The Human Body
is an incredible complex machine.
Don't ever take your body for granted. Everyone must fully understand the
a strong and healthy body.
Learn to Ask Questions
Knowledge is the Best Medicine
The Fountain of Youth is Knowledge
consists of measures taken for
, as opposed to disease treatment. Relies on
that can be categorized as primal, primary,
secondary, and tertiary prevention.
is any physical damage to the body.
is the science and practice of
, treatment, and prevention of
consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as
opposed to just disease treatment.
It's Cheaper to Prevent Diseases
then it is to Treat Diseases
causes 5 billion dollars in heath care treatments from diseases
caused by smoking.
is an approach to health promotion, in which
are supported to promote health-enhancing change among their
peers. Peer education is the teaching
or sharing of health information, values and behavior in educating others
who may share similar social backgrounds or life experiences. Rather than
health professionals educating members
of the public, the idea behind peer
education is that ordinary lay people are in the best position to
encourage healthy behaviour to each other.
is the application of a scientific methodology
that seeks to
prevent or moderate major human dysfunctions before they occur.
Prevention through Design
is the concept of mitigating occupational
hazards by "designing them out".
is the study and practice of
communicating promotional health information, such as in public health
campaigns, health education, and between doctor and patient. The purpose
of disseminating health information is to influence personal health
choices by improving health literacy. Because effective health
communication must be tailored for the audience and the situation,
research into health communication seeks to refine communication
strategies to inform people about ways to enhance health or to avoid
specific health risks. Academically, health communication is a discipline
within communication studies. Health communication may variously seek to:
Increase audience knowledge and awareness of a health issue. Influence
behaviors and attitudes towards a health issue. Demonstrate healthy
practices. Demonstrate the benefits of behavior changes to public health
outcomes. Advocate a position on a health issue or policy. Increase demand
or support for health services. Argue against misconceptions about health.
assesses an individual's
readiness to act on a new healthier behavior, and provides strategies, or
processes of change to guide the individual through the stages of change
to Action and Maintenance. It is composed of the following constructs:
stages of change, processes of change, self-efficacy, decisional balance
is a system of conscious personal management
that involves the process of
guiding one's own thoughts, behaviors, and feelings to reach goals.
Self-regulation consists of several stages, and individuals must function
as contributors to their own motivation, behavior, and development within
a network of reciprocally interacting influences.
describes an approach focusing on factors that
support human health and well-being, rather than on factors that cause
is the entire structure of a human
being and comprises a head, neck, trunk (which includes the thorax and
abdomen), arms and hands, legs and feet. Every part of the body is
composed of various types of cells, the fundamental unit of life.Healing
is the process
of health from an
or damaged organism. Healing involves the repair of
living tissue, organs and the biological system as a whole and resumption
of normal functioning. It is the process by which the cells in the body
regenerate and repair to reduce the size of a damaged or necrotic area and
replace it with new living tissue. Respite
is a (temporary) relief from harm or discomfort. The act of reprieving;
postponing or remitting punishment. A pause for relaxation.
is to return to an original state. Gradual healing
(through rest) after sickness or injury. The act of regaining or saving
something lost (or in danger of becoming lost).
(Humanistic) - Nurse you back to health is to Educate the Mind.
is the end of a
medical condition that helps end a person's sufferings. It may also refer
to the state of being healed, or cured or make healthy again.
Medical Treatments for People in Need
Ethics in The Medical Industry
Doctor - Physician
or physician is a professional
who practices medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or
restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease,
injury, and other physical and mental impairments. Physicians may focus
their practice on certain disease categories, types of patients and
methods of treatment—known as specialties—or they may assume
responsibility for the provision of continuing and comprehensive medical
care to individuals, families, and communities—known as general practice.
Medical practice properly requires both a detailed knowledge of the
academic disciplines (such as anatomy and physiology) underlying diseases
and their treatment—the science of medicine—and also a decent competence
in its applied practice—the art or craft of medicine.
states that rural areas could be short 45,000
doctors by 2020. And other trade groups warn those numbers of unfilled
positions could loom even larger. Since 2010, more than 70 rural hospitals
Early Historical Doctors:
335–280 or 255 BC) - (Galen
AD 129 – c.200/c.216)
Health Care Provider
is an individual who provides preventive, curative, promotional or
rehabilitative health care services in a systematic way to people,
families or communities. A health professional may operate within all
branches of health care, including medicine, surgery, dentistry,
midwifery, pharmacy, psychology, nursing or allied health professions. A
health professional may also be a public/community health expert working
for the common good of the society.Compare Doctors
(ICHOM) value-based health care focusing on health
made by Doctors
is language used to
precisely describe the human body including its components, processes,
conditions affecting it, and procedures performed upon in. It is to be
used in the field of medicine. Notable aspects of medical terminology
include the use of Latin terms and regular morphology, with the same
suffixes and prefixes use quite consistently for a particular meaning.
This regular morphology means that once reasonable number of morphemes are
learned it becomes easy to understand very precise terms build up from
these morphemes. A lot of medical language is anatomical terminology,
concerning itself with the names of various parts of the body.
Medical Terms Definitions
is a doctor who performs
operations, which is a medical procedure involving an incision with
instruments; performed to repair damage or arrest disease in a living
body. Incision is cutting of or into body tissues or organs. Surgeons may
be physicians, podiatrists, dentists, or veterinarians.
Color Coded Surgery
refers to surgical techniques
that limit the size of incisions needed and so lessens wound healing time,
associated pain and risk of infection. An endovascular aneurysm repair as
an example of minimally invasive surgery is much less invasive in that it
involves much smaller incisions, than the corresponding open surgery
procedure of open aortic surgery.
O-Arm Surgical Imaging
3D Holographic Imaging
Surgery Costs by State
Health Cost Institute
is a medical
procedure in which an organ is removed from one body and placed in the
body of a recipient, to replace a damaged or missing organ. The donor and
recipient may be at the same location, or organs may be transported from a
donor site to another location. Organs and/or tissues that are
transplanted within the same person's body are called autografts.
Transplants that are recently performed between two subjects of the same
species are called allografts. Allografts can either be from a living or
is when a person allows
to be removed, legally, either by consent while the donor is alive or
after death with the assent of the next of kin. Donation may be for
research, or, more commonly healthy transplantable organs and tissues may
be donated to be transplanted into another person. Common transplantations
include: kidneys, heart, liver, pancreas, intestines, lungs, bones, bone
marrow, skin, and corneas. Some organs and tissues can be donated by
living donors, such as a kidney or part of the liver, but most donations
occur after the donor has died. As of August 1, 2016, there are 120,004
people waiting for life-saving organ transplants in the US. Of these,
96,645 await kidney transplants. While views of organ donation are
positive there is a large gap between the numbers of registered donors
compared to those awaiting organ donations on a global level.
120,000 Americans are on waiting lists
Americans a day either die on the waiting
list or are removed from it because they
have become too ill to receive a transplant.
Every day, about 75 people in the United States get an organ transplant.
About 130 new people are put on transplant waiting lists each day
Paired Kidney Exchange
Matching Donors and Recipients
, These usually include: Blood type,
Body size, Severity of patient's medical condition, Distance between the
donor's hospital and the patient's hospital, The patient's waiting time,
Whether the patient is available (for example, whether the patient can be
contacted and has no current infection or other temporary reason that
transplant cannot take place). Depending on the organ, however, some
factors become more important. For example, some organs can survive
outside the body longer than others. So the distance between the donor's
hospital and the potential recipient's hospital must be taken into
consideration.Can an organ recipient
choose an organ from a younger person?
Putting a kidney from a 70
year old donor into a 20 year old recipient is not a great idea. In the
reverse situation a 20 year old kidney transplanted into a 70 year old
will be exposed to an aging environment: high blood pressure, other organs
which are not functioning optimally and it will not last as long as it
would in a 20 year old recipient (assuming the etiology is not prone to
recurrence). A 70 year old kidney would probably last longer in a
year old than in another 70 year old but sometimes young and otherwise
healthy patients have a greater tendency to reject than older ones. In any
case, some sort of age matching makes sense if feasible. The biological
age of the transplanted organ won't change after it has been transplanted.
Almost everyone can be an organ donor, no matter what your age.
Can people of different races and ethnicities
match each other?
Yes. People of different ethnicities frequently
match each other.
