory system and a vital part of the immune system, comprising a network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph directionally towards the heart. Unlike the cardiovascular system, the lymphatic system is not a closed system. The human circulatory system processes an average of 20 liters of blood per day through capillary filtration, which removes plasma while leaving the blood cells. Roughly 17 litres of the filtered plasma are reabsorbed directly into the blood vessels, while the remaining three litres remain in the interstitial fluid. One of the main functions of the lymph system is to provide an accessory return route to the blood for the surplus three litres. The other main function is that of defense in the immune system. Lymph is very similar to blood plasma: it contains lymphocytes and other white blood cells. It also contains waste products and cellular debris together with bacteria and proteins. Associated organs composed of lymphoid tissue are the sites of lymphocyte production. Lymphocytes are concentrated in the lymph nodes. The spleen and the thymus are also lymphoid organs of the immune system. The tonsils are lymphoid organs that are also associated with the digestive system. Lymphoid tissues contain lymphocytes, and also contain other types of cells for support. The system also includes all the structures dedicated to the circulation and production of lymphocytes (the primary cellular component of lymph), which also includes the bone marrow, and the lymphoid tissue associated with the digestive system.

Muscular System - Skeletal System: Enables the Body to move using Muscles. Bones support the body and its organs.

Bones of the Human Body (image)   Bone Fracture (first aid)

Human Height is the distance from the bottom of the feet to the top of the head in a human body, standing erect. It is measured using a stadiometer, usually in centimetres when using the metric system, or feet and inches when using the imperial system.

Nervous System: Collects and processes information from the senses via nerves and the brain and tells the muscles to contract to cause physical actions.

Renal System - Urinary System: The system where the kidneys filter blood.

Reproductive System: The sex organs required for the production of offspring.

Respiratory System: The lungs and the trachea that bring air into the body. Breathing

Sensory System: Consists of sensory receptors, neural pathways, and parts of the brain involved in sensory perception.

Nicer Drums
(memory technique acronym for ten organ systems). Systems of the Human Body - List (wiki)
1: Cardiovascular / Circulatory system: Circulates blood around the body via the heart, arteries and veins, delivering oxygen and nutrients to organs and cells and carrying their waste products away.
2: Digestive system / Excretory system: Mechanical and chemical processes that provide nutrients via the mouth, esophagus, stomach and intestines. Eliminates waste from the body.
3: Endocrine system: Provides chemical communications within the body using hormones.
4: Integumentary system/ Exocrine system: Skin, hair, nails, sweat and other exocrine glands.
5: Lymphatic system / Immune system: The system comprising a network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph. Defends the body against disease-causing agents.
6: Muscular system/Skeletal system: Enables the body to move using muscles. Bones supporting the body and its organs.
7: Nervous system: Collects and processes information from the senses via nerves and the brain and tells the muscles to contract to cause physical actions.
8: Renal system / Urinary system: The system where the kidneys filter blood.
9: Reproductive system: The sex organs required for the production of offspring.
10: Respiratory system: The lungs and the trachea that bring air into the body.

Anatomy is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts. Anatomy is inherently tied to embryology, comparative anatomy, evolutionary biology, and phylogeny, as these are the processes by which anatomy is generated over immediate (embryology) and long (evolution) timescales. Human anatomy is one of the basic essential sciences of medicine. The discipline of anatomy is divided into macroscopic and microscopic anatomy. Macroscopic anatomy, or gross anatomy, is the examination of an animal's body parts using unaided eyesight. Gross anatomy also includes the branch of superficial anatomy. Microscopic anatomy involves the use of optical instruments in the study of the tissues of various structures, known as histology, and also in the study of cells. The history of anatomy is characterized by a progressive understanding of the functions of the organs and structures of the human body. Methods have also improved dramatically, advancing from the examination of animals by dissection of carcasses and cadavers (corpses) to 20th century medical imaging techniques including X-ray, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. Anatomy and physiology, which study (respectively) the structure and function of organisms and their parts, make a natural pair of related disciplines, and they are often studied together.

Eyes: Seeing and Sight - Check your Vision

Organs Human Body (wiki) - (there are approximately 79 organs).

Human body composition Composition of the Body may be analyzed in terms of molecular type e.g., water, protein, connective tissue, fats (or lipids), hydroxylapatite (in bones), carbohydrates (such as glycogen and glucose) and DNA. In terms of tissue type, the body may be analyzed into water, fat, muscle, bone, etc. In terms of cell type, the body contains hundreds of different types of cells, but notably, the largest number of cells contained in a human body (though not the largest mass of cells) are not human cells, but bacteria residing in the normal human gastrointestinal tract.

Chemical Elements listed by their presence in human body - Photo

Elements of the Human Body Almost 99% of the mass of the human body is made up of six elements: oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus. Only about 0.85% is composed of another five elements: potassium, sulfur, sodium, chlorine, and magnesium. A 70 kg (154 lb body) would have approximately 7*1027 atoms. That is, 7 followed by 27 zeros.

                   Protons        Neutrons       Electrons
Hydrogen     4.7*1027       0                  4.7*1027
Oxygen        1.4*1028      1.4*1028       1.4*1028
Carbon         4.2*1027      4.2*1027      4.2*1027
Total            2.3*1028      1.8*1028       2.3*1028

Human Body for Kids
Body Browser (youtube)
Body Rejuvenation (video)
Human Bio-Digital

Human Sexuality - Female - Male

Human Skin Color ranges in variety from the darkest brown to the lightest hues. An individual's skin pigmentation is the result of genetics, being the product of both of the individual's biological parents' genetic makeup. In evolution, skin pigmentation in human beings evolved by a process of natural selection primarily to regulate the amount of ultraviolet radiation penetrating the skin, controlling its biochemical effects. The actual skin color of different humans is affected by many substances, although the single most important substance is the pigment melanin.
How We Get Our Skin Color (youtube)

Sunken Chest or pectus excavatum, is a congenital deformity of the anterior thoracic wall in which the sternum and rib cage grow abnormally. This produces a caved-in or sunken appearance of the chest. It can either be present at birth or not develop until puberty.

Deformity is a major abnormality in the shape of a body part or organ compared to the normal shape of that part. Deformity may arise from numerous causes: Genetic mutation. Damage to the fetus or uterus. Complications at birth. A growth or hormone disorder. Reconstructive surgery following a severe injury, e.g. burn injury. Arthritis and other rheumatoid disorders. Fractured bones left to heal without being properly set (malunion). Chronic application of external forces, e.g. artificial cranial deformation. Chronic paresis, paralysis or muscle imbalance, especially in children, e.g. due to poliomyelitis or cerebral palsy. Deformity can occur in non-humans, as well. Frogs can be mutated due to Ribeiroia (Trematoda) infection.

Gigantism is a condition characterized by excessive growth and height significantly above average. In humans, this condition is caused by over-production of growth hormone in childhood resulting in people between 7 feet (2.13 m) and 9 feet (2.75 m) in height.

Body Image - Body Language
Body Smart Kinesthetic

Child Development

Body Worlds
Anatomage Virtual Dissection
Human Development

Stress - Heart Disease

Cancer - Immune System


Body Temperature


Temperature measuring has several scales and units, the most common being Celsius (denoted °C; formerly called centigrade), Fahrenheit (denoted °F), and, especially in science, Kelvin (denoted K).

Some People Feel Cold

Body Temperature is a narrow temperature range indicating optimal health and thermoregulation. Individual body temperature depends upon the age, exertion, infection, sex, time of day, and reproductive status of the subject, the place in the body at which the measurement is made, the subject's state of consciousness (waking or sleeping), activity level, and emotional state. Despite these factors, typical values are well established: oral (under the tongue): 36.8±0.4 °C (98.2±0.72 °F), internal (rectal, vaginal): 37.0 °C (98.6 °F).

Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different. A thermoconforming organism, by contrast, simply adopts the surrounding temperature as its own body temperature, thus avoiding the need for internal thermoregulation. The internal thermoregulation process is one aspect of homeostasis: a state of dynamic stability in an organism's internal conditions, maintained far from thermal equilibrium with its environment (the study of such processes in zoology has been called physiological ecology). If the body is unable to maintain a normal temperature and it increases significantly above normal, a condition known as hyperthermia occurs. For humans, this occurs when the body is exposed to constant temperatures of approximately 55 °C (131 °F), and with prolonged exposure (longer than a few hours) at this temperature and up to around 75 °C (167 °F) death is almost inevitable.[citation needed] Humans may also experience lethal hyperthermia when the wet bulb temperature is sustained above 35 °C (95 °F) for six hours. The opposite condition, when body temperature decreases below normal levels, is known as hypothermia.

Sweating - Heat Index

Thermoception is the sense by which an organism perceives temperatures. The details of how temperature receptors work are still being investigated. Ciliopathy is associated with decreased ability to sense Heat, thus cilia may aid in the process. Transient receptor potential channels (TRP channels) are believed to play a role in many species in sensation of hot, cold, and pain. Mammals have at least two types of sensor: those that detect heat (i.e., temperatures above body temperature) and those that detect cold (i.e. temperatures below body temperature.

Thermographic Camera, also called an infrared camera or thermal imaging camera, is a device that forms an image using infrared radiation, similar to a common camera that forms an image using visible light. Instead of the 400–700 nanometre range of the visible light camera, infrared cameras operate in wavelengths as long as 14,000 nm (14 µm). Their use is called thermography. Temperature Sensors

Homeothermy is thermoregulation that maintains a stable internal body temperature regardless of external influence. This internal body temperature is often, though not necessarily, higher than the immediate environment.

Warm-Blooded animal species can maintain a body temperature higher than their environment. In particular, homeothermic species maintain a stable body temperature by regulating metabolic processes. The only known homeotherms are birds and mammals. Other species have various degrees of thermoregulation.

Endotherm is an organism that maintains its body at a metabolically favorable temperature, largely by the use of heat set free by its internal bodily functions instead of relying almost purely on ambient heat. Such internally generated heat is mainly an incidental product of the animal's routine metabolism, but under conditions of excessive cold or low activity an endotherm might apply special mechanisms adapted specifically to heat production. Examples include special-function muscular exertion such as shivering, and uncoupled oxidative metabolism such as within brown adipose tissue. Only birds and mammals are extant universally endothermic groups of animals. Certain lamnid sharks, tuna and billfishes are also endothermic.In common parlance, endotherms are characterized as "warm-blooded". The opposite of endothermy is ectothermy, although there is no absolute or clear separation between the nature of endotherms and ectotherms in general.

Ice Therapy

Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles. The process is the opposite of vasodilation, the widening of blood vessels. The process is particularly important in staunching hemorrhage and acute blood loss. When blood vessels constrict, the flow of blood is restricted or decreased, thus retaining body heat or increasing vascular resistance. This makes the skin turn paler because less blood reaches the surface, reducing the radiation of heat. On a larger level, vasoconstriction is one mechanism by which the body regulates and maintains mean arterial pressure.

Poikilotherm is an organism whose internal temperature varies considerably. It is the opposite of a homeotherm, an organism which maintains thermal homeostasis. Usually the variation is a consequence of variation in the ambient environmental temperature. Many terrestrial ectotherms are poikilothermic. However some ectotherms remain in temperature-constant environments to the point that they are actually able to maintain a constant internal temperature (i.e. are homeothermic). It is this distinction that often makes the term "poikilotherm" more useful than the vernacular "cold-blooded", which is sometimes used to refer to ectotherms more generally. Poikilothermic animals include types of vertebrate animals, specifically fish, amphibians, and reptiles, as well as a large number of invertebrate animals. The naked mole-rat is the only mammal that is currently thought to be poikilothermic.

Mitochondrial Disease is a group of disorders caused by dysfunctional mitochondria, the organelles that generate energy for the cell. Mitochondria are found in every cell of the human body except red blood cells, and convert the energy of food molecules into the ATP that powers most cell functions.