How are donated organs distributed? Organs are
matched to patients based on a number of factors, including blood and
typing, medical need, time on the waiting list, and
More than 100,000
people in the United States are waiting for a new kidney
. 500,000 are
of a kidney
can be made to a family member, friend,
or anyone on the waiting list.
is a process
for removing waste and excess water from the blood and is used primarily
as an artificial replacement for lost kidney function in people with
kidney failure. Dialysis may be used for those with an acute disturbance
in kidney function (acute kidney injury, previously acute renal failure)
or progressive but chronically worsening kidney function—a state known as
chronic kidney disease stage 5 (previously chronic kidney failure or
end-stage renal disease).
Dialysis: Last Week
Tonight with John Oliver (HBO)
transplantation of cells, tissues, or organs, to a recipient from a
genetically non-identical donor of the same species. The transplant is
called an allograft, allogeneic transplant, or homograft. Most human
tissue and organ transplants are allografts.
transplantation of living cells, tissues or organs from one species to
another. Such cells, tissues or organs are called xenografts or
xenotransplants. It is contrasted with allotransplantation (from other
individual of same species), Syngeneic transplantation (Grafts
transplanted between two genetically identical individuals of the same
species) and Autotransplantation (from one part of the body to another in
the same person).
Transplant Recipients Receive Memories of
the Organ Donor
in the brain that are characterized by their extensive vasculature and
lack of a normal blood brain barrier
The CVOs allow for the linkage between the central nervous system and
peripheral blood flow; additionally they are an integral part of
neuroendocrine function. The lack of a blood brain barrier allows the CVOs
to act as an alternative route for peptides and hormones in the neural
tissue to the peripheral blood stream, while still protecting it from
toxic substances. CVOs can be classified as either sensory or secretory
organs. The sensory organs include the area postrema (AP), the subfornical
organ (SFO) and the vascular organ of lamina terminalis. They have the
ability to sense plasma molecules and then pass that information into
other regions of the brain. Through this, they provide direct information
to the autonomic nervous system from the systemic circulation. The
secretory organs include the subcommissural organ (SCO), the posterior
pituitary, the pineal gland, the median eminence and the intermediate lobe
of the pituitary gland. These organs are responsible for secreting
hormones and glycoproteins into the peripheral vascular system using
feedback from both the brain environment and external stimuli. All of the
circumventricular organs, besides the SCO, contain extensive vasculature
and fenestrated capillaries which leads to a ‘leaky’ BBB at the site of
the organs. Furthermore, all CVOs contain neural tissue, allowing them to
play a role in the neuroendocrine system. It is highly debated if the
choroid plexus can be included as a CVO. It has a high concentration of
fenestrated capillaries, but its lack of neural tissue and its primary
role of producing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) usually excludes the choroid
plexus from the CVO classification. Research has also linked CVOs to body
fluid regulation, cardiovascular functions, immune responses, thirst,
feeding behavior and reproductive behavior
in medicine is a branch of medical practice. After completing medical
school, physicians or surgeons usually further their medical education in
a specific specialty of medicine by completing a multiple year residency
to become a medical specialist
is the process by which a physician or other
professional in the United States demonstrates a mastery of basic
knowledge and skills through written, practical, or simulator-based
is the process by
which a medical professional investigates the body of a patient for signs
of disease. It generally follows the taking of the medical history—an
account of the symptoms as experienced by the patient. Together with the
medical history, the physical examination aids in determining the correct
diagnosis and devising the treatment plan. This data then becomes part of
the medical record.
is information gained by a physician by asking specific
, either of
the patient or of other people who know the person and can give suitable
information (in this case, it is sometimes called heteroanamnesis), with
the aim of obtaining information useful in formulating a diagnosis and
providing medical care to the patient. The medically relevant complaints
reported by the patient or others familiar with the patient are referred
to as symptoms, in contrast with clinical signs, which are ascertained by
direct examination on the part of medical personnel. Most health
encounters will result in some form of history being taken
is a kind of medical
performed to detect, diagnose, or monitor diseases, disease
processes, susceptibility, and determine a course of treatment. It is
related to clinical chemistry and molecular diagnostics, and the
procedures are typically performed in a medical
are body functions essential for life.
is a medical term for
predicting the likely outcome of one's
is the identification of the nature and
of a certain phenomenon.
is the process of
or condition explains a person's
Testing and Examinations
of a disease, condition or one or several medical
parameters over time. It can be performed by continuously measuring
certain parameters by using a medical monitor (for example, by
continuously measuring vital signs
by a bedside
monitor), and/or by repeatedly performing medical tests (such as blood
glucose monitoring with a glucose meter in people with diabetes mellitus).
Transmitting data from a monitor to a distant monitoring station is known
are methods and software
tools for understanding biological data.
Body Burden Test
is the process of determining the
priority of patients' treatments based on the severity of their condition.
non-invasive assessment of
Endothelial Dysfunction (arterial health), is a functional test for early
detection of underlying disease progression
is a medical test commonly
performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional
cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for
examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease.
is a significant component of
the causal study of disease
and a major field in modern medicine and
is a highly specialized surgical procedure that consists of a thorough
examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause and manner of
death and to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present. It is
usually performed by a specialized medical doctor called a pathologist.
Also known as a post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum.
Diagnostic Tests - Advanced Sensors
is a measurable
indicator of the severity or presence of some disease state. More
generally a biomarker is anything that can be used as an indicator of a
particular disease state or some other physiological state of an organism.
Lab on a Chip
deals with the behaviour, precise control and manipulation of fluids that
are geometrically constrained to a small, typically sub-millimeter, scale.
Smartphone Blood Test
Bio-Sensor Patch Monitor
GlucoWatch G2 Biographer
Body Parts on a Chip
Organ on a Chip
is a multi-channel 3-D
microfluidic cell culture chip that simulates the activities, mechanics
and physiological response of entire organs and organ systems, a type of
Diagnostic Paper, Whiteside's
Electrochemical Sensing in Paper-Based
Claros Diagnostic Lab
Materials that Compute
Paper Test Strip for Diagnosing Diseases
In Vitro Diagnostics
Stretchable Biofuel Cells extract Energy from Sweat to power Wearable
. A team of engineers has developed stretchable fuel cells that
extract energy from sweat and are capable of powering electronics, such as
LEDs and Bluetooth radios. The biofuel cells generate 10 times more power
per surface area than any existing wearable biofuel cells. The devices
could be used to power a range of wearable devices.
Self-Powered Paper-Based Electrochemical Devices 'SPEDs' may lead to new
. A new medical-diagnostic device made out of
paper detects biomarkers and identifies diseases by performing
electrochemical analyses -- powered only by the user's touch -- and reads
out the color-coded test results, making it easy for non-experts to
The top layer of the SPED is fabricated using untreated
cellulose paper with patterned hydrophobic "domains" that define channels
that wick up blood samples for testing. These "microfluidic channels"
allow for accurate assays that change color to indicate specific testing
results. A machine-vision diagnostic application also was created to
automatically identify and quantify each of these "colorimetric" tests
from a digital image of the SPED, perhaps taken with a cellphone, to
provide fast diagnostic results to the user and to facilitate
remote-expert consultation. The bottom layer of the SPED is a "triboelectric
," or TEG, which generates the electric current necessary to
run the diagnostic test simply by rubbing or pressing it. The researchers
also designed an inexpensive handheld device called a potentiostat, which
is easily plugged into the SPED to automate the diagnostic tests so that
they can be performed by untrained users. The battery powering the
potentiostat can be recharged using the TEG built into the SPEDs. The
SPEDs were used to detect biomarkers such as glucose, uric acid and
and white blood cells, which indicate factors
related to liver and kidney function, malnutrition and anemia. Future
versions of the technology will contain several additional layers for more
complex assays to detect diseases such as dengue fever, yellow fever,
malaria, HIV and hepatitis.
Designed, Human-Centered Technologies
Food - Nutrition
Exercise - Sports
The Human Body
is the entire structure
of a human being. It is composed of many different types of cells that
together create tissues and subsequently organ systems. They ensure
homeostasis and viability of human body. It comprises a head, neck, trunk
(which includes the thorax and abdomen), arms and hands, legs and feet.
The study of the human body involves anatomy, physiology, histology and
embryology. The body varies anatomically in known ways. Physiology focuses
on the systems
of the human body and their functions. Many
systems and mechanisms interact in order to maintain
safe levels of substances such as sugar and oxygen in the blood. The body
is studied by health professionals, physiologists, anatomists, and by
artists to assist them in their work.
Systems of the Human Body
: Circulates blood around the body via the
arteries and veins, delivering oxygen
and nutrients to organs and
and carrying their waste products away.
the part of the circulatory system that transports blood throughout the
human body. There are three major types of blood vessels: the
, which carry
away from the heart; the
, which enable the actual exchange of water and chemicals
between the blood and the tissues; and the
which carry blood from the capillaries back toward the heart
refers to the widening of blood vessels. It results from relaxation of
cells within the vessel walls, in particular in the large
veins (called venodilators), large arteries, and smaller arterioles. The
process is the opposite of
,, which is the narrowing of blood vessels.
: Mechanical and chemical processes that provide
and intestines. Eliminates
from the body.
Provides chemical communications within the body using
: Skin, hair, nails, sweat and other exocrine glands.
comprising a network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called
lymph. Defends the body against disease-causing agents.
is part of the circulatory system
vital part of the immune system
comprising a network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called
lymph directionally towards the heart. Unlike the cardiovascular system,
the lymphatic system is not a closed system. The human circulatory system
processes an average of 20 liters of blood per day through capillary
filtration, which removes plasma while leaving the blood cells. Roughly 17
litres of the filtered plasma are reabsorbed directly into the blood
vessels, while the remaining three litres remain in the interstitial
fluid. One of the main functions of the lymph system is to provide an
accessory return route to the blood for the surplus three litres. The
other main function is that of defense in the immune system. Lymph is very
similar to blood plasma: it contains lymphocytes and other white blood
cells. It also contains waste products and cellular debris together with
bacteria and proteins. Associated organs composed of lymphoid tissue are
the sites of lymphocyte production. Lymphocytes are concentrated in the
lymph nodes. The spleen and the thymus are also lymphoid organs of the
immune system. The tonsils are lymphoid organs that are also associated
with the digestive system
Lymphoid tissues contain lymphocytes, and also contain other types of
cells for support. The system also includes all the structures dedicated
to the circulation and production of lymphocytes (the primary cellular
component of lymph), which also includes the bone marrow, and the lymphoid
tissue associated with the digestive system.
: Enables the Body
to move using Muscles
support the body and its organs.
Bones of the Human
is the distance from the bottom of the feet to
the top of the head in a human body, standing erect. It is measured using
, usually in centimetres when using the metric system, or
feet and inches when using the imperial system.
: Collects and processes information from the senses
and the brain and tells the
muscles to contract to cause physical actions.
: The system where the kidneys filter
: The sex
organs required for the production of offspring.
: The lungs and the
trachea that bring air into the body.
: Consists of
, neural pathways, and parts of the brain involved in
(memory technique acronym for ten organ systems).
Systems of the Human Body - List
ardiovascular / Circulatory system:
Circulates blood around the body via the heart, arteries and veins,
delivering oxygen and nutrients to organs and cells and carrying their
waste products away.2:
igestive system / Excretory system:
Mechanical and chemical processes that provide nutrients via the mouth,
esophagus, stomach and intestines. Eliminates waste from the body.
system: Provides chemical communications within the body using hormones.
Integumentary system/ Exocrine system:
kin, hair, nails, sweat and other exocrine
Lymphatic system /
mmune system: The system comprising a
network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph.
Defends the body against disease-causing agents.
system/Skeletal system: Enables the body to move using muscles. Bones
supporting the body and its organs.7:
ervous system: Collects and processes
information from the senses via nerves and the brain and tells the muscles
to contract to cause physical actions.8:
Renal system / U
rinary system: The system
where the kidneys filter blood.9:
eproductive system: The sex organs
required for the production of offspring.10:
espiratory system: The lungs and the
trachea that bring air into the body.
is the branch
of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and
their parts. Anatomy is inherently tied to embryology, comparative
anatomy, evolutionary biology, and phylogeny, as these are the processes
by which anatomy is generated over immediate (embryology) and long
(evolution) timescales. Human anatomy is one of the basic essential
sciences of medicine. The discipline of anatomy is divided into
macroscopic and microscopic anatomy. Macroscopic anatomy, or gross
anatomy, is the examination of an animal's body parts using unaided
eyesight. Gross anatomy also includes the branch of superficial anatomy.
Microscopic anatomy involves the use of optical instruments in the study
of the tissues of various structures, known as histology, and also in the
study of cells. The history of anatomy is characterized by a progressive
understanding of the functions of the organs and structures of the human
body. Methods have also improved dramatically, advancing from the
examination of animals by dissection of carcasses and cadavers (corpses)
to 20th century medical imaging techniques including X-ray, ultrasound,
and magnetic resonance imaging. Anatomy and physiology, which study
(respectively) the structure and function of organisms and their parts,
make a natural pair of related disciplines, and they are often studied
Eyes: Seeing and Sight
Check your Vision
Organs Human Body
(wiki) - (there are approximately 79 organs).
Composition of the Body
may be analyzed in terms of
molecular type e.g., water
, connective tissue,
(or lipids), hydroxylapatite (in bones),
(such as glycogen and glucose)
. In terms of tissue type, the body may be analyzed into water,
, bone, etc. In terms of
type, the body contains hundreds
of different types of cells, but notably, the largest number of cells
contained in a human body (though not the largest mass of cells)
, but bacteria residing in the normal
human gastrointestinal tract
Chemical Elements listed by their presence in human body
Almost 99% of the mass of the human body is made up of six elements:
. Only about
0.85% is composed of another five elements: potassium, sulfur, sodium,
chlorine, and magnesium. A 70 kg (154 lb body) would have approximately 7*1027
atoms. That is, 7 followed by 27 zeros.
Carbon 4.2*1027 4.2*1027
Total 2.3*1028 1.8*1028
Human Body for Kids
Human Skin Color
ranges in variety from the darkest brown to
the lightest hues. An individual's skin pigmentation is the result of
genetics, being the product of both of the individual's biological
parents' genetic makeup. In evolution, skin pigmentation in human beings
evolved by a process of natural selection primarily to regulate the amount
of ultraviolet radiation penetrating the skin, controlling its biochemical
effects. The actual skin color of different humans is affected by many
substances, although the single most important substance is the pigment
How We Get Our Skin Color
or pectus excavatum, is a congenital deformity
of the anterior thoracic wall in which the sternum and rib cage grow
abnormally. This produces a caved-in or sunken appearance of the chest. It
can either be present at birth or not develop until puberty.
is a major abnormality in the shape of a body part
or organ compared to the normal shape of that part. Deformity may arise
from numerous causes: Genetic mutation. Damage to the fetus or uterus.
Complications at birth. A growth or hormone disorder. Reconstructive
surgery following a severe injury, e.g. burn injury. Arthritis and other
rheumatoid disorders. Fractured bones left to heal without being properly
set (malunion). Chronic application of external forces, e.g. artificial
cranial deformation. Chronic paresis, paralysis or muscle imbalance,
especially in children, e.g. due to poliomyelitis or cerebral palsy.
Deformity can occur in non-humans, as well. Frogs can be mutated due to
Ribeiroia (Trematoda) infection.
is a condition characterized
by excessive growth and height significantly above average. In humans,
this condition is caused by over-production of growth hormone in childhood
resulting in people between 7 feet (2.13 m) and 9 feet (2.75 m) in height.
Body Smart Kinesthetic
Anatomage Virtual Dissection
- Heart Disease
measuring has several scales and units, the most
common being Celsius (denoted °C; formerly called centigrade), Fahrenheit
(denoted °F), and, especially in science, Kelvin (denoted K).