Underactive-Thyroid

Hypothyroidism is a common disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone. It can cause a number of symptoms, such as poor ability to tolerate cold, a feeling of tiredness, constipation, depression, and weight gain. Occasionally there may be swelling of the front part of the neck due to goitre. Untreated hypothyroidism during pregnancy can lead to delays in growth and intellectual development in the baby, which is called cretinism.

Winter Camping

Bradymetabolism refers to organisms with a high active metabolism and a considerably slower resting metabolism. Bradymetabolic animals can often undergo dramatic changes in metabolic speed, according to food availability and temperature. Many bradymetabolic creatures in deserts and in areas that experience extreme winters are capable of "shutting down" their metabolisms to approach near-death states, until favorable conditions return (see hibernation and estivation).

Targeted Temperature Management was previously known as therapeutic hypothermia or protective hypothermia is active treatment that tries to achieve and maintain a specific body temperature in a person for a specific duration of time in an effort to improve health outcomes during recovery after a period of stopped blood flow to the brain. This is done in an attempt to reduce the risk of tissue injury following lack of blood flow. Periods of poor blood flow may be due to cardiac arrest or the blockage of an artery by a clot as in the case of a stroke. Targeted temperature management improves survival and brain function following resuscitation from cardiac arrest. Evidence supports its use following certain types of cardiac arrest in which an individual does not regain consciousness. Both 33 °C (91 °F) and 36 °C (97 °F) appear to result in similar outcomes. Targeted temperature management following traumatic brain injury has shown mixed results with some studies showing benefits in survival and brain function while others show no clear benefit. While associated with some complications, these are generally mild. Targeted temperature management is thought to prevent brain injury by several methods including decreasing the brain's oxygen demand, reducing the production of neurotransmitters like glutamate, as well as reducing free radicals that might damage the brain. The lowering of body temperature may be accomplished by many means including the use of cooling blankets, cooling helmets, cooling catheters, ice packs and ice water lavage.

Hyperthermia is elevated body temperature due to failed thermoregulation that occurs when a body produces or absorbs more heat than it dissipates. Extreme temperature elevation then becomes a medical emergency requiring immediate treatment to prevent disability or death. The most common causes include heat stroke and adverse reactions to drugs. The former is an acute temperature elevation caused by exposure to excessive heat, or combination of heat and humidity, that overwhelms the heat-regulating mechanisms. The latter is a relatively rare side effect of many drugs, particularly those that affect the central nervous system. Malignant hyperthermia is a rare complication of some types of general anesthesia. Hyperthermia differs from fever in that the body's temperature set point remains unchanged. The opposite is hypothermia, which occurs when the temperature drops below that required to maintain normal metabolism. The term is from Greek υπε, ype, meaning "excess", and θερμία, thermía, meaning "heat". Wim Hof

Heat Stroke is a severe heat illness, defined as hyperthermia with a body temperature greater than 40.6 °C (105.1 °F) because of environmental heat exposure with lack of thermoregulation. This is distinct from a fever, where there is a physiological increase in the temperature set point of the body. The term "stroke" in "heat stroke" is a misnomer in that it does not involve a blockage or hemorrhage of blood flow to the brain. Preventive measures include drinking plenty of cool liquids and avoiding excessive heat and humidity, especially in unventilated spaces, such as parked cars, that can overheat quickly. Treatment requires rapid physical cooling of the body. First Aid

Heat Shock is the effect of subjecting a cell to a higher temperature than that of the ideal body temperature of the organism from which the cell line was derived. Heat shock refers to the cellular exposure to rapid changes in stressors such as temperature, toxins, oxidative stress, heavy metals, and pathogenic infections. Specifically temperature induced heat shock, even by a change of a few degrees, causes proteins to misfold, nonspecifically aggregate, and/or entangle. Other cellular damage induced by heat shock includes cytoskeleton rearrangement, changes in organelle localization, decreased ATP production, drop in cellular pH, decreased translation, and changes in RNA splicing. Introduction of heat shock to cells elicits the molecular response, the heat shock response (HSR), which repairs damages caused by stressors such as protein misfolding and protein aggregation.

Hypothermia is reduced body temperature that happens when a body dissipates more heat than it absorbs. In humans, it is defined as a body core temperature below 35.0 °C (95.0 °F). Symptoms depend on the temperature. In mild hypothermia there is shivering and mental confusion. In moderate hypothermia shivering stops and confusion increases. In severe hypothermia there may be paradoxical undressing, in which a person removes his or her clothing, as well as an increased risk of the heart stopping. Hypothermia has two main types of causes. It classically occurs from exposure to extreme cold. It may also occur from any condition that decreases heat production or increases heat loss. Commonly this includes alcohol intoxication but may also include low blood sugar, anorexia, and advanced age, among others. Body temperature is usually maintained near a constant level of 36.5–37.5 °C (97.7–99.5 °F) through thermoregulation. Efforts to increase body temperature involve shivering, increased voluntary activity, and putting on warmer clothing. Hypothermia may be diagnosed based on either a person's symptoms in the presence of risk factors or by measuring a person's core temperature. The treatment of mild hypothermia involves warm drinks, warm clothing and physical activity. In those with moderate hypothermia heating blankets and warmed intravenous fluids are recommended. People with moderate or severe hypothermia should be moved gently. In severe hypothermia extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) or cardiopulmonary bypass may be useful. In those without a pulse cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is indicated along with the above measures. Rewarming is typically continued until a person's temperature is greater than 32 °C (90 °F). If there is no improvement at this point or the blood potassium level is greater than 12 mmol/liter at any time resuscitation may be discontinued. Hypothermia is the cause of at least 1500 deaths a year in the United States. It is more common in older people and males.[4] One of the lowest documented body temperatures from which someone with accidental hypothermia has survived is 13.0 °C (55.4 °F) in a near-drowning of a 7-year-old girl in Sweden. Survival after more than six hours of CPR has been described. In those in whom ECMO or bypass is used survival is around 50%. Deaths due to hypothermia have played an important role in many wars. Hyperthermia is the opposite of hypothermia, being an increased body temperature due to failed thermoregulation. The term is from Greek ὑπο, ypo, meaning "under", and θερμία, thermía, meaning "heat".

Heat Escape Lessening Position is a way to position oneself to reduce heat loss while immersed in cold water. It is taught as part of the curriculum in Australia, North America, and Ireland for lifeguard and boating safety training. It involves essentially positioning one's knees together and hugging them close to the chest using one's arms. Furthermore, groups of people can huddle together in this position to conserve body heat, offer moral support, and provide a larger target for rescuers. The HELP is an attempt to reduce heat loss enough to lessen the effect of hypothermia. Hypothermia is essentially a condition where bodily temperature drops too low to perform normal voluntary or involuntary functions. Cold water causes "immersion hypothermia", which can cause damage to extremities or the body's core, including unconsciousness or death. The HELP reduces exposure of high heat loss areas of the body. Wearing a personal flotation device allows a person to draw their knees to their chest and arms to their sides, while still remaining able to breathe.

Endothermic Process describes a process or reaction in which the system absorbs energy from its surroundings; usually, but not always, in the form of heat. The term was coined by Marcellin Berthelot from the Greek roots endo-, derived from the word "endon" meaning "within" and the root "therm" meaning "hot." The intended sense is that of a reaction that depends on absorbing heat if it is to proceed. The opposite of an endothermic process is an exothermic process, one that releases, "gives out" energy in the form of heat. Thus in each term (endothermic & exothermic) the prefix refers to where heat goes as the reaction occurs, though in reality it only refers to where the energy goes, without necessarily being in the form of heat.

Sleeping Temperature

Hibernation is a state of inactivity and metabolic depression in endotherms. Hibernation refers to a season of heterothermy that is characterized by low body temperature, slow breathing and heart rate, and low metabolic rate. Although traditionally reserved for "deep" hibernators such as rodents, the term has been redefined to include animals such as bears and is now applied based on active metabolic suppression rather than based on absolute body temperature decline. Many experts believe that the processes of daily torpor and hibernation form a continuum and utilize similar mechanisms. The equivalent during the summer months is known as aestivation. Some reptile species (ectotherms) are said to brumate, or undergo brumation, but any possible similarities between brumation and hibernation are not firmly established. Some insects, such as the wasp Polistes exclamans, hibernate by aggregating together in groups in protected places called hibernacula.

Insect Winter Ecology entails the overwinter survival strategies of insects, which are in many respects more similar to those of plants than to many other animals, such as mammals and birds. This is because unlike those animals, which can generate their own heat internally (endothermic), insects must rely on external sources to provide their heat (ectothermic). Thus, insects sticking around in the winter, must tolerate freezing or rely on other mechanisms to avoid freezing. Loss of enzymatic function and eventual freezing due to low temperatures daily threatens the livelihood of these organisms during winter. Not surprisingly, insects have evolved a number of strategies to deal with the rigors of winter temperatures in places where they would otherwise not survive.

Cryptobiosis is an ametabolic state of life entered by an organism in response to adverse environmental conditions such as desiccation, freezing, and oxygen deficiency. In the cryptobiotic state, all measurable metabolic processes stop, preventing reproduction, development, and repair. When environmental conditions return to being hospitable, the organism will return to its metabolic state of life as it was prior to the cryptobiosis

Cryobiology is the branch of biology that studies the effects of low temperatures on living things within Earth's cryosphere or in science. In practice, cryobiology is the study of biological material or systems at temperatures below normal. Materials or systems studied may include proteins, cells, tissues, organs, or whole organisms. Temperatures may range from moderately hypothermic conditions to cryogenic temperatures.

Warm Clothing

Infrared Heater or heat lamp, is a body with a higher temperature which transfers energy to a body with a lower temperature through electromagnetic radiation. Depending on the temperature of the emitting body, the wavelength of the peak of the infrared radiation ranges from 780 nm to 1 mm. No contact or medium between the two bodies is needed for the energy transfer. Infrared heaters can be operated in vacuum or atmosphere. One classification of infrared heaters is by the wavelength bands of infrared emission. Short wave or near infrared for the range from 780 nm to 1400 nm, these emitters are also named bright because still some visible light is emitted; Medium infrared for the range between 1400 nm and 3000 nm; Far infrared or dark emitters for everything above 3000 nm.

Emergency Preservation and Resuscitation normovolemic cardiac arrest in pigs.

Ice Ice Baby

Hydrotherapy is a part of medicine and alternative medicine, in particular of naturopathy, occupational therapy and physiotherapy, that involves the use of water for pain relief and treatment. The term encompasses a broad range of approaches and therapeutic methods that take advantage of the physical properties of water, such as temperature and pressure, for therapeutic purposes, to stimulate blood circulation and treat the symptoms of certain diseases. Various therapies used in the present-day hydrotherapy employ water jets, underwater massage and mineral baths (e.g. balneotherapy, Iodine-Grine therapy, Kneipp treatments, Scotch hose, Swiss shower, thalassotherapy) and/or whirlpool bath, hot Roman bath, hot tub, Jacuzzi, cold plunge and mineral bath.

Cold Shower for Health

Ice Bath Therapy is a training regimen usually following a period of intense exercise in which a substantial part of a human body is immersed in a bath of ice or ice-water for a limited duration. While it is becoming increasingly popular and accepted among athletes in a variety of sports, the method is controversial, with a risk of hypothermia, with the possibility of shock leading to sudden death. Many athletes have used cold water immersion after an intense exercise workout on the belief that it speeds up bodily recovery; however, the internal physical processes are not well understood and remain elusive. Generally research into the health effects of cold water immersion as part of an athletic training regimen is inconclusive, with some studies suggesting a mild benefit such as reducing muscle damage and discomfort and alleviating delayed onset muscle soreness, with other studies suggesting that cold water immersion may slow muscle growth and interfere with an overall training regimen. Ice Bath

Breathing

Cryotherapy is the local or general use of low temperatures in medical therapy. Cryotherapy is used to treat a variety of benign and malignant tissue damage, medically called lesions.

Kryo Life Health

Cryonics is the low-temperature preservation (usually at −196°C) of people who cannot be sustained by contemporary medicine, with the hope that resuscitation and restoration to full health may be possible in the far future. Cryopreservation of humans is not reversible with present technology; cryonicists hope that medical advances will someday allow cryopreserved people to be revived.

Cryogenics is the study of the production and behaviour of materials at very low temperatures.

Reflex Asystolic Syncope
Thin Ice 2.0: Weight Loss Clothing thermogenic calorie burning.


Physical Therapy

Physical Therapy is a physical medicine and rehabilitation specialty that, by using mechanical force and movements, remediates impairments and promotes mobility, function, and quality of life through examination, diagnosis, prognosis, and physical intervention. It is performed by physical therapists (known as physiotherapists in many countries).

Physical Therapy
Physical Therapy News
Physical Therapy Journal

Occupational Therapy is the use of assessment and treatment to develop, recover, or maintain the daily living and work skills of people with a physical, mental, or cognitive disorder. Occupational therapists also focus much of their work on identifying and eliminating environmental barriers to independence and participation in daily activities. Occupational therapists work with clients of all ages, ranging from infants to the elderly. Occupational therapy interventions focus on adapting the environment, modifying the task, teaching the skill, and educating the client/family in order to increase participation in and performance of daily activities, particularly those that are meaningful to the client. Occupational therapists often work closely with professionals in physical therapy, speech therapy, nursing, social work, and the community.

Occupational Therapy

Physical Rehabilitation is a branch of medicine that aims to enhance and restore functional ability and quality of life to those with physical impairments or disabilities. A physician having completed training in this field is referred to as a physiatrist. Physiatrists specialize in restoring optimal function to people with injuries to the muscles, bones, ligaments, or nervous system.

Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy Game (video)

Stem Cells - Cells
DNA - Genetic Testing
Biology
Body Smart - Meditation
Brain - Plasticity - Blood Brain Barrier
Metabolism - Inflammation
Water

Hygiene - Teeth - Dentistry
Skin - Sweat - Bathing - Cold Shower
Nails - Hands - Feet - Hair
Pee - Urine - Poo - Human Faeces - Bowl Movement


Pain


Pain Scale Pain is a natural response to help us avoid injury to the body. It is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli, such as stubbing a toe, burning a finger, putting alcohol on a cut, or bumping the "funny bone". Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage."

Pain Scale measures a patient's pain intensity or other features. Pain scales are based on self-report, observational (behavioral), or physiological data. Self-report is considered primary and should be obtained if possible. Pain scales are available for neonates, infants, children, adolescents, adults, seniors, and persons whose communication is impaired. Pain assessments are often regarded as "the 5th Vital Sign".

Senses

Threshold of Pain is the point along a curve of increasing perception of a stimulus at which pain begins to be felt. It is an entirely subjective phenomenon. A distinction must be maintained between the stimulus (an external thing that can be directly measured, such as with a thermometer) and the person or animal's resulting pain perception (an internal, subjective thing that can sometimes be measured indirectly, such as with a visual analog scale). Although an IASP document defines "pain threshold" as "the minimum intensity of a stimulus that is perceived as painful".

Detection
Acute pain begins with nociceptors—long neurons that originate in the spinal cord and end as thin fibers in the skin. Those fibers are tipped with receptors that respond to pain-inducing stimuli. When a stimulus is strong enough, these receptors generate an electrical current—the pain signal.
Transmission
The pain signal travels along the neurons through a series of channels that allow sodium ions back and forth across cell membranes. These channels, like Nav1.7, allow those charged particles across a membrane if the pain signal is strong enough. (If it isn’t, the person feels no pain.)
Perception
When a pain signal reaches the spinal cord, it continues up to the brain, where the somatosensory cortex is primarily responsible for translating information about the intensity of the pain signal. The brain’s motor cortex then generates the body’s response—a shout of surprise, a jerk of a hand.
Aftermath
After an injury, even an innocuous stimulus—like a warm bath or a pat on the back—can generate a pain signal at the site of the original injury.

Thermal Comfort is the condition of mind that expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment and is assessed by subjective evaluation (ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55). Maintaining this standard of thermal comfort for occupants of buildings or other enclosures is one of the important goals of HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) design engineers.

Weather Pains
Tooth Pain

Soreness is a pain that is felt (as when the area is touched). An uncomfortable feeling of mental painfulness or distress.

Arthritis is a disorder that affects joints. Symptoms generally include joint pain and stiffness. Other symptoms may include redness, warmth, swelling, and decreased range of motion of the affected joints. In some types other organs are also affected. Onset can be gradual or sudden.
Arthritis Foundation

Sciatica is a medical condition characterized by pain going down the leg from the lower back. This pain may go down the back, outside, or front of the leg. Typically, symptoms are only on one side of the body. Certain causes, however, may result in pain on both sides. Lower back pain is sometimes but not always present. Weakness or numbness may occur in various parts of the affected leg and foot.

Chronic Pain is pain that lasts a long time. In medicine, the distinction between acute and chronic pain is sometimes determined by an arbitrary interval of time since onset; the two most commonly used markers being 3 months and 6 months since onset.

Partners Against Pain
Secret World Of Pain
Elliot Krane: Chronic Pain (video)
Strong Painkiller Ketamine Reaction | Scotland's Superhospital (youtube)

Nociceptor is a sensory nerve cell that responds to damaging or potentially damaging stimuli by sending signals to the spinal cord and brain. This process, called nociception, usually causes the sensation of pain in sentient beings.

Nociception is the sensory nervous system's response to certain harmful or potentially harmful stimuli. In nociception, intense chemical (e.g., chili powder in the eyes), mechanical (e.g., cutting, crushing), or thermal (heat and cold) stimulation of sensory nerve cells called nociceptors produces a signal that travels along a chain of nerve fibers via the spinal cord to the brain. Nociception triggers a variety of physiological and behavioral responses and usually results in a subjective experience of pain in sentient beings.

Cutaneous Nerve is a nerve that innervates the skin, responsible for providing sensory innervation to the skin.

Pinched Nerve

Nerve Compression Syndrome is a medical condition caused by direct pressure on a nerve. It is known colloquially as a trapped nerve, though this may also refer to nerve root compression (by a herniated disc, for example). Its symptoms include pain, tingling, numbness and muscle weakness.

Radiculopathy refers to a set of conditions in which one or more nerves are affected and do not work properly (a neuropathy). The location of the injury is at the level of the nerve root (radix = "root"). This can result in pain (radicular pain), weakness, numbness, or difficulty controlling specific muscles.

Peripheral Neuropathy is damage to or disease affecting nerves, which may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ function, or other aspects of health, depending on the type of nerve affected. Common causes include systemic diseases (such as diabetes or leprosy), vitamin deficiency, medication (e.g., chemotherapy, or commonly prescribed antibiotics including Metronidazole and the Fluoroquinolone class of antibiotics (Ciprofloxacin, Levaquin, Avelox etc.)), traumatic injury, radiation therapy, excessive alcohol consumption, immune system disease, Coeliac disease, or viral infection.

Familial Dysautonomia is a disorder of the autonomic nervous system which affects the development and survival of sensory, sympathetic and some parasympathetic neurons in the autonomic and sensory nervous system resulting in variable symptoms, including insensitivity to pain, inability to produce tears, poor growth, and labile blood pressure (episodic hypertension and postural hypotension).

Human Insula particularly its posterior portion, is often regarded as a primary cortex for pain.

Somatic Nervous System is the part of the peripheral nervous system associated with skeletal muscle voluntary control of body movements. The SoNS consists of afferent nerves and efferent nerves. Afferent nerves are responsible for relaying sensation from the body to the central nervous system (CNS); efferent nerves are responsible for sending out commands from the CNS to the body, stimulating muscle contraction; they include all the non-sensory neurons connected with skeletal muscles and skin. The a- of afferent and the e- of efferent correspond to the prefixes ad- (to, toward) and ex- (out of).

Autonomic Nervous System is a division of the peripheral nervous system that influences the function of internal organs. The autonomic nervous system is a control system that acts largely unconsciously and regulates bodily functions such as the heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, pupillary response, urination, and sexual arousal. This system is the primary mechanism in control of the fight-or-flight response and the freeze-and-dissociate response.

Opioid Receptor are a group of inhibitory G protein-coupled receptors with opioids as ligands. The endogenous opioids are dynorphins, enkephalins, endorphins, endomorphins and nociceptin. The opioid receptors are ~40% identical to somatostatin receptors (SSTRs). Opioid receptors are distributed widely in the brain, and are found in the spinal cord and digestive tract.

Opioid System controls pain, reward and addictive behaviors. Opioid receptors in the brain are activated by a family of endogenous peptides like enkephalins, dynorphins and endorphin, which are released by neurons. Endogenous is having an internal cause or origin. Growing or originating from within an organism. Endogeny (wiki)

Endorphins are produced by the central nervous system and the pituitary gland with a principal function to inhibit the transmission of pain signals; they may also produce a feeling of euphoria very similar to that produced by other Opioids, which are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects. Opioids act by binding to opioid receptors, which are found principally in the central and peripheral nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract.

Opiate is a drug derived from opium. Opioid is found naturally in a number of plants and animals. A more modern term for Opiate is used to designate all substances, both natural and synthetic, that bind to opioid receptors in the brain.

Wearable Pain Relief (Quell)
LumiWave: Pain Relief is now In-Demand!
Livia - The Off Switch for Menstrual Pain
PAT- home use device that treats the underlying cause of pain.
iTENS Device - Wireless Electrotherapy
Spinal Stimulation - Nervo HF10

Trigeminal Neuralgia is a chronic pain disorder that affects the largest of the cranial nerves, the Trigeminal Nerve, which is a nerve responsible for sensation in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing. Cranial Nerves are the nerves that emerge directly from the brain (including the brainstem), in contrast to spinal nerves (which emerge from segments of the spinal cord). Cranial nerves relay information between the brain and parts of the body, primarily to and from regions of the head and neck. There are two main types: typical and atypical trigeminal neuralgia. The typical form results in episodes of severe, sudden, shock like pain in one side of the face that lasts for seconds to a few minutes. Groups of these episodes can occur over a few hours. The atypical form results in a constant burning pain that is less severe. Episodes may be triggered by any touch to the face. Both forms may occur in the same person. It is one of the most painful conditions and can result in depression. The exact cause is unclear but believed to involve loss of the myelin around the trigeminal nerve. This may occur due to compression from a blood vessel as the nerve exits the brain stem, multiple sclerosis, stroke, or trauma. Less common causes include a tumor or arteriovenous malformation. It is a type of nerve pain. Diagnosis is typically based on the symptoms after ruling out other possible causes such as postherpetic neuralgia. Treatment includes medication or surgery. The anticonvulsant carbamazepine or oxcarbazepine is the usual initial treatment and is effective in about 80% of people. Other options include lamotrigine, baclofen, gabapentin, and pimozide. Amitriptyline may help with the pain but opioids are not usually effective in the typical form. In those who do not improve or become resistant to other measures, a number of types of surgery may be tried.

Fibromyalgia is a medical condition characterised by chronic widespread pain and a heightened pain response to pressure. Other symptoms include tiredness to a degree that normal activities are affected, sleep problems, and troubles with memory. Some people also report restless legs syndrome, bowel or bladder problems, numbness and tingling, and sensitivity to noise, lights or temperature. Fibromyalgia is frequently associated with depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Other types of chronic pain are also frequently present.

Prospect for more effective treatment of nerve pain

Painkillers without Dangerous Side Effects
Sex Differences in Brain Activity Alter Pain Therapies

Certain exercises can help manage pain, with mineral supplements.
BetterBack Therapy
Cells carry 'memory' of injury

Pain Rehabilitation Center Bio-Psychosocial Approach

Evaluation of Group and Individual Change in a Multidisciplinary Pain Management Program

Pain Management Programs (American Chronic Pain Association)
Chronic Pain Program (Medical Advanced Pain Specialist Medical Pain Clinics)

Ketorolac Toradol is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) in the family of heterocyclic acetic acid derivatives, used as an analgesic, which is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
Feverfew is a traditional medicinal herb which is commonly used to prevent migraine headaches, and is also occasionally grown for ornament.
Petasites is a genus of flowering plants in the sunflower family, Asteraceae.