Some People Feel Cold
is a narrow
range indicating optimal health and thermoregulation. Individual body
temperature depends upon the age, exertion, infection, sex, time of day,
and reproductive status of the subject, the place in the body at which the
measurement is made, the subject's state of consciousness (waking or
sleeping), activity level, and emotional state. Despite these factors,
typical values are well established: oral (under the tongue): 36.8±0.4 °C
(98.2±0.72 °F), internal (rectal, vaginal): 37.0 °C (98.6 °F).
is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain
boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different. A
thermoconforming organism, by contrast, simply adopts the surrounding
temperature as its own body temperature, thus avoiding the need for
internal thermoregulation. The internal thermoregulation process is one
aspect of homeostasis: a state of dynamic stability in an organism's
internal conditions, maintained far from thermal equilibrium with its
environment (the study of such processes in zoology has been called
physiological ecology). If the body is unable to maintain a normal
temperature and it increases significantly above normal, a condition known
as hyperthermia occurs. For humans, this occurs when the body is exposed
to constant temperatures of approximately 55 °C (131 °F), and with
prolonged exposure (longer than a few hours) at this temperature and up to
around 75 °C (167 °F) death is almost inevitable. Humans
may also experience lethal hyperthermia when the wet bulb temperature is
sustained above 35 °C (95 °F) for six hours. The opposite condition, when
body temperature decreases below normal levels, is known as hypothermia.
is the sense by which an organism perceives temperatures. The details of
how temperature receptors work are still being investigated. Ciliopathy is
associated with decreased ability to sense
, thus cilia may aid in the
process. Transient receptor potential channels (TRP channels) are
believed to play a role in many species in sensation of hot, cold, and
pain. Mammals have at least two types of sensor: those that detect heat
(i.e., temperatures above body temperature) and those that detect cold
(i.e. temperatures below body temperature.
, also called an
or thermal imaging camera, is a device that forms an image
using infrared radiation, similar to a common camera that forms an image
using visible light. Instead of the 400–700 nanometre range of the visible
light camera, infrared cameras operate in wavelengths as long as 14,000 nm
(14 µm). Their use is called thermography.
is thermoregulation that maintains a stable
internal body temperature regardless of external influence. This internal
body temperature is often, though not necessarily, higher than the
animal species can maintain a body temperature higher than their
environment. In particular, homeothermic species maintain a stable body
temperature by regulating metabolic processes. The only known homeotherms
are birds and mammals. Other species have various degrees of
is an organism that maintains
its body at a metabolically favorable temperature, largely by the use of
heat set free by its internal bodily functions instead of relying almost
purely on ambient heat. Such internally generated heat is mainly an
incidental product of the animal's routine metabolism, but under
conditions of excessive cold or low activity an endotherm might apply
special mechanisms adapted specifically to heat production. Examples
include special-function muscular exertion such as shivering, and
uncoupled oxidative metabolism such as within brown adipose tissue. Only
birds and mammals are extant universally endothermic groups of animals.
Certain lamnid sharks, tuna and billfishes are also endothermic.In common
parlance, endotherms are characterized as "warm-blooded". The opposite of
endothermy is ectothermy, although there is no absolute or clear
separation between the nature of endotherms and ectotherms in general.
is the narrowing of the blood vessels
resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in
particular the large arteries and small arterioles. The process is the
opposite of vasodilation, the widening of blood vessels. The process is
particularly important in staunching hemorrhage and acute blood loss. When
blood vessels constrict, the flow of blood is restricted or decreased,
thus retaining body heat or increasing vascular resistance. This makes the
skin turn paler because less blood reaches the surface, reducing the
radiation of heat. On a larger level, vasoconstriction is one mechanism by
which the body regulates and maintains mean arterial pressure.
is an organism whose internal temperature
varies considerably. It is the opposite of a homeotherm, an organism which
maintains thermal homeostasis. Usually the variation is a consequence of
variation in the ambient environmental temperature. Many terrestrial
ectotherms are poikilothermic. However some ectotherms remain in
temperature-constant environments to the point that they are actually able
to maintain a constant internal temperature (i.e. are homeothermic). It is
this distinction that often makes the term "poikilotherm" more useful than
the vernacular "cold-blooded", which is sometimes used to refer to
ectotherms more generally. Poikilothermic animals include types of
vertebrate animals, specifically fish, amphibians, and reptiles, as well
as a large number of invertebrate animals. The naked mole-rat is the only
mammal that is currently thought to be poikilothermic.
is a group of disorders caused by dysfunctional mitochondria, the
organelles that generate energy for the cell. Mitochondria are found in
every cell of the human body except red blood cells, and convert the
energy of food molecules into the ATP that powers most cell functions.
is a common disorder of
the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough
thyroid hormone. It can cause a number of symptoms, such as poor ability
to tolerate cold, a feeling of tiredness, constipation, depression, and
weight gain. Occasionally there may be swelling of the front part of the
neck due to goitre. Untreated hypothyroidism during pregnancy can lead to
delays in growth and intellectual development in the baby, which is called
refers to organisms with a high active
metabolism and a considerably slower resting metabolism. Bradymetabolic
animals can often undergo dramatic changes in metabolic speed, according
to food availability and temperature. Many bradymetabolic creatures in
deserts and in areas that experience extreme winters are capable of
"shutting down" their metabolisms to approach near-death states, until
favorable conditions return (see hibernation and estivation).
Targeted Temperature Management
previously known as therapeutic hypothermia or protective hypothermia is
active treatment that tries to achieve and maintain a specific body
temperature in a person for a specific duration of time in an effort to
improve health outcomes during recovery after a period of stopped blood
flow to the brain. This is done in an attempt to reduce the risk of tissue
injury following lack of blood flow. Periods of poor blood flow may be due
to cardiac arrest or the blockage of an artery by a clot as in the case of
a stroke. Targeted temperature management improves survival and brain
function following resuscitation from cardiac arrest. Evidence supports
its use following certain types of cardiac arrest in which an individual
does not regain consciousness. Both 33 °C (91 °F) and 36 °C (97 °F) appear
to result in similar outcomes. Targeted temperature management following
traumatic brain injury has shown mixed results with some studies showing
benefits in survival and brain function while others show no clear
benefit. While associated with some complications, these are generally
mild. Targeted temperature management is thought to prevent brain injury
by several methods including decreasing the brain's oxygen demand,
reducing the production of neurotransmitters like glutamate, as well as
reducing free radicals that might damage the brain. The lowering of body
temperature may be accomplished by many means including the use of cooling
blankets, cooling helmets, cooling catheters, ice packs and ice water
is elevated body
temperature due to failed thermoregulation that occurs when a body
produces or absorbs more heat than it dissipates. Extreme temperature
elevation then becomes a medical emergency requiring immediate treatment
to prevent disability or death. The most common causes include heat stroke
and adverse reactions to drugs. The former is an acute temperature
elevation caused by exposure to excessive heat, or combination of heat and
humidity, that overwhelms the heat-regulating mechanisms. The latter is a
relatively rare side effect of many drugs, particularly those that affect
the central nervous system. Malignant hyperthermia is a rare complication
of some types of general anesthesia. Hyperthermia differs from fever in
that the body's temperature set point remains unchanged. The opposite is
hypothermia, which occurs when the temperature drops below that required
to maintain normal metabolism. The term is from Greek υπε, ype, meaning
"excess", and θερμία, thermía, meaning "heat".
, defined as hyperthermia with a body temperature greater than
40.6 °C (105.1 °F) because of environmental heat exposure with lack of
thermoregulation. This is distinct from a fever, where there is a
physiological increase in the temperature set point of the body. The term
"stroke" in "heat stroke" is a misnomer in that it does not involve a
blockage or hemorrhage of blood flow to the brain. Preventive measures
include drinking plenty of cool liquids and avoiding excessive heat and
humidity, especially in unventilated spaces, such as parked cars, that can
overheat quickly. Treatment requires rapid physical cooling of the body.
is the effect of subjecting a
to a higher
temperature than that of the ideal body
of the organism from
which the cell line was derived. Heat shock refers to the cellular
exposure to rapid changes in stressors such as temperature, toxins,
oxidative stress, heavy metals, and pathogenic infections. Specifically
temperature induced heat shock, even by a change of a few degrees, causes
to misfold, nonspecifically
aggregate, and/or entangle. Other cellular damage induced by heat shock
includes cytoskeleton rearrangement, changes in organelle localization,
decreased ATP production, drop in cellular pH, decreased translation, and
changes in RNA splicing. Introduction of heat shock to cells elicits the
molecular response, the heat shock response (HSR), which repairs damages
caused by stressors such as protein misfolding and protein aggregation.
is reduced body temperature
that happens when a body dissipates more heat than it absorbs. In humans,
it is defined as a body core temperature below 35.0 °C (95.0 °F). Symptoms
depend on the temperature. In mild hypothermia there is shivering and
mental confusion. In moderate hypothermia shivering stops and confusion
increases. In severe hypothermia there may be paradoxical undressing, in
which a person removes his or her clothing, as well as an increased risk
of the heart stopping. Hypothermia has two main types of causes. It
classically occurs from exposure to extreme cold. It may also occur from
any condition that decreases heat production or increases heat loss.
Commonly this includes alcohol intoxication but may also include low blood
sugar, anorexia, and advanced age, among others. Body temperature is
usually maintained near a constant level of 36.5–37.5 °C (97.7–99.5 °F)
through thermoregulation. Efforts to increase body temperature involve
shivering, increased voluntary activity, and putting on warmer clothing.
Hypothermia may be diagnosed based on either a person's symptoms in the
presence of risk factors or by measuring a person's core temperature. The
treatment of mild hypothermia involves warm drinks, warm clothing and
physical activity. In those with moderate hypothermia heating blankets and
warmed intravenous fluids are recommended. People with moderate or severe
hypothermia should be moved gently. In severe hypothermia extracorporeal
membrane oxygenation (ECMO) or cardiopulmonary bypass may be useful. In
those without a pulse cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is indicated
along with the above measures. Rewarming is typically continued until a
person's temperature is greater than 32 °C (90 °F). If there is no
improvement at this point or the blood potassium level is greater than 12
mmol/liter at any time resuscitation may be discontinued. Hypothermia is
the cause of at least 1500 deaths a year in the United States. It is more
common in older people and males. One of the lowest documented body
temperatures from which someone with accidental hypothermia has survived
is 13.0 °C (55.4 °F) in a near-drowning of a 7-year-old girl in Sweden.
Survival after more than six hours of CPR has been described. In those in
whom ECMO or bypass is used survival is around 50%. Deaths due to
hypothermia have played an important role in many wars. Hyperthermia is
the opposite of hypothermia, being an increased body temperature due to
failed thermoregulation. The term is from Greek ὑπο, ypo, meaning "under",
and θερμία, thermía, meaning "heat".
Heat Escape Lessening Position
is a way to position oneself to reduce
heat loss while immersed in cold water. It is taught as part of the
curriculum in Australia, North America, and Ireland for lifeguard and
boating safety training. It involves essentially positioning one's knees
together and hugging them close to the chest using one's arms.
Furthermore, groups of people can huddle together in this position to
conserve body heat, offer moral support, and provide a larger target for
rescuers. The HELP is an attempt to reduce heat loss enough to lessen the
effect of hypothermia. Hypothermia is essentially a condition where bodily
temperature drops too low to perform normal voluntary or involuntary
functions. Cold water causes "immersion hypothermia", which can cause
damage to extremities or the body's core, including unconsciousness or
death. The HELP reduces exposure of high heat loss areas of the body.
Wearing a personal flotation device allows a person to draw their knees to
their chest and arms to their sides, while still remaining able to
describes a process
or reaction in which the system absorbs energy from its surroundings;
usually, but not always, in the form of heat. The term was coined by
Marcellin Berthelot from the Greek roots endo-, derived from the word "endon"
meaning "within" and the root "therm" meaning "hot." The intended sense is
that of a reaction that depends on absorbing heat if it is to proceed. The
opposite of an endothermic process is an exothermic process, one that
releases, "gives out" energy in the form of heat. Thus in each term
(endothermic & exothermic) the prefix refers to where heat goes as the
reaction occurs, though in reality it only refers to where the energy
goes, without necessarily being in the form of heat.
is a state of inactivity and
metabolic depression in endotherms. Hibernation refers to a season of
heterothermy that is characterized by low body temperature, slow breathing
and heart rate, and low metabolic rate. Although traditionally reserved
for "deep" hibernators such as rodents, the term has been redefined to
include animals such as bears and is now applied based on active metabolic
suppression rather than based on absolute body temperature decline. Many
experts believe that the processes of daily torpor and hibernation form a
continuum and utilize similar mechanisms. The equivalent during the summer
months is known as aestivation. Some reptile species (ectotherms) are said
to brumate, or undergo brumation, but any possible similarities between
brumation and hibernation are not firmly established. Some insects, such
as the wasp Polistes exclamans, hibernate by aggregating together in
groups in protected places called hibernacula.
Insect Winter Ecology
overwinter survival strategies of insects, which are in many respects more
similar to those of plants than to many other animals, such as mammals and
birds. This is because unlike those animals, which can generate their own
heat internally (endothermic), insects must rely on external sources to
provide their heat (ectothermic). Thus, insects sticking around in the
winter, must tolerate freezing or rely on other mechanisms to avoid
freezing. Loss of enzymatic function and eventual freezing due to low
temperatures daily threatens the livelihood of these organisms during
winter. Not surprisingly, insects have evolved a number of strategies to
deal with the rigors of winter temperatures in places where they would
otherwise not survive.
is an ametabolic state of
life entered by an organism in response to adverse environmental
conditions such as desiccation, freezing, and oxygen deficiency. In the
cryptobiotic state, all measurable metabolic processes stop, preventing
reproduction, development, and repair. When environmental conditions
return to being hospitable, the organism will return to its metabolic
state of life as it was prior to the cryptobiosis
is the branch of biology
that studies the effects of low temperatures on living things within
Earth's cryosphere or in science. In practice, cryobiology is the study of
biological material or systems at temperatures below normal. Materials or
systems studied may include proteins, cells, tissues, organs, or whole
organisms. Temperatures may range from moderately hypothermic conditions
to cryogenic temperatures.
or heat lamp, is a body with a higher temperature
which transfers energy to a body with a lower temperature through
on the temperature of the emitting body, the wavelength of the peak of the
infrared radiation ranges from 780 nm to 1 mm. No contact or medium
between the two bodies is needed for the energy transfer. Infrared heaters
can be operated in vacuum or atmosphere. One classification of infrared
heaters is by the wavelength bands of infrared emission. Short wave or
near infrared for the range from 780 nm to 1400 nm, these emitters are
also named bright because still some visible light is emitted; Medium
infrared for the range between 1400 nm and 3000 nm; Far infrared or dark
emitters for everything above 3000 nm.
Preservation and Resuscitation
normovolemic cardiac arrest in pigs.
Ice Ice Baby
is a part of medicine and alternative medicine, in particular of
naturopathy, occupational therapy and physiotherapy, that involves the use
of water for pain relief and treatment. The term encompasses a broad range
of approaches and therapeutic methods that take advantage of the physical
properties of water, such as temperature and pressure, for therapeutic
purposes, to stimulate blood circulation and treat the symptoms of certain
diseases. Various therapies used in the present-day hydrotherapy employ
water jets, underwater massage and mineral baths (e.g. balneotherapy,
Iodine-Grine therapy, Kneipp treatments, Scotch hose, Swiss shower,
thalassotherapy) and/or whirlpool bath, hot Roman bath, hot tub, Jacuzzi,
cold plunge and mineral bath.
Cold Shower for Health
Ice Bath Therapy
is a training regimen
usually following a period of intense exercise in which a substantial part
of a human body is immersed in a bath of ice or ice-water for a limited
duration. While it is becoming increasingly popular and accepted among
athletes in a variety of sports, the method is controversial, with a risk
of hypothermia, with the possibility of shock leading to sudden death.
Many athletes have used cold water immersion after an intense exercise
workout on the belief that it speeds up bodily recovery; however, the
internal physical processes are not well understood and remain elusive.
Generally research into the health effects of cold water immersion as part
of an athletic training regimen is inconclusive, with some studies
suggesting a mild benefit such as reducing muscle damage and discomfort
and alleviating delayed onset muscle soreness, with other studies
suggesting that cold water immersion may slow muscle growth and interfere
with an overall training regimen.
is the local or general use
of low temperatures in medical therapy. Cryotherapy is used to treat a
variety of benign and malignant tissue damage, medically called lesions.
Kryo Life Health
is the low-temperature
preservation (usually at −196°C) of people who cannot be sustained by
contemporary medicine, with the hope that resuscitation and restoration to
full health may be possible in the far future. Cryopreservation of
humans is not reversible with present technology; cryonicists hope that
medical advances will someday allow cryopreserved people to be revived.
the study of the production and behaviour of materials at very low
Reflex Asystolic Syncope
Thin Ice 2.0: Weight Loss Clothing
is a physical medicine
and rehabilitation specialty that, by using mechanical force and
movements, remediates impairments and promotes mobility, function, and
quality of life through examination, diagnosis, prognosis, and physical
intervention. It is performed by physical therapists (known as
physiotherapists in many countries).