Congenital Insensitivity is one or more rare conditions in which a person cannot feel (and has never felt) physical pain.

Numbness
is partial or total lack of sensation in a part of the body; a symptom of nerve damage or dysfunction. Emotions

Paralysis is loss of muscle function for one or more muscles. Paralysis accompanied by a loss of feeling (sensory loss) in the affected area if there is sensory damage as well as motor. About 1 in 50 people in the U.S. have been diagnosed with some form of paralysis, transient or permanent.

Waterloo's Dr. Spine, Stuart McGill (youtube) Stuart McGill is one of the world's foremost experts on spine biomechanics.


Fatigue


Fatigue is exhaustion, tiredness, languidness, languor, lassitude, and listlessness. Sometimes a subjective feeling of tiredness which is distinct from weakness, and has a gradual onset. Unlike weakness, fatigue can be alleviated by periods of rest. Fatigue can have physical or mental causes. Physical fatigue is the transient inability of a muscle to maintain optimal physical performance, and is made more severe by intense physical exercise. Mental fatigue is a transient decrease in maximal cognitive performance resulting from prolonged periods of cognitive activity. It can manifest as somnolence, lethargy, or directed attention fatigue.

Tired
is in need of Sleep or rest; weary. But Not Lazy.

Weakness is a symptom of a number of different conditions. The causes are many and can be divided into conditions that have true or perceived muscle weakness. True muscle weakness is a primary symptom of a variety of skeletal muscle diseases, including muscular dystrophy and inflammatory myopathy. It occurs in neuromuscular junction disorders, such as myasthenia gravis.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome or Myalgic Encephalomyelitis, is a medical condition characterized by long-term fatigue and other symptoms that limit a person's ability to carry out ordinary daily activities.

What happens when you have a disease doctors can't diagnose: Jennifer Brea (video and interactive text)

Stanford researchers have linked ME/CFS to variations in certain cytokines, immune-signaling proteins, that track with illness severity.

Exhaustion is a state of extreme physical or mental fatigue. The action or state of using something up or of being used up completely.

Things that may cause Fatigue: Poor nutrition or electrolyte imbalances, such as abnormal levels of sodium, potassium,
calcium, and magnesium. Anemia, an abnormally low level of red blood cells. Sleep disturbances. Emotional distress, such as anxiety or depression. Medication side effects. Medical conditions, such as heart, lung, or hormone problems. Exposure to toxins. Environmental Pollution.

Tetraplegia also known as quadriplegia, is paralysis caused by illness or injury that results in the partial or total loss of use of all four limbs and torso; paraplegia is similar but does not affect the arms. The loss is usually sensory and motor, which means that both sensation and control are lost. Tetraparesis or quadriparesis, on the other hand, means muscle weakness affecting all four limbs. It may be flaccid or spastic.

Things that may alleviate fatigue: Exercise, good sleep habits, eating well, and living with purpose, just to name a few.

Sitting to Long (sedentary)


Physical Strength is the measure of an animal's exertion of force on physical objects. Increasing physical strength is the goal of strength training. An individual's physical strength is determined by two factors; the cross-sectional area of muscle fibers recruited to generate force and the intensity of the recruitment. Individuals with a high proportion of type I slow twitch muscle fibers will be relatively weaker than a similar individual with a high proportion of type II fast twitch fibers, but would have a greater inherent capacity for physical endurance. The genetic inheritance of muscle fiber type sets the outermost boundaries of physical strength possible (barring the use of enhancing agents such as testosterone), though the unique position within this envelope is determined by training. Individual muscle fiber ratios can be determined through a muscle biopsy. Other considerations are the ability to recruit muscle fibers for a particular activity, joint angles, and the length of each limb. For a given cross-section, shorter limbs are able to lift more weight. The ability to gain muscle also varies person to person, based mainly upon genes dictating the amounts of hormones secreted, but also on sex, age, health of the person, and adequate nutrients in the diet. A one-repetition maximum test is the most accurate way to determine maximum muscular strength.

Endurance is the ability of an organism to exert itself and remain active for a long period of time, as well as its ability to resist, withstand, recover from, and have immunity to trauma, wounds, or fatigue. It is usually used in aerobic or anaerobic exercise. The definition of 'long' varies according to the type of exertion – minutes for high intensity anaerobic exercise, hours or days for low intensity aerobic exercise. Training for endurance can have a negative impact on the ability to exert strength unless an individual also undertakes resistance training to counteract this effect. When a person is able to accomplish or withstand a higher amount of effort than their original capabilities their endurance is increasing which to many personnel indicates progress. In looking to improve ones endurance they may slowly increase the amount of repetitions or time spent, if higher repetitions are taken rapidly muscle strength improves while less endurance is gained. Increasing endurance has been proven to release endorphins resulting in a positive mind. The act of gaining endurance through physical activity has been shown to decrease anxiety, depression, and stress, or any chronic disease in total. Although a greater endurance can assist the cardiovascular system it does not imply that any cardiovascular disease can be guaranteed to improve. "The major metabolic consequences of the adaptations of muscle to endurance exercise are a slower utilization of muscle glycogen and blood glucose, a greater reliance on fat oxidation, and less lactate production during exercise of a given intensity." The term stamina is sometimes used synonymously and interchangeably with endurance. In military settings, endurance is considered the ability of a force to sustain high levels of combat potential relative to its opponent over the duration of a campaign. Endurance may also refer to an ability to keep going through a tough situation involving hardship, stress, etc. (see patience).



Posture


Sit Up Straight

Good Posture Positions Posture is the position in which you hold your body upright against gravity while standing, sitting or lying down. Good posture involves training your body to stand, walk, sit and lie in positions where the least strain is placed on supporting muscles and ligaments during movement or weight-bearing activities.

Improve Posture (youtube)
Good Posture

Text Neck (smartphones)

Poor Posture is the posture that results from certain muscles tightening up or shortening while others lengthen and become weak which often occurs as a result of one's daily activities. There are different factors which can impact on posture and they include occupational activities and biomechanical factors such as force and repetition. Risk factors for poor posture also include psychosocial factors such as job stress and strain. Workers who have higher job stress are more likely to develop neck and shoulder symptoms.

Ergonomics is known as comfort design, functional design, and systems, is the practice of designing products, systems, or processes to take proper account of the interaction between them and the people who use them. Human Factors Ergonomics field has seen some contributions from numerous disciplines, such as psychology, engineering, biomechanics, industrial design, physiology, and anthropometry. In essence, it is the study of designing equipment, devices and processes that fit the human body and its cognitive abilities. The two terms "human factors" and "ergonomics" are essentially synonymous.

Anthropometry refers to the measurement of the human individual for the purposes of understanding human physical variation, in paleoanthropology and in various attempts to correlate physical with racial and psychological traits. Anthropometry involves the systematic measurement of the physical properties of the human body, primarily dimensional descriptors of body size and shape.

Fitts Law is a predictive model of human movement primarily used in human–computer interaction and ergonomics. This scientific law predicts that the time required to rapidly move to a target area is a function of the ratio between the distance to the target and the width of the target. Fitts's law is used to model the act of pointing, either by physically touching an object with a hand or finger, or virtually, by pointing to an object on a computer monitor using a pointing device. Fitts's law has been shown to apply under a variety of conditions, with many different limbs (hands, feet, the lower lip, head-mounted sights, eye gaze), manipulanda (input devices), physical environments (including underwater), and user populations (young, old, special educational needs, and drugged participants).

Alexander Technique is an educational process that develops the ability to realign posture and to avoid unnecessary muscular and mental tension. Alexander believed the individual's self-awareness could be inaccurate, resulting in unnecessary muscular tension such as when standing or sitting with body weight unevenly distributed, holding one's head incorrectly, walking or running inefficiently, and responding to stressful stimuli in an exaggerated way. Alexander said that those who habitually "misused" their muscles could not trust their feelings (sensory appreciation) when carrying out activities or responding to situations emotionally

Neutral Spine refers to the "three natural curves [that] are present in a healthy spine." Looking directly at the front or back of the body, the 33 vertebrae in the spinal column should appear completely vertical. From a side view, the cervical (neck) region of the spine (C1-C7) is bent inward, the thoracic (upper back) region (T1-T12) bends outward, and the lumbar (lower back) region (L1-L5) bends inward. The sacrum (tailbone area) (S1-S5 fused) and coccyx (on average 4 fused) rest between the pelvic bones. A neutral pelvis indicates the anterior superior iliac spines and pubic symphysis fall in the same vertical line.

Human Positions refers to the different physical configurations that the human body can take. There are several synonyms that refer to human positioning, often used interchangeably, but having specific nuances of meaning. Position is a general term for a configuration of the human body. Posture means an intentionally or habitually assumed position. Pose implies artistic or aesthetic intention of the position. Attitude refers to postures assumed for purpose of imitation, intentional or not, as well as in some standard collocations in reference to some distinguished types of posture: "Freud never assumed a fencer's attitude, yet almost all took him for a swordsman." Bearing refers to the manner of the posture, as well as of gestures and other aspects of the conduct taking place.

Standing Desk Position Zami the future of sitting
Anthro
Ergo Standing Desk
HumbleWorks Standing Desk
Sit or Stand Table
Wooden Standing Desk
My Up Desk
Laptop Table
Standup Desk
Floor Stand Tablet PCs
Floor Stand for PCs
A-STAND: Transformable Workstation
Alt-Work Station
Kinesthetic Desks
Stir Kinetic Desk
Lean Chair
Treadmill Desk
Edge Desk
Vari Desk

Sitting to Long
Body Smart

Chiropractic is a form of alternative medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of unverified mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal system, especially the spine. Proponents believe that such disorders affect general health via the nervous system. The main chiropractic treatment technique involves manual therapy, especially spinal manipulation therapy (SMT), manipulations of other joints and soft tissues. Its foundation is at odds with mainstream medicine, and chiropractic is sustained by pseudoscientific ideas such as subluxation and "innate intelligence".

Spinal Cord Injury is damage to the spinal cord that causes changes in its function, either temporary or permanent. These changes translate into loss of muscle function, sensation, or autonomic function in parts of the body served by the spinal cord below the level of the lesion. Injuries can occur at any level of the spinal cord and can be classified as complete injury, a total loss of sensation and muscle function, or incomplete, meaning some nervous signals are able to travel past the injured area of the cord. Depending on the location and severity of damage along the spinal cord, the symptoms can vary widely, from pain or numbness to paralysis to incontinence. The prognosis also ranges widely, from full recovery in rare cases to permanent tetraplegia (also called quadriplegia) in injuries at the level of the neck, and paraplegia in lower injuries. Complications that can occur in the short and long term after injury include muscle atrophy, pressure sores, infections, and respiratory problems. In the majority of cases the damage results from physical trauma such as car accidents, gunshots, falls, or sports injuries, but it can also result from nontraumatic causes such as infection, insufficient blood flow, and tumors. Athletes are especially susceptible to becoming involved in high collision spinal injuries. Some of the more common injuries include any type of sprain and strain of the spinal cord. These injuries can either occur alone, or with another spinal disease. Dislocations and fractures are also common in spine injuries. Efforts to prevent SCI include individual measures such as using safety equipment, societal measures such as safety regulations in sports and traffic, and improvements to equipment. Known since ancient times to be a catastrophic injury and long believed to be untreatable, SCI has seen great improvements in its care since the middle of the 20th century. Treatment of spinal cord injuries starts with stabilizing the spine and controlling inflammation to prevent further damage. Other interventions needed can vary widely depending on the location and extent of the injury, from bed rest to surgery. In many cases, spinal cord injuries require substantial, long-term physical and occupational therapy in rehabilitation, especially if they interfere with activities of daily living. Research into new treatments for spinal cord injuries includes stem cell implantation, engineered materials for tissue support, and wearable robotic exoskeletons. The spine consists of the spinal cord, which is a group of nerves that are protected by the individual vertebrae of the spine. The main function of the spinal cord is to send signals from the brain to other regions of the body. It is the main messenger throughout the body.