Physical Therapy News
Physical Therapy Journal
is the use of
assessment and treatment to develop, recover, or maintain the daily living
and work skills of people with a physical, mental, or cognitive disorder.
Occupational therapists also focus much of their work on identifying and
eliminating environmental barriers to independence and participation in
daily activities. Occupational therapists work with clients of all ages,
ranging from infants to the elderly. Occupational therapy interventions
focus on adapting the environment, modifying the task, teaching the skill,
and educating the client/family in order to increase participation in and
performance of daily activities, particularly those that are meaningful to
the client. Occupational therapists often work closely with professionals
in physical therapy, speech therapy, nursing, social work, and the
is a branch
of medicine that aims to enhance and restore functional ability and
quality of life to those with physical impairments or disabilities. A
physician having completed training in this field is referred to as a
physiatrist. Physiatrists specialize in restoring optimal function to
people with injuries to the muscles, bones, ligaments, or nervous system.
Physical Therapy Game
- Genetic Testing
- Blood Brain Barrier
is a natural response to help us avoid injury to the body. It is a
distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli, such as
stubbing a toe, burning a finger, putting alcohol on a cut, or bumping the
"funny bone". Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience
associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms
of such damage."
patient's pain intensity or other features. Pain scales are based on
self-report, observational (behavioral), or physiological data.
Self-report is considered primary and should be obtained if possible. Pain
scales are available for neonates, infants, children, adolescents, adults,
seniors, and persons whose communication is impaired. Pain assessments are
often regarded as "the 5th Vital Sign".
Threshold of Pain
is the point along a
curve of increasing perception of a
at which pain begins to be
felt. It is an entirely
phenomenon. A distinction must be maintained between the
stimulus (an external thing that can be directly measured, such as with a
thermometer) and the person or animal's resulting pain perception (an
internal, subjective thing that can sometimes be measured indirectly, such
as with a visual analog scale). Although an IASP document defines "pain
threshold" as "the minimum intensity of a stimulus that is perceived as
begins with nociceptors—long neurons that originate in the
and end as thin fibers in the
skin. Those fibers are tipped with receptors that respond to pain-inducing
stimuli. When a stimulus is strong enough, these receptors generate an
electrical current—the pain signal.
The pain signal travels along the
through a series of channels that
allow sodium ions back and forth across cell membranes. These channels,
allow those charged particles across a membrane if the pain signal is
strong enough. (If it isn’t, the person feels no pain.)
When a pain signal reaches
the spinal cord, it continues up to the brain, where the somatosensory
cortex is primarily responsible for translating information about the
intensity of the pain signal. The brain’s motor cortex then generates the
body’s response—a shout of surprise, a jerk of a hand.
After an injury, even an
innocuous stimulus—like a warm bath or a pat on the back—can generate a
pain signal at the site of the original injury.
is the condition of mind
that expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment and is assessed
by subjective evaluation (ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55). Maintaining this
standard of thermal comfort for occupants of buildings or other enclosures
is one of the important goals of HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air
conditioning) design engineers.
is a pain
that is felt (as when the area is touched). An uncomfortable feeling of
mental painfulness or distress.
is a disorder that affects joints. Symptoms generally
include joint pain and stiffness. Other symptoms may include redness,
warmth, swelling, and decreased range of motion of the affected joints. In
some types other organs are also affected. Onset can be gradual or sudden.
is a medical condition
characterized by pain going down the leg from the lower back. This pain
may go down the back, outside, or front of the leg. Typically, symptoms
are only on one side of the body. Certain causes, however, may result in
pain on both sides. Lower back pain is sometimes but not always present.
Weakness or numbness may occur in various parts of the affected leg and
is pain that lasts a long
time. In medicine, the distinction between acute and chronic pain is
sometimes determined by an arbitrary interval of time since onset; the two
most commonly used markers being 3 months and 6 months since onset.
Partners Against Pain
Secret World Of Pain
Ketamine Reaction | Scotland's Superhospital
is a sensory nerve cell that
responds to damaging or potentially damaging stimuli by sending signals to
the spinal cord and brain. This process, called nociception, usually
causes the sensation of pain in sentient beings.
is the sensory
certain harmful or potentially harmful
. In nociception,
intense chemical (e.g., chili powder in the eyes), mechanical (e.g.,
cutting, crushing), or thermal (heat and cold) stimulation of sensory
nerve cells called nociceptors produces a signal that travels along a
chain of nerve fibers via the spinal cord to the brain. Nociception
triggers a variety of physiological and behavioral responses and usually
results in a subjective experience of pain in sentient beings.
is a nerve that innervates the skin, responsible for providing
to the skin.
Nerve Compression Syndrome
medical condition caused by direct pressure on a nerve. It is known
colloquially as a trapped nerve, though this may also refer to nerve root
compression (by a herniated disc, for example). Its symptoms include pain,
tingling, numbness and muscle weakness.
refers to a set of
conditions in which one or more nerves are affected and do not work
properly (a neuropathy). The location of the injury is at the level of the
nerve root (radix = "root"). This can result in pain (radicular pain),
weakness, numbness, or difficulty controlling specific muscles.
is damage to or
disease affecting nerves, which may impair sensation, movement, gland or
organ function, or other aspects of health, depending on the type of nerve
affected. Common causes include systemic diseases (such as diabetes or
leprosy), vitamin deficiency, medication (e.g., chemotherapy, or commonly
prescribed antibiotics including Metronidazole and the Fluoroquinolone
class of antibiotics (Ciprofloxacin, Levaquin, Avelox etc.)), traumatic
injury, radiation therapy, excessive alcohol consumption, immune system
disease, Coeliac disease, or viral infection.
is a disorder of
the autonomic nervous system which affects the development and survival of
sensory, sympathetic and some parasympathetic neurons in the autonomic and
sensory nervous system resulting in variable symptoms, including
insensitivity to pain, inability to produce tears, poor growth, and labile
blood pressure (episodic hypertension and postural hypotension).
particularly its posterior portion, is often
regarded as a primary cortex for pain.
Somatic Nervous System
is the part of the peripheral nervous system associated with skeletal
muscle voluntary control of body movements. The SoNS consists of afferent
nerves and efferent nerves. Afferent nerves are responsible for relaying
sensation from the body to the central nervous system (CNS); efferent
nerves are responsible for sending out commands from the CNS to the body,
stimulating muscle contraction; they include all the non-sensory neurons
connected with skeletal muscles and skin. The a- of afferent and the e- of
efferent correspond to the prefixes ad- (to, toward) and ex- (out of).
Autonomic Nervous System
is a division of the peripheral nervous system that influences the
function of internal organs. The autonomic nervous system is a control
system that acts largely unconsciously and regulates bodily functions such
as the heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, pupillary response,
urination, and sexual arousal. This system is the primary mechanism in
control of the fight-or-flight response and the freeze-and-dissociate
are a group of inhibitory G protein-coupled
receptors with opioids as ligands. The endogenous opioids are dynorphins,
enkephalins, endorphins, endomorphins and nociceptin. The opioid receptors
are ~40% identical to somatostatin receptors (SSTRs). Opioid receptors are
distributed widely in the brain, and are found in the spinal cord and
. Opioid receptors in the
brain are activated by a family of endogenous peptides like enkephalins,
dynorphins and endorphin, which are released by neurons.
is having an internal cause or
origin. Growing or originating from within an organism.
are produced by the
central nervous system
the pituitary gland
with a principal function to inhibit the transmission
of pain signals; they may also produce a feeling of
to that produced by other
which are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce
effects. Opioids act by binding to opioid receptors, which are found
principally in the central and peripheral nervous system and the
is a drug
. Opioid is found naturally in a number of plants and animals. A
more modern term for Opiate is used to designate all substances, both
natural and synthetic, that bind to opioid receptors in the brain.
Wearable Pain Relief (Quell)
LumiWave: Pain Relief is now In-Demand!