Massages


The Power of Human Touch

Back Massage Massage involves working and acting on the body with pressure – structured, unstructured, stationary, or moving – tension, motion, or vibration, done manually or with mechanical aids. Massage can be applied with the hands, fingers, elbows, knees, forearm, feet, or a massage device. Depending on the application and technique used, massage is used to promote relaxation and well-being, and is beneficial in treating sports injuries and other problems affecting the musculature of the body such as postural misalignment and many painful conditions. In professional settings massage clients are treated while lying on a massage table, sitting in a massage chair, or lying on a mat on the floor, while in amateur settings a general purpose surface like a bed or floor is more common. Aquatic massage and bodywork is performed with recipients submersed or floating in a warm-water therapy pool.

Massage Therapy
Massage Therapy 101
Massage Therapy
Massage Therapy

Human Touch - Skin (hygiene)

Deep Tissue (Rolfing) is typically delivered as a series of ten hands-on physical manipulation sessions sometimes called "the recipe". It is based on Rolf's ideas about how the human body's "energy field" can benefit when aligned with the Earth's gravitation field. Practitioners combine superficial and deep manual therapy with movement prompts. The process is sometimes painful.

Erotic Massage  is the use of massage techniques by a person on another person's erogenous zones to achieve or enhance their sexual excitation or arousal and to achieve orgasm. Massages have been used for medical purposes for a very long time, and their use for erotic purposes also has a long history. In the case of women, the two focal areas are the breasts and pubis, while in case of men, the focal area is the male genitals. When the massage is of a partner's genitals, the act is usually referred to as mutual masturbation. Today, erotic massage is used by some people on occasion as a part of sex, either as foreplay or as the final Sex act, or as part of sex therapy. There is also a large commercial erotic massage industry in some countries and cities.

Massage Envy
Myotherapy

Metamorphic Technique is an alternative medicine involving application of pressure to the feet and hands with specific thumb, finger, and hand techniques without the use of oil or lotion. It is based on a system of zones and reflex areas that purportedly reflect an image of the body on the feet and hands, with the premise that such work effects a physical change to the body.

Body Mechanics (youtube)
Message Video (youtube)
Message (youtube)
Stiff Neck Message (youtube)
Massage Therapy (netflix)

Osteopathy is a type of alternative medicine that emphasizes massage and other physical manipulation of muscle tissue and bones. "sensitive to" or "responding to".

U-GYM Mini: Digital Muscle Stimulator

Acupressure is an alternative medicine technique similar in principle to acupuncture. It is based on the concept of life energy which flows through "meridians" in the body. In treatment, physical pressure is applied to acupuncture points with the aim of clearing blockages in these meridians. Pressure may be applied by hand, by elbow, or with various devices. Some medical studies have suggested that acupressure may be effective at helping manage nausea and vomiting, for helping lower back pain, tension headaches, stomach ache, among other things, although such studies have been found to have a high likelihood of bias. Like many alternative medicines, it may benefit from a placebo effect.

Acupressure
Acupressure Institute
Acupressure Online
YouTube Acupressure Video

Reflexology is an alternative medicine involving application of pressure to the feet and hands with specific thumb, finger, and hand techniques without the use of oil or lotion. It is based on a system of zones and reflex areas that purportedly reflect an image of the body on the feet and hands, with the premise that such work effects a physical change to the body.

Reflexology
Hand Reflexology (image of areas)
Academy of Reflexology

Acupuncture is a form of alternative medicine in which thin needles are inserted into the body. It is a key component of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). TCM theory and practice are not based upon scientific knowledge, and acupuncture is a pseudoscience. There are a diverse range of acupuncture theories based on different philosophies, and techniques vary depending on the country. The method used in TCM is likely the most widespread in the US. It is most often used for pain relief, though it is also used for a wide range of other conditions. Acupuncture is generally used only in combination with other forms of treatment. If you do acupuncture correctly, your body releases more nitric oxide at the points where the needles are inserted. The nitric oxide increases blood flow and triggers your body to release natural anesthetics.

More than four hundred acupuncture points have been described, with the majority located on one of the main meridians, pathways which run throughout the body and according to Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) transport life energy (qi, 氣).

Acupuncture
Oriental Chinese Medicine
Medical Acupuncture

Nitric Oxide is a molecular, chemical compound with chemical formula of ·NO with a short half-life of a few seconds in the blood. Nitric oxide is a free radical. Nitric oxide is an important cellular signaling molecule involved in many physiological and pathological processes. It is a powerful vasodilator which results from relaxation of smooth muscle cells within the vessel walls, in particular in the large veins (called venodilators), large arteries, and smaller arterioles. The process is the opposite of vasoconstriction, which is the narrowing of blood vessels.

Meridian is a concept in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) about a path through which the life-energy known as "qi" flows.

Meridians (youtube)
Meridian Tapping Techniques
Meridian Tapping Technique (youtube)
Meridian Tapping (youtube)
MTT

Meditation - Soothing Sounds

Emotional Freedom Technique is a form of counseling intervention that draws on various theories of alternative medicine including acupuncture, neuro-linguistic programming, energy medicine, and Thought Field Therapy (TFT). It is best known through Gary Craig's EFT Handbook, published in the late 1990s, and related books and workshops by a variety of teachers. EFT and similar techniques are often discussed under the umbrella term "energy psychology".


Save Face

Facial Massage Facial Toning is a type of cosmetic procedure or physical therapy tool which promises to alter facial contours by means of increasing muscle tone, and facial volume by promoting muscular hypertrophy, and preventing muscle loss due to aging or facial paralysis. Facial toning and exercise is therefore in part a technique to achieve facial rejuvenation by reducing wrinkles, sagging and expression marks on the face and skin. As a physical therapy, facial toning is used for victims of stroke and forms of facial paralysis such as Bell’s palsy. Facial toning achieves this by performing facial muscle exercising. There are two types of facial toning exercises: active and passive face exercises.

Facial Massage (youtube)
Facial Massage: Face Lift 2:30 (youtube)
Facial Yoga and Meditation 10 (youtube)
Face Yoga (youtube)
Facial and Shoulder Massage (youtube)
Tanaka Face
(youtube)
Self Massage (youtube)
Lymph Massage Techniques (youtube)
Lymph Drainage Massage (youtube)
Bathing

Increase-Blood-Flow
Improve-Blood-Circulation


Doctors



Health News - Health Resources





Always Ask Questions - Medical Errors


When seeking help always get a second or third opinion from a professional source or a very intelligent well trusted friend or family member. There's a lot of fraud, false medical claims and Doctors over prescribing medications. So please do your homework, especially with medications and treatment alternatives. Compliance is only expectable after you have done your Research. Don't just consult a physician, you need to ask several experts who have varying degrees of knowledge.

Be positive and be hopeful but don't be Gullible. Not all Doctors are Honest or Educated, so it's not just about who you can trust. Remember that experts make mistakes too. 4 out of 10 doctors Misdiagnose their patients. There's also Over Diagnosis and underdiagnosed. And please don't worry. Ask questions and learn as much as you can.

Fear of Doctors is real and life threatening. And if Doctors don't receive better training and better education, then these Fears will continue to kill people, and not just from the lack of good training and a good education.

Women Doctors are better then Male Doctors, it's proven statistically and from my own personal experience, women doctors are more likely to consistently follow established medical procedures; other research has shown that women doctors are more likely to provide preventative care than male ones, and that they are more likely to prescribe medication effectively.
And on top of that, you’re more likely to die in a hospital under the care of a male doctor than a woman doctor. Women News

Several common Causes for Diagnostic Errors include
Inadequate collaboration and communication among clinicians, patients, and their families. Limited feedback to doctors about the accuracy of diagnoses. A culture that discourages transparency and disclosure of diagnostic errors, which impedes attempts to learn and improve in the medical community.

Informed Consent (right to know)

Improve Diagnosis

Hospital Infections

Shared Decision-Making is an approach in which clinicians and patients communicate together using the best available evidence when faced with the task of making decisions. Patients are supported to deliberate about the possible attributes and consequences of options, to arrive at informed preferences in making a determination about the best course of action which respects patient autonomy, as well as ethical and legal norms.

Decision Support Center (common ground)
Shared Decisions (mayo clinic)
Collaborate (problem solving)

Objective Structured Clinical Examination (training)

Evidence-Based Practice is considering the best available research evidence bearing on whether and why a treatment works, (2) clinical expertise (clinical judgment and experience) to rapidly identify each patient's unique health state and diagnosis, their individual risks and benefits of potential interventions, and (3) client preferences and values. Evidence-based behavioral practice (EBBP) "entails making decisions about how to promote health or provide care by integrating the best available evidence with practitioner expertise and other resources, and with the characteristics, state, needs, values and preferences of those who will be affected. This is done in a manner that is compatible with the environmental and organizational context. Evidence is research findings derived from the systematic collection of data through observation and experiment and the formulation of questions and testing of hypotheses".

Duty of Care

Evidence-Based Nursing is an approach to making quality decisions and providing Nursing Care based upon personal clinical expertise in combination with the most current, relevant research available on the topic. This approach is using evidence based practice (EBP) as a foundation. EBN implements the most up to date methods of providing Care, which have been proven through appraisal of high quality studies and statistically significant research findings. The goal of EBN is to improve the health and safety of patients while also providing care in a cost-effective manner to improve the outcomes for both the patient and the healthcare system. EBN is a process founded on the collection, interpretation, appraisal, and integration of valid, clinically significant, and applicable research. The evidence used to change practice or make a clinical decision can be separated into seven levels of evidence that differ in type of study and level of quality. To properly implement EBN, the knowledge of the nurse, the patient’s preferences, and multiple studies of evidence must all be collaborated and utilized in order to produce an appropriate solution to the task at hand. These skills are taught in modern nursing education and also as a part of professional training.

Evidence-Based Practices (harvard)

Comparative Effectiveness Research is the direct comparison of existing health care interventions to determine which work best for which patients and which pose the greatest benefits and harms. The core question of comparative effectiveness research is which treatment works best, for whom, and under what circumstances.

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency is responsible for ensuring that medicines and medical devices work and are acceptably safe.

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence publishes guidelines in four areas: the use of health technologies within the NHS (such as the use of new and existing medicines, treatments and procedures); clinical practice (guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific diseases and conditions); guidance for public sector workers on health promotion
and ill-health avoidance; and guidance for social care services and users. These appraisals are based primarily on evaluations of efficacy and cost–effectiveness in various circumstances.

Patient Decision Aids (Ottawa Hospital Research Institute)

Shared Decision Making (Informed Medical Decisions)

Transitional Care refers to the coordination and continuity of health care during a movement from one healthcare setting to either another or to home, called care transition, between health care practitioners and settings as their condition and care needs change during the course of a chronic or acute illness. Older adults who suffer from a variety of health conditions often need health care services in different settings to meet their many needs. For young people the focus is on moving successfully from child to adult health services.


The 12 questions every patient should ask doctors and nurses.

1. After admission, ask the names of your primary hospital doctor and the other specialists who make up your physician team. Your primary hospital physician will coordinate with the team, and your nurses will assist you during your stay.
2. Ask your physician: What is my main diagnosis, and are there any other newly diagnosed issues? Feel free to express your fears and anxieties about your diagnosis to the physicians and nursing staff. Don’t let the anxiety build until it becomes uncontrollable.
3. Ask your nurse or physician: How are my illnesses responding to treatment? Ask the nursing staff in particular about how your condition is progressing and how you can facilitate your recovery. It’s your fundamental right to obtain information regarding your medical condition. Understanding both your diagnosis and your treatment plan is a central tenet of the Patient’s Bill of Rights, which was adopted by the Association of American Physicians and Surgeons in 1995. According to this document, all patients are entitled “to be informed about their medical condition, the risks and benefits of treatment, and appropriate alternatives.” Number Needed to Treat
4. Ask your family, friends, or other trusted individuals to be involved and help support you in your recovery. Yes, it’s hard to put ourselves in a situation where we feel like we’re burdening someone or losing our independence, even for a little while. Understand that these people are an integral part of your treatment team and contribute to the success of your recovery.
5. Ask to speak with a hospital social worker if you have questions about insurance and billing related to your stay. The social worker is there to help clarify what your insurance covers and how much you may be required to pay. If you need assistance with payment, discuss the options available to you with the social worker before you leave as well.
6. Ask to see the nurse manager or charge nurse if you’re experiencing ongoing issues with care or communication about your condition. The person in this role is responsible for helping patients and easing any misunderstanding or tensions that may arise during your stay.
7. As you approach discharge, ask if you should continue taking any of the medications (including vitamins and supplements) you took before you were admitted. This information should be included in your discharge instructions, but take the time to fully understand this aspect of your care to avoid potentially disastrous or even fatal complications later.
8. Ask the staff to show you and your caregivers how to perform any tasks prescribed for after you’ve left the hospital, especially any treatments that may require a special skill, such as changing a bandage or giving an injection. Ask the nurse or physician to remain in your room while you practice to ensure you’re doing it correctly.
9. Ask your nurse or physician if it’s safe to perform ordinary tasks alone, like bathing, dressing, driving, or exercising. Make sure you’ve arranged for help with any of these activities before you leave the hospital.
10. Ask your nurse or physician if you can or should use any medical equipment, such as a walker, brace, or health monitor, to help with your recovery and comfort. If the answer is yes, ask for assistance in obtaining these items before you leave or shortly after your return home.
11. At the time of your discharge, ask the discharge nurse any questions you have about your discharge information. You should have been provided with printed discharge instructions. Don’t leave the hospital without obtaining these, reading them (or having them read to you), and making sure you understanding all of the information they cover.
12. Ask about any follow-up appointments or additional testing. Take a moment now to record anything that’s already been scheduled or to schedule necessary appointments in the coming weeks.

Medical Error is a preventable adverse effect of care, whether or not it is evident or harmful to the patient. This might include an inaccurate or incomplete diagnosis or treatment of a disease, injury, syndrome, behavior, infection, or other ailment. Globally, it is estimated that 142,000 people died in 2013 from adverse effects of medical treatment; this is an increase from 94,000 in 1990. However, a 2016 study of the number of deaths that were a result of medical error in the U.S. placed the yearly death rate in the U.S. alone at 251,454 deaths, which suggests that the 2013 global estimation may not be accurate.

Drug Error's

Diagnostic error is the leading cause of medical malpractice claims in the US, and is estimated to cause 40,000-80,000 deaths annually. One in every ten diagnoses is wrong and one in every thousand ambulatory diagnostic encounters result in harm.

Never Events are the kind of mistake or medical error that should never happen in the field of medical treatment.

Over Diagnosis is the diagnosis of "disease" that will never cause symptoms or death during a patient's lifetime. Overdiagnosis is a side effect of screening for early forms of disease. Although screening saves lives in some cases, in others it may turn people into patients unnecessarily and may lead to treatments that do no good and perhaps do harm.

Millions of people get tests, drugs, and operations that won’t make them better, may cause harm, and cost billions.

30 Percent of all Health Spending — $750 billion — is wasted on fraud, administration and needless procedures.
Mammograms needed is overblown. As many as five fewer deaths for 1,000 women. Number Needed to Treat

Infections - Super Bugs

Medical Malpractice Payout Statistics
Have you been Harmed in a Medical Facility, please Share your Story
Medical Harm: Patient Perceptions and Follow up Actions

Preventive Services Task Force

Risk Factors (risk taking)
Surgical Risk Calculator
Risk Factors in Surgery

Incorporating Patient-Reported Outcomes Into Health Care To Engage Patients And Enhance Care.

Patient-Reported Outcome or PRO is a method or questionnaire used in a clinical trial or a clinical setting, where the responses are collected directly from the patient. 

Patient-centered Outcomes are outcomes from medical care that are important to patients.

"Knowledge is the Best Medicine, but you need to do your homework to maximize the benefits"

ASA Physical Status Classification System (wiki)
ASA Physical Status Classification System
Partners In Health
Optum Health Care
Equity Research and Innovation Center (ERIC) Vulnerable and Diverse Populations.
The Peckham Experiment
Pioneer Health Foundation
Social Medicine
Health Media Collaboratory
Nutrition Gap, are Doctors ready think outside the Pillbox?
Rock Health full-service funding healthcare entrepreneurs.
Latif Nasser: the amazing story of the man who gave us modern pain relief (video and text)
Bj Miller: What really matters at the end of life (video and text)
Quest Center Empowering people, nurturing community, promoting health and wellbeing.
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to improve the health and health care of all Americans.

Lasker Foundation Awards Program since 1945 has recognized the contributions of scientists, physicians, and public servants who have made major advances in the understanding, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of human disease.

Hospital-Acquired Conditions Update, Saving Lives and Saving Money

Hospital-Acquired Condition is an undesirable situation or condition that affects a patient and that arose during a stay in a hospital or medical facility.

Interim estimates for 2014 show a sustained 17 percent decline in hospital-acquired conditions (HACs) since 2010. A cumulative total of 2.1 million fewer HACs were experienced by hospital patients over the 4 years (2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014) relative to the number of HACs that would have occurred if rates had remained steady at the 2010 level. The measured interim rate for 2014 held steady from 2013 at 121 HACs per 1,000 discharges, down from 145 in 2010. We estimate that nearly 87,000 fewer patients died in the hospital as a result of the reduction in HACs and that approximately $19.8 billion in health care costs were saved from 2010 to 2014. 

The federal government is penalizing 758 hospitals with higher rates of patient safety incidents, and more than half of those places had also been fined last year in 2014. 

HAC-Reduction-Program
(HAC) Reduction Program

Elderly Abuses (care giving)

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (wiki)
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (wiki)

The CDC has reported that urinary tract infections caused by catheters became slightly more prevalent through 2013

PSI is a global health organization dedicated to improving the health of people in the developing world by focusing on serious challenges like a lack of family planning, HIV and AIDS, barriers to maternal health, and the greatest threats to children under five, including malaria, diarrhea, pneumonia and malnutrition.  

PSI Impact
IHME Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

Path global health innovation across five platforms—vaccines, drugs, diagnostics, devices, and system and service innovations.

Surgical never events in the United States. A total of 9,744 paid malpractice settlement and judgments for surgical never events occurring between 1990 and 2010. Malpractice payments for surgical never events totaled $1.3 billion.

Human Factors Analysis (PDF)
Common Cause Analysis (PDF)

National Quality Registry Network
American Medical Association
Ethics

Global Network of institutions and committed individuals whose mission is to Strengthen Health Systems

Physicians for Human Rights
Oaths of Service

Racial Bias in Health Care
Women's Medicine Differences
Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care (with CD) ( 2003 )
Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Emergency Department Analgesic Prescription
Racism
Implicit

The Total Transparency Manifesto
Physicians for Social Responsibility

Who's My Doctor
Rate your Doctor and Hospital

Patient Safety

Medical Scribe is a person, or paraprofessional, who specializes in charting physician-patient encounters in real time, such as during medical examinations. Depending on which area of practice the scribe works in, the position may also be called clinical scribe, ER scribe or ED scribe (in the emergency department), or just scribe (when the context is implicit). A scribe is trained in health information management and the use of health information technology to support it. A scribe can work on-site (at a hospital or clinic) or remotely from a HIPAA-secure facility. Medical scribes who work at an off-site location are known as virtual medical scribes and normally work in clinical settings.

Health Records
Intelliguard - RFID solutions for the pharmaceutical and healthcare industries.
Federation of State Medical Boards
FSMB
Health Care Systems Four Basic Models
The Association for Medical Education in Europe

Treating Patients in the ER costs, on average, $600 to $1,200 per visit, compared with $165 to $262 if the patients were treated in an outpatient clinic. Last year, the Houston Fire Department logged more than 318,000 incidents, but only thirteen percent of them were actual fires.

Skepticism
The National Council Against Health Fraud
Quack Watch
Pseudoscientific
Skeptic
Questioning

"People are receiving inadequate information, education and advice on managing their health." Upstreamists

You have a responsibility to yourself, to maintain a healthy mind and body. To love yourself this way is to reward yourself for loving life. To love life is to be willing to spend some time on the maintenance of life, a maintenance that helps increase the quantity and the quality of life. Maintenance is its own reward. And part of the maintenance is to keep learning. If you are not increasing your knowledge and understanding about life, then life becomes vulnerable and you will not know enough in order to react accurately to the changes that life throws at you. All life forms perform maintenance, and maintenance is a small price to pay for life, it's totally worth the investment. 

Remember, fewer than 25 percent of physicians believe they have sufficient training to talk to patients about diet or physical activity. Meanwhile, a good number of physicians are overweight and don't exercise regularly themselves.

Tulane's Medical School is one of the first to teach medical students how to cook healthful food, with the goal that they'll share that knowledge with patients.



Health Care Fraud and Abuse


Medicare and Medicaid fraudsters are beating taxpayers out of an estimated $90 billion a year - $60 billion of it from Medicare - using a billing scam that is surprisingly easy to execute. CBS And you wonder why Health Care Reform is so important.

62% of all Bankruptcies are related to Medical Bills from people being overcharged by greedy hospitals, and on top of that almost 70% of those people had insurance. So medical fraud is everywhere and no one is safe.

2.8 Trillion is the estimated cost of Health Care in the US in 2013.  

Time Magazine Article "Bitter Pill"
Drug Errors
Patient Safety

Beware of the Charge Master.

Why does surgery costs differ from town to town?

The National Council Against Health Fraud

Why are Doctors allowed to charge insurance companies for unnecessary tests, and also charge to give patients unnecessary drugs. But when a patient needs certain medical care, it's not covered and the patient is forced to pay out of pocket. WTF? It's like you have to be a criminal in order to get help, or to be covered. So who's more criminal, the doctors or the insurance companies?

Consumer Protection
Elderly Abuse

GlaxoSmithKline estimates that 90 percent of the drugs work in only 30 to 50 percent of the people. 300 people have to take the drug statin for a year before one heart attack, stroke or other adverse event is prevented. And five percent of those 300 have side effects, that's 15 people. So you're 15 times more likely to be harmed by the drug than you are to be helped by the drug. There are other ways to reduce your cholesterol that will not harm you.

For the most widely performed surgery on men over the age of 50, removal of the prostate for cancer, the Number Needed to Treat is 49. That means that 49 surgeries are done for every one person who's helped. And the side effects in that case occur in 50 percent of the patients. They include impotence, erectile dysfunction, urinary incontinence, rectal tearing, fecal incontinence. And if you're lucky, and you're one of the 50 percent who has these, they'll only last for a year or two.

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services officials chose to do just 30 in-depth financial audits to recover overpayments each year, even though the records make clear they could complete many more, up to 80 audits a year. So only 5 percent of the roughly 600 Medicare Advantage contracts in force would be audited in a year. But overspending tied to fast-rising risk scores has cost taxpayers billions of dollars in recent years, as the Center for Public Integrity reported in a series of articles published in 2014, leading to widespread suspicions that some risk scores are being purposefully inflated. Many of the records released by CMS are heavily redacted, with dates and the names of their authors sometimes missing. More than 1,400 pages have been "withheld in their entirety" by CMS, including names of the health plans and how much they were overpaid. It's like we have criminals watching criminals. If we pay more people to over see and to look for fraud, we could save billions. So we can create  thousands of jobs that pay for themselves.