Livia - The Off Switch for Menstrual Pain
- home use device that treats the underlying cause of pain.
iTENS Device - Wireless Electrotherapy
is a chronic pain disorder that affects the largest of the
cranial nerves, the
which is a nerve responsible for sensation in the face and motor functions
such as biting and chewing.
are the nerves that emerge directly from the brain (including the
brainstem), in contrast to spinal
(which emerge from segments of the spinal cord). Cranial nerves
relay information between the brain and parts of the body, primarily to
and from regions of the head and neck. There are two main types: typical
and atypical trigeminal neuralgia. The typical form results in episodes of
severe, sudden, shock like pain in one side of the face that lasts for
seconds to a few minutes. Groups of these episodes can occur over a few
hours. The atypical form results in a constant burning pain that is less
severe. Episodes may be triggered by any touch to the face. Both forms may
occur in the same person. It is one of the most painful conditions and can
result in depression. The exact cause is unclear but believed to involve
loss of the myelin
around the trigeminal
nerve. This may occur due to compression from a blood vessel as the nerve
exits the brain stem, multiple sclerosis, stroke, or trauma. Less common
causes include a tumor or arteriovenous malformation. It is a type of
nerve pain. Diagnosis is typically based on the symptoms after ruling out
other possible causes such as postherpetic neuralgia. Treatment includes
medication or surgery. The anticonvulsant carbamazepine or oxcarbazepine
is the usual initial treatment and is effective in about 80% of people.
Other options include lamotrigine, baclofen, gabapentin, and pimozide.
Amitriptyline may help with the pain but opioids are not usually effective
in the typical form. In those who do not improve or become resistant to
other measures, a number of types of surgery may be tried.
is a medical condition characterised by chronic
widespread pain and a heightened pain response to pressure. Other symptoms
to a degree that normal
activities are affected, sleep problems, and troubles with memory. Some
people also report restless legs syndrome, bowel or bladder problems,
numbness and tingling, and sensitivity to noise, lights or temperature.
Fibromyalgia is frequently associated with depression, anxiety, and
posttraumatic stress disorder. Other types of chronic pain are also
Prospect for more effective treatment of nerve pain
Painkillers without Dangerous Side Effects
Sex Differences in Brain Activity Alter Pain Therapies
Certain exercises can help manage pain
Cells carry 'memory' of injury
Pain Rehabilitation Center Bio-Psychosocial Approach
Evaluation of Group and Individual Change in a Multidisciplinary Pain
Pain Management Programs
(American Chronic Pain Association)
Chronic Pain Program
(Medical Advanced Pain Specialist Medical Pain
is a non-steroidal
drug (NSAID) in the family of heterocyclic acetic acid
derivatives, used as an
which is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia,
relief from pain.
is a traditional medicinal herb
which is commonly used to prevent migraine headaches, and is also
occasionally grown for ornament.
is a genus of flowering plants
in the sunflower family, Asteraceae.
is one or more rare conditions in
which a person cannot feel
(and has never felt) physical pain.
is partial or total lack of
in a part of
the body; a symptom of nerve damage or dysfunction.
is loss of
or more muscles. Paralysis accompanied by a loss of feeling (sensory
) in the affected area if there is sensory damage as well as
motor. About 1 in 50 people in the U.S. have been diagnosed with some form
of paralysis, transient or permanent.
Spine, Stuart McGill
(youtube) Stuart McGill is one of the world's
foremost experts on spine biomechanics
is exhaustion, tiredness, languidness, languor,
lassitude, and listlessness. Sometimes a
feeling of tiredness which is
distinct from weakness, and has a gradual onset. Unlike weakness, fatigue
can be alleviated by periods of rest. Fatigue can have physical or mental
causes. Physical fatigue
is the transient inability of a
maintain optimal physical performance, and is made more severe by intense
physical exercise. Mental fatigue
is a transient decrease in maximal
resulting from prolonged periods of cognitive
activity. It can manifest as somnolence, lethargy, or directed attention
is in need of
or rest; weary. But
is a symptom of a number of different conditions. The causes are many and
can be divided into conditions that have true or perceived
. True muscle weakness is a primary symptom of a variety of
skeletal muscle diseases, including
myopathy. It occurs in
neuromuscular junction disorders, such as myasthenia gravis.
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
, is a medical
condition characterized by long-term fatigue and other symptoms that limit
a person's ability to carry out ordinary daily activities.
What happens when you have a disease doctors can't diagnose: Jennifer Brea
(video and interactive text)
Stanford researchers have linked ME/CFS
to variations in certain
, that track
with illness severity.
is a state of extreme physical
or mental fatigue. The action or state of using something up or of being
used up completely.Things that may cause
, such as abnormal
levels of sodium, potassium,
calcium, and magnesium.
abnormally low level of red blood cells. Sleep
distress, such as anxiety
, such as heart, lung, or
Exposure to toxins
known as quadriplegia, is
caused by illness or injury that results in the partial or
total loss of use of all four limbs and torso; paraplegia is similar but
does not affect the arms. The loss is usually
sensory and motor
, which means
that both sensation and control are lost. Tetraparesis or quadriparesis,
on the other hand, means
affecting all four limbs. It may be flaccid or
Things that may alleviate fatigue:
Exercise, good sleep habits, eating well, and living with purpose, just to
name a few.
Sitting to Long
is the measure
of an animal's exertion of force on physical objects. Increasing physical
strength is the goal of strength training. An individual's physical
strength is determined by two factors; the cross-sectional area of muscle
fibers recruited to generate force and the intensity of the recruitment.
Individuals with a high proportion of type I slow twitch
relatively weaker than a similar individual with a high proportion of type
II fast twitch fibers, but would have a greater inherent capacity for
physical endurance. The genetic inheritance of muscle fiber type sets the
outermost boundaries of physical strength possible (barring the use of
enhancing agents such as
), though the unique position within this envelope is
determined by training. Individual muscle fiber ratios can be determined
through a muscle biopsy. Other considerations are the ability to recruit
muscle fibers for a particular activity, joint angles, and the length of
each limb. For a given cross-section, shorter limbs are able to lift more
weight. The ability to gain muscle also varies person to person, based
mainly upon genes dictating the amounts of hormones secreted, but also on
sex, age, health of the person, and adequate nutrients in the diet. A
one-repetition maximum test
is the most accurate way to determine maximum muscular strength.
ability of an organism to exert itself and remain active for a long period
of time, as well as its ability to resist, withstand, recover from, and
have immunity to trauma, wounds, or fatigue. It is usually used in
aerobic or anaerobic exercise
The definition of 'long' varies according to the type of exertion –
minutes for high intensity anaerobic exercise, hours or days for low
intensity aerobic exercise. Training for endurance can have a negative
impact on the ability to exert strength unless an individual also
undertakes resistance training to counteract this effect. When a person is
able to accomplish or withstand a higher amount of effort than their
original capabilities their endurance is increasing which to many
personnel indicates progress. In looking to improve ones endurance they
may slowly increase the amount of repetitions or time spent, if higher
repetitions are taken rapidly muscle strength improves while less
endurance is gained. Increasing endurance has been proven to release
endorphins resulting in a positive mind. The act of gaining endurance
through physical activity
been shown to decrease anxiety, depression, and stress, or any chronic
disease in total. Although a greater endurance can assist the
cardiovascular system it does not imply that any cardiovascular disease
can be guaranteed to improve. "The major metabolic consequences of the
adaptations of muscle to endurance exercise are a slower utilization of
muscle glycogen and blood glucose, a greater reliance on fat oxidation,
and less lactate production during exercise of a given intensity." The
term stamina is sometimes used synonymously and interchangeably with
endurance. In military settings, endurance is considered the ability of a
force to sustain high levels of combat potential relative to its opponent
over the duration of a campaign. Endurance may also refer to an ability to
keep going through a tough situation involving hardship, stress, etc. (see
Sit Up Straight
is the position in which you hold
your body upright against gravity while standing, sitting or lying down.
Good posture involves training your body to stand, walk, sit and lie in
positions where the least strain is placed on supporting muscles and
ligaments during movement or weight-bearing activities.
is the posture that results from certain muscles
tightening up or shortening while others lengthen and become weak which
often occurs as a result of one's daily activities. There are different
factors which can impact on posture and they include occupational
activities and biomechanical factors such as force and repetition. Risk
factors for poor posture also include psychosocial factors such as job
stress and strain. Workers who have higher job stress are more likely to
develop neck and shoulder symptoms.
is known as comfort design,
functional design, and systems, is the practice of designing products,
systems, or processes to take proper account of the interaction between
them and the people who use them.