Government Accountability Office Audit: Feds Failed To Rein In Medicare Advantage Overbilling
Private Medicare Advantage plans treating the elderly have overbilled the government by billions of dollars, but rarely been forced to repay the money or face other consequences for their actions, according to a congressional audit.



Health Insurance


Health Insurance does not mean better care or better health. Good health mostly comes from acquiring valuable knowledge and experience. And Health Insurance does not guarantee good care because 9 out of 10 Doctors and Dentists commit insurance fraud by doing unnecessary work. So too many Doctors victimize their patients by not giving them the best care that they need, mostly because they are more concerned with how much money they can bilk the insurance carrier for, and not paying attention to the persons needs. So Health Insurance can actually be bad for you, especially when you don't have a good experienced and educated Doctor who is also honest, so be very careful.

Insurance is a means of protection from financial loss. It is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent, uncertain loss.

The best Insurance you can have is Prevention. Because in order to avoid sickness you have to do all the things that prevent illness. Insurance does not prevent illness or injury, in fact, insurance might encourage illness and injury because people are given a false sense of security and thus fail to take the proper measures that would improve their health, like eating the right foods, exercising and avoiding toxins and viruses. In 2009 there were 48.6 million people in the US (15.7% of the population) who were without Health Insurance Coverage

Health Insurance is insurance that covers the whole or a part of the risk of a person incurring medical expenses, spreading the risk over a large number of persons. By estimating the overall risk of health care and health system expenses over the risk pool, an insurer can develop a routine finance structure, such as a monthly premium or payroll tax, to provide the money to pay for the health care benefits specified in the insurance agreement. The benefit is administered by a central organization such as a government agency, private business, or not-for-profit entity. According to the Health Insurance Association of America, health insurance is defined as "coverage that provides for the payments of benefits as a result of sickness or injury. It includes insurance for losses from accident, medical expense, disability, or accidental death and dismemberment".

Who Still Doesn't have Health Insurance?

Self-insurance describes a situation in which a person does not take out any third party insurance. The essence of the concept is that a business that is liable for some risk, such as health costs, chooses to "carry the risk" itself and not take out insurance through an insurance company.

Preventive Medicine

Approximately 12 million adults who seek outpatient medical care are misdiagnosed

Patient Safety
Choosing Wisely
Comparing and Rating Healthcare Services
Elderly and Insurance

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (wiki) 

The Association for Community Affiliated Plans (ACAP) is a national trade association representing 60 not-for-profit Safety Net Health Plans in 24 states. Collectively, ACAP plans serve more than fifteen million enrollees, representing more than 50 percent of individuals enrolled in Medicaid-focused health plans.

"Insurance is knowing someone who is intelligent, someone you can trust" 

"The purpose of insurance is not just about money, it's about having a well thought out Backup Plan.

"if things don't turn out the way you wanted, you should have a backup plan, an alternate option, what choices do you have?"

The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force say the link between medical recommendations and insurance coverage leads to financial incentives that can corrupt the process and distort people's health care decisions.

Obama Care (affordable care act)

Each year, 1 in every 20 Americans racks up just as much in medical bills as another 19 combined. This critical five percent of the U.S. population is key to solving the nation's health care spending crisis. The United States spends the most on health care per person — $9,237 – according to two new papers published in the journal The Lancet. The U.K. spends less per person ($3,749) on health care than the U.S. ($9,237). Despite its high spending, the U.S. does not have the best health outcomes. Life expectancy, for example, is 79.1 years in the U.S. and 80.9 years in the U.K. And while the U.S. spends more on health care than any country in the world, it ranks 12th in life expectancy among the 12 wealthiest industrialized countries, according to the Kaiser Family Foundation, a non-profit organization focusing on health issues.



Vital Signs


Vital Signs are a group of the 4 to 6 most important signs that indicate the status of the body’s vital (life-sustaining) functions. These measurements are taken to help assess the general physical health of a person, give clues to possible diseases, and show progress toward recovery. The normal ranges for a person’s vital signs vary with age, weight, gender, and overall health.

Health Indicator are quantifiable characteristics of a population which researchers use as supporting evidence for describing the health of a population.

Health Calculators - Examinations

Vitality (nutrition)

Homeostasis is the property of a system in which variables are regulated so that internal conditions remain stable and relatively constant.

Biomarkers are key molecular or cellular events that link a specific environmental exposure to a health outcome. Biomarkers play an important role in understanding the relationships between exposure to environmental chemicals, the development of chronic human diseases, and the identification of subgroups that are at increased risk for disease. Much progress has been made in identifying and validating new biomarkers that can be used in population-based studies of environmental disease.

Bio-Monitoring (Body Burden)

Grip Strength and Mortality

Smartphone Medical Apps - Analyzing Tools (sensors)


Blood Pressure Readings Explained

A single high blood pressure reading does not necessarily mean that you have high blood pressure. However, if readings stay at 140/90 mm Hg or above (systolic 140 or above OR diastolic 90 or above) over time, your doctor will likely want you to begin a treatment program.

White Coat Hypertension White coat hypertension is a phenomenon in which patients exhibit a blood pressure level above the normal range, in a clinical setting, though they don't exhibit it in other settings.

High blood pressure affects 1.13 billion people around the world while blood pressure has dropped sharply in high-income countries, it has risen in many low and middle-income countries, especially those in Africa and South Asia. Globally, 597 million men had raised blood pressure, compared to 529 million women. High blood pressure puts extra strain on the blood vessels and major organs such as heart, brain and kidneys. It is the world's leading cause of cardiovascular disease, which leads to stroke
and heart attacks, and is thought to cause 7.5 million deaths a year across the globe.

Global Disparities of Hypertension Prevalence and Control A Systematic Analysis of Population-Based Studies From 90 Countries says 32 percent of low-income people have high blood pressure, compared with 29 percent in high-income countries. Long term high blood pressure is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, vision loss, and chronic kidney disease.

High Blood Pressure (hypertension)
10 ways to control high blood pressure without medication.

Heart Love Symbol
Heart is a muscular organ in humans and other animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system. Blood provides the body with oxygen and nutrients, as well as assists in the removal of metabolic wastes. The heart is located in the middle compartment of the chest.

Heart Attack (heart stops beating)

Circulatory System is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis. The study of the blood flow is called hemodynamics. The study of the properties of the blood flow is called hemorheology.

Blood

Hematology is the branch of medicine concerned with the study, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases related to blood.

Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same Cells. Human blood is Red because hemoglobin, which is carried in the blood and functions to transport oxygen, is iron-rich and red in color. Veins, which are sometimes visible through the skin, may look bluish. It has to do with the way tissue absorbs, scatters and reflects light.

Blood Type is a classification of blood based on the presence and absence of antibodies and also based on the presence or absence of inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs). These antigens may be proteins, carbohydrates, glycoproteins, or glycolipids, depending on the blood group system. Some of these antigens are also present on the surface of other types of cells of various tissues. Several of these red blood cell surface antigens can stem from one allele (or an alternative version of a gene) and collectively form a blood group system. Blood types are inherited and represent contributions from both parents. A total of 35 human blood group systems are now recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT). The two most important ones are ABO and the RhD antigen; they determine someone's blood type (A, B, AB and O, with +, − or Null denoting RhD status). Many pregnant women carry a fetus with a blood type which is different from their own, which is not a problem. What can matter is whether the baby is RhD positive or negative. Mothers who are RhD- and carry a RhD+ baby can form antibodies against fetal RBCs. Sometimes these maternal antibodies are IgG, a small immunoglobulin, which can cross the placenta and cause hemolysis of fetal RBCs, which in turn can lead to hemolytic disease of the newborn called erythroblastosis fetalis, an illness of low fetal blood counts that ranges from mild to severe. Sometimes this is lethal for the fetus; in these cases it is called hydrops fetalis.

Endothelium is a type of epithelium that lines the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. It is a thin layer of simple squamous cells called endothelial cells. Endothelial cells in direct contact with blood are called vascular endothelial cells, whereas those in direct contact with lymph are known as lymphatic endothelial cells. Vascular endothelial cells line the entire circulatory system, from the heart to the smallest capillaries. These cells have unique functions in vascular biology. These functions include fluid filtration, such as in the glomerulus of the kidney, blood vessel tone, hemostasis, neutrophil recruitment, and hormone trafficking. Endothelium of the interior surfaces of the heart chambers is called endocardium.

Blood Test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a needle, or via fingerprick. Multiple tests for specific blood components (such as a glucose test or a cholesterol test) are often grouped together into one test panel called a blood panel or blood work. Blood tests are often used in health care to determine physiological and biochemical states, such as disease, mineral content, pharmaceutical drug effectiveness, and organ function. Typical clinical blood panels include a basic metabolic panel or a complete blood count. Blood tests are also used in drug tests to detect drug abuse. In some of the United States, a blood test is required before marriage.

Blood Work Sample (image)

Bleeding also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system. Bleeding can occur internally, where blood leaks from blood vessels inside the body, or externally, either through a natural opening such as the mouth, nose, ear, urethra, vagina or anus, or through a break in the skin. Hypovolemia is a massive decrease in blood volume, and death by excessive loss of blood is referred to as exsanguination. Typically, a healthy person can endure a loss of 10–15% of the total blood volume without serious medical difficulties (by comparison, blood donation typically takes 8–10% of the donor's blood volume). The stopping or controlling of bleeding is called hemostasis and is an important part of both first aid and surgery.

Vetigel Stops Bleeding

Coagulation (also known as clotting) is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot. It potentially results in hemostasis, the cessation of blood loss from a damaged vessel, followed by repair. The mechanism of coagulation involves activation, adhesion, and aggregation of platelets along with deposition and maturation of fibrin. Disorders of coagulation are disease states which can result in bleeding (hemorrhage or bruising) or obstructive clotting (thrombosis).

Clotting is a thrombus, colloquially called a blood clot, is the final product of the blood coagulation step in hemostasis. There are two components to a thrombus: aggregated platelets and red blood cells that form a plug, and a mesh of cross-linked fibrin protein. The substance making up a thrombus is sometimes called cruor. A thrombus is a healthy response to injury intended to prevent bleeding, but can be harmful in thrombosis, when clots obstruct blood flow through healthy blood vessels.

Phlebotomy is the process of making an incision in a vein with a needle. The procedure itself is known as a venipuncture. A person who performs phlebotomy is called a "phlebotomist", although doctors, nurses, medical laboratory scientists and others do portions of phlebotomy procedures in many countries.

Red Blood Cells are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate organism's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system. RBCs take up oxygen in the lungs or gills and release it into tissues while squeezing through the body's capillaries. Red blood cells are produced by cores of bone marrow in the heads of long bones in a process known as hematopoiesis.

White Blood Cells are the Cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders. All white blood cells are produced and derived from multipotent cells in the bone marrow known as hematopoietic stem cells. Leukocytes are found throughout the body, including the blood and lymphatic system.

B Cell are a type of white blood cell of the lymphocyte subtype. They function in the humoral immunity component of the adaptive immune system by secreting antibodies.

Immune System Cells

Lymphatic System is part of the circulatory system and a vital part of the immune system, comprising a network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph (from Latin, lympha meaning "water") directionally towards the heart.

Blood Therapy

Platelet-Rich Plasma (cancer)
Synthetic Blood

Blood Transfusion is generally the process of receiving blood or blood products into one's circulation intravenously. Transfusions are used for various medical conditions to replace lost components of the blood. Early transfusions used whole blood, but modern medical practice commonly uses only components of the blood, such as red blood cells, white blood cells, plasma, clotting factors, and platelets.

At Home Dialysis Machine
Chemistry
Hormones

Myocardial Infarction - Heart Attack
Symptoms and Warning Signs of a Heart Attack
Heart Attack Quiz
How the Heart Works 3D Video (youtube)
Heart Intelligence (video)

Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy (British Heart Foundation)
American Heart Association

Cardiovascular Diseases killed 17.5 million People in 2012

The incidence of coronary heart disease in the U.S. declined nearly 20 percent from 1983 to 2011, mostly because people are eating better, exercising and avoiding toxins.

Unhealthy diets linked to more than 400,000 cardiovascular deaths.

Cardiomyopathy is a group of diseases that affect the heart muscle. Early on there may be few or no symptoms. Others may have shortness of breath, feel tired, or have swelling of the legs due to heart failure. An irregular heart beat may occur as well as fainting. Those affected are at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death.

Heart Disease
Videos (youtube)
Heart Disease Symptoms (webMd)
Causes
The Food you Eat can Kill you.

Heart failure afflicts 5.7 million Americans, costs the country $30.7 billion every year

Scientists create Heart Cells better, faster and stronger
GATA4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GATA4 gene.
MEF2C also known as MADS box transcription enhancer factor 2, polypeptide C is a protein that in humans is encoded by
the MEF2C gene. MEF2C is a transcription factor in the Mef2 family.
TBX5 (gene) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TBX5 gene.

Broken Heart (feelings)

Heart Sounds are the noises generated by the beating heart and the resultant flow of blood through it. Specifically, the sounds reflect the turbulence created when the heart valves snap shut. In cardiac auscultation, an examiner may use a stethoscope to listen for these unique and distinct sounds that provide important auditory data regarding the condition of the heart.

Stethoscope is an acoustic medical device for auscultation, or listening to the internal sounds of an animal or human body. It typically has a small disc-shaped resonator that is placed against the chest, and two tubes connected to earpieces. It is often used to listen to lung and heart sounds. It is also used to listen to intestines and blood flow in arteries and veins. In combination with a sphygmomanometer, it is commonly used for measurements of blood pressure. Less commonly, "mechanic's stethoscopes" are used to listen to internal sounds made by machines, such as diagnosing a malfunctioning automobile engine by listening to the sounds of its internal parts. Stethoscopes can also be used to check scientific vacuum chambers for leaks, and for various other small-scale acoustic monitoring tasks. A stethoscope that intensifies auscultatory sounds is called phonendoscope.

Heart Rate is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of the heart per minute (bpm). The heart rate can vary according to the body's physical needs, including the need to absorb oxygen and excrete carbon dioxide. It is usually equal or close to the pulse measured at any peripheral point. Activities that can provoke change include physical exercise, sleep, anxiety, stress, illness, and ingestion of drugs.

Heart Rate Variability is the physiological phenomenon of variation in the time interval between heartbeats. It is measured by the variation in the beat-to-beat interval.

Electrocardiography is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin. These electrodes detect the tiny electrical changes on the skin that arise from the heart muscle's electrophysiologic pattern of depolarizing and repolarizing during each heartbeat. It is a very commonly performed cardiology test. In a conventional 12-lead ECG, 10 electrodes are placed on the patient's limbs and on the surface of the chest. The overall magnitude of the heart's electrical potential is then measured from 12 different angles ("leads") and is recorded over a period of time (usually 10 seconds). In this way, the overall magnitude and direction of the heart's electrical depolarization is captured at each moment throughout the cardiac cycle. The graph of voltage versus time produced by this noninvasive medical procedure is referred to as an electrocardiogram. During each heartbeat, a healthy heart has an orderly progression of depolarization that starts with pacemaker cells in the sinoatrial node, spreads out through the atrium, passes through the atrioventricular node down into the bundle of His and into the Purkinje fibers, spreading down and to the left throughout the ventricles. This orderly pattern of depolarization gives rise to the characteristic ECG tracing. To the trained clinician, an ECG conveys a large amount of information about the structure of the heart and the function of its electrical conduction system. Among other things, an ECG can be used to measure the rate and rhythm of heartbeats, the size and position of the heart chambers, the presence of any damage to the heart's muscle cells or conduction system, the effects of cardiac drugs, and the function of implanted pacemakers.

Pulse represents the tactile arterial palpation of the heartbeat by trained fingertips.

Ventricular Fibrillation is when the heart quivers instead of pumps due to disorganized electrical activity in the ventricles. It results in cardiac arrest with loss of consciousness and no pulse. This is followed by irreversible death without treatment. Ventricular fibrillation is found initially in about 10% of people in cardiac arrest.

Cardiac Arrhythmia Irregular Heartbeat the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow. A heart rate that is too fast – above 100 beats per minute in adults – is called tachycardia and a heart rate that is too slow – below 60 beats per minute – is called bradycardia.

Palpitations is a perceived abnormality of the heartbeat characterized by awareness of heart muscle contractions in the chest: hard beats, fast beats, irregular beats, and/or pauses.

Murmur are heart sounds produced when blood flows across one of the heart valves that is loud enough to be heard with a stethoscope. Types of murmurs are due to structural defects in the heart itself.

Heart Rate Monitors for Home use

Researchers develop ‘living diode’ using cardiac muscle cells Using cardiac muscle cells and cardiac fibroblasts – cells found in connective heart tissue – researchers at the University of Notre Dame have created a “living diode,” which can be used for cell-based information processing.

Marfan Syndrome is a genetic disorder of the connective tissue. The degree to which people are affected varies. People with Marfan tend to be tall, and thin, with long arms, legs, fingers and toes. They also typically have flexible joints and scoliosis. The most serious complications involve the heart and aorta with an increased risk of mitral valve prolapse and aortic aneurysm. Other commonly affected areas include the lungs, eyes, bones and the covering of the spinal cord.

Heart Disease numbers by State

The Heart-Brain Connection - PDF

emWave

A new way to heal hearts without surgery: Franz Freudenthal (video and interactive text)

Obesity
Diabetes

Patient Records

Breathalyzers

Breathalyzer can diagnose 17 different diseases via Pattern Analysis of Exhaled Molecules
Detecting Disease Through Breath Prof. Hossam Haick Technion (youtube)
Na-Nose: A Nanoscale Artificial Nose to Detect Specific Medical Conditions Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath, sweat or urine carry much information on the state of human health. Volatile Biomarkers.

Breathing - Lungs

Oxygen Saturation is a term referring to the fraction of Oxygen-saturated hemoglobin relative to total hemoglobin (unsaturated + saturated) in the blood. The human body requires and regulates a very precise and specific balance of oxygen in the blood. Normal blood oxygen levels in humans are considered 95-100 percent. If the level is below 90 percent, it is considered low resulting in hypoxemia. Blood oxygen levels below 80 percent may compromise organ function, such as the brain and heart, and should be promptly addressed. Continued low oxygen levels may lead to respiratory or cardiac arrest. Oxygen therapy may be used to assist in raising blood oxygen levels. Oxygenation occurs when oxygen molecules (O2) enter the tissues of the body. For example, blood is oxygenated in the lungs, where oxygen molecules travel from the air and into the blood. Oxygenation is commonly used to refer to medical oxygen saturation. Oxygen Saturation Monitoring by Pulse Oximetry. Normal oxygen saturation values are 97% to 99% in the healthy individual.

Pulse Oximetry is a noninvasive method for monitoring a person's oxygen saturation (SO2). Its reading of SpO2 (peripheral oxygen saturation) is not always identical to the reading of SaO2 (arterial oxygen saturation) from arterial blood gas analysis, but the two are correlated well enough that the safe, convenient, noninvasive, inexpensive pulse oximetry method is valuable for measuring oxygen saturation in clinical use. In its most common (transmissive) application mode, a sensor device is placed on a thin part of the patient's body, usually a fingertip or earlobe, or in the case of an infant, across a foot. The device passes two wavelengths of light through the body part to a photodetector. It measures the changing absorbance at each of the wavelengths, allowing it to determine the absorbances due to the pulsing arterial blood alone, excluding venous blood, skin, bone, muscle, fat, and (in most cases) nail polish. Reflectance pulse oximetry may be used as an alternative to transmissive pulse oximetery described above. This method does not require a thin section of the person's body and is therefore well suited to a universal application such as the feet, forehead, and chest, but it also has some limitations. Vasodilation and pooling of venous blood in the head due to compromised venous return to the heart, as occurs with congenital cyanotic heart disease patients, or in patients in the Trendelenburg position, can cause a combination of arterial and venous pulsations in the forehead region and lead to spurious SpO2 results.

Physiologic Status Monitoring via the Gastrointestinal Tract (youtube)
Sensor Applications
Microbes
Physiologic Status Monitoring via the Gastrointestinal Tract
Proteus

Syncope: Review of Monitoring Modalities
Syncope is the short loss of consciousness and muscle strength.
Health Home Test

Normal Body Temperature is around 37C (98.6F), although it depends on: The person, Their age, What they've been doing, the time of day, and which part of the body you take the temperature from. It is generally accepted that normal body temperature ranges between 36.1C (97F) to 37.2C (99F).

The Human Body

Body Mass Index is a measurement of relative weight based on an individual's mass and height. Overweight is defined as a body mass index, or BMI, of 25 to 29.9, which is about ten to 30 pounds overweight depending on your height. Obese is defined as anyone with a BMI of 30 or above.

BMI Calculator
Underweight = <18.5
Normal weight = 18.5–24.9
Overweight = 25–29.9
Obesity = BMI of 30 or greater

Visceral Fat (obesity)

Doctor Examination Visits
Body Burden Test Analysis and Bio-Monitoring

5 Biomarkers factors that influence Inner Age: Glucose, Vitamin D, Testosterone, hsCRP and ALT.  

Vitamin Testing

Brainwaves could be the next Health Vital Sign


Health Calculators

Health Calculator
Health Status Calculators
Health Calculators
Calculate Body Health
Health Calculator
22 Senior Health Risk Calculators for Healthy Aging
Risk of Developing Chronic Diseases
Chronic Diseases
Smartphone Health Monitoring Technology Tools
Tiny Machines


Wellness


Wellness is the level of functional and metabolic efficiency of a living organism. In humans it is the ability of individuals or communities to adapt and self-manage when facing physical, mental or social challenges.

Wellness Alternative means a healthy balance of the mind, body and spirit that results in an overall feeling of well-being.

Wellness Coach
Wellness Coaches
Rockford Wellness Center
Wellness Study in the Workplace (PDF)
Nutrition

Integrative Healing Center healing program for body, mind, and spirit, which combines conventional medicine along with alternative forms of healing to allow for complete restoration of the human body that is naturally designed to heal itself when given the proper balance of nutrition, sunlight, rest and relaxation, and detoxification. Cancer

Health is the level of functional and metabolic efficiency of a living organism. In humans it is the ability of individuals or communities to adapt and self-manage when facing physical, mental or social challenges.

Well-Being means the individual or group's condition is positive, while low well-being is associated with negative happenings.

Workplace Wellness is any workplace health promotion activity or organizational policy designed to support healthy behavior in the workplace and to improve health outcomes.

Wellness Alternative Medicine a healthy balance of the mind, body and spirit that results in an overall feeling of well-being.

Physical Education

Physical wellness encompasses nutrition, physical fitness and the avoidance of unhealthy habits like smoking, drinking too much and doing drugs.

Universal access to physical activity could save billions in health costs

Intellectual wellness - Mental wellness dimension refers to the amount of information and knowledge you take in, and the amount of creative, analytical thinking you put out. Learning, problem solving and mental productivity are important aspects of intellectual wellness.

Emotional wellness - Spiritual wellness pertains to how well you are aware of, accepting of and able to deal with your feelings. Relationships, stress, self-esteem and life outlook are all factors that play into emotional wellness. It can make you feel more resilient.

Medical wellness involves health-promoting medical practices like medical check-ups, preventative healthcare and medical health management.

Environmental wellness relates to your level of environmental consciousness. Remember that every cell in your body was created by elements from the environment through the food you eat, what you drink and breathe. Your well-being is intertwined with the well-being of the environment.

Social wellness has to do with how you see your place in the world and in society, and how well you adjust to your personal role in society.

Occupational wellness stresses the importance of a positive attitude towards work, and a rewarding and enriching career path.

How To Create a Wellness Program (youtube)

Lawson Health Research Institute understands the basis of wellness and the dysfunctions of the body and mind that result in disease.



The Thinker Man