Human Factors Ergonomics
field has seen some contributions
from numerous disciplines, such as psychology, engineering, biomechanics,
industrial design, physiology, and anthropometry. In essence, it is the
study of designing equipment, devices and processes that fit the human
body and its cognitive abilities. The two terms "human factors" and
"ergonomics" are essentially synonymous.
refers to the measurement of the human individual for the purposes of
understanding human physical variation, in
and in various attempts to correlate physical with
racial and psychological traits. Anthropometry involves the systematic
measurement of the physical properties of the human body, primarily
dimensional descriptors of body size and shape.
is a predictive model of human movement primarily used in
human–computer interaction and ergonomics. This scientific law predicts
that the time required to rapidly move to a target area is a function of
the ratio between the distance to the target and the width of the target.
Fitts's law is used to model the act of pointing, either by physically
touching an object with a hand or finger, or virtually, by pointing to an
object on a computer monitor using a pointing device. Fitts's law has been
shown to apply under a variety of conditions, with many different limbs
(hands, feet, the lower lip, head-mounted sights, eye gaze), manipulanda
(input devices), physical environments (including underwater), and user
populations (young, old, special educational needs, and drugged
is an educational process that develops the
ability to realign posture and to avoid unnecessary muscular and mental
tension. Alexander believed the individual's
inaccurate, resulting in unnecessary muscular tension such as when
standing or sitting with body weight unevenly distributed, holding one's
head incorrectly, walking or running inefficiently, and responding to
stressful stimuli in an exaggerated way. Alexander said that those who
habitually "misused" their muscles could not trust their feelings (sensory
appreciation) when carrying out activities or responding to situations
refers to the "three
natural curves [that] are present in a healthy spine." Looking directly at
the front or back of the body, the 33 vertebrae in the spinal column
should appear completely vertical. From a side view, the cervical (neck)
region of the spine (C1-C7) is bent inward, the thoracic (upper back)
region (T1-T12) bends outward, and the lumbar (lower back) region (L1-L5)
bends inward. The sacrum (tailbone area) (S1-S5 fused) and coccyx (on
average 4 fused) rest between the pelvic bones. A neutral pelvis indicates
the anterior superior iliac spines and pubic symphysis fall in the same
refers to the different
physical configurations that the human body can take. There are several
synonyms that refer to human positioning, often used interchangeably, but
having specific nuances of meaning. Position is a general term for a
configuration of the human body. Posture means an intentionally or
habitually assumed position. Pose implies artistic or aesthetic intention
of the position. Attitude refers to postures assumed for purpose of
imitation, intentional or not, as well as in some standard collocations in
reference to some distinguished types of posture: "Freud never assumed a
fencer's attitude, yet almost all took him for a swordsman." Bearing
refers to the manner of the posture, as well as of gestures and other
aspects of the conduct taking place.
Zami the future of sitting
Ergo Standing Desk
HumbleWorks Standing Desk
Sit or Stand Table
Wooden Standing Desk
My Up Desk
Floor Stand Tablet PCs
Floor Stand for PCs
A-STAND: Transformable Workstation
Stir Kinetic Desk
Sitting to Long
is a form of alternative
medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of unverified
mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal system, especially the spine.
Proponents believe that such disorders affect general health via the
nervous system. The main chiropractic treatment technique involves manual
therapy, especially spinal manipulation therapy (SMT), manipulations of
other joints and soft tissues. Its foundation is at odds with mainstream
medicine, and chiropractic is sustained by pseudoscientific ideas such as
subluxation and "innate intelligence".
is damage to the spinal cord
that causes changes in its function, either temporary or permanent. These
changes translate into loss of muscle function, sensation, or autonomic
function in parts of the body served by the spinal cord below the level of
the lesion. Injuries can occur at any level of the spinal cord and can be
classified as complete injury, a total loss of sensation and muscle
function, or incomplete, meaning some nervous signals are able to travel
past the injured area of the cord. Depending on the location and severity
of damage along the spinal cord, the symptoms can vary widely, from pain
or numbness to paralysis to incontinence. The prognosis also ranges
widely, from full recovery in rare cases to permanent tetraplegia (also
called quadriplegia) in injuries at the level of the neck, and paraplegia
in lower injuries. Complications that can occur in the short and long term
after injury include muscle atrophy, pressure sores, infections, and
respiratory problems. In the majority of cases the damage results from
physical trauma such as car accidents, gunshots, falls, or sports
injuries, but it can also result from nontraumatic causes such as
infection, insufficient blood flow, and tumors. Athletes are especially
susceptible to becoming involved in high collision spinal injuries. Some
of the more common injuries include any type of sprain and strain of the
spinal cord. These injuries can either occur alone, or with another spinal
disease. Dislocations and fractures are also common in spine injuries.
Efforts to prevent SCI include individual measures such as using safety
equipment, societal measures such as safety regulations in sports and
traffic, and improvements to equipment. Known since ancient times to be a
catastrophic injury and long believed to be untreatable, SCI has seen
great improvements in its care since the middle of the 20th century.
Treatment of spinal cord injuries starts with stabilizing the spine and
controlling inflammation to prevent further damage. Other interventions
needed can vary widely depending on the location and extent of the injury,
from bed rest to surgery. In many cases, spinal cord injuries require
substantial, long-term physical and occupational therapy in
rehabilitation, especially if they interfere with activities of daily
living. Research into new treatments for spinal cord injuries includes
stem cell implantation, engineered materials for tissue support, and
. The spine consists of the
, which is a group of nerves that are protected by the
individual vertebrae of the spine. The main function of the spinal cord is
to send signals from the brain to other regions of the body. It is the
main messenger throughout the body.
The Power of Human Touch
involves working and acting on
the body with pressure – structured, unstructured, stationary, or moving –
tension, motion, or vibration, done manually or with mechanical aids.
Massage can be applied with the hands, fingers, elbows, knees, forearm,
feet, or a massage device. Depending on the application and technique
used, massage is used to promote relaxation and well-being, and is
beneficial in treating sports injuries and other problems affecting the
musculature of the body such as postural misalignment and many painful
conditions. In professional settings massage clients are treated while
lying on a massage table, sitting in a massage chair, or lying on a mat on
the floor, while in amateur settings a general purpose surface like a bed
or floor is more common. Aquatic massage and bodywork is performed with
recipients submersed or floating in a warm-water therapy pool.
Massage Therapy 101
Deep Tissue (Rolfing)
delivered as a series of ten hands-on physical manipulation sessions
sometimes called "the recipe". It is based on Rolf's ideas about how the
human body's "energy field" can benefit when aligned with the Earth's
gravitation field. Practitioners combine superficial and deep manual
therapy with movement prompts. The process is sometimes painful.
is the use of
massage techniques by a person on another person's erogenous zones to
achieve or enhance their sexual excitation or
achieve orgasm. Massages have been used for medical purposes for a very
long time, and their use for erotic purposes also has a long history. In
the case of women, the two focal areas are the breasts and pubis, while in
case of men, the focal area is the male genitals. When the massage is of a
partner's genitals, the act is usually referred to as mutual masturbation.
Today, erotic massage is used by some people on occasion as a part of sex,
either as foreplay or as the final Sex
act, or as part of sex therapy. There is also a large commercial erotic
massage industry in some countries and cities.
is an alternative
medicine involving application of pressure to the feet and hands with
specific thumb, finger, and hand techniques without the use of oil or
lotion. It is based on a system of zones and reflex areas that purportedly
reflect an image of the body on the feet and hands, with the premise that
such work effects a physical change to the body.
Stiff Neck Message
is a type of alternative
medicine that emphasizes massage and other physical manipulation of muscle
tissue and bones. "sensitive to" or "responding to".
U-GYM Mini: Digital Muscle Stimulator
is an alternative medicine
technique similar in principle to acupuncture. It is based on the concept
of life energy which flows through "meridians" in the body. In treatment,
physical pressure is applied to acupuncture points with the aim of
clearing blockages in these meridians. Pressure may be applied by hand, by
elbow, or with various devices. Some medical studies have suggested that
acupressure may be effective at helping manage nausea and vomiting, for
helping lower back pain, tension headaches, stomach ache, among other
things, although such studies have been found to have a high likelihood of
bias. Like many alternative medicines, it may benefit from a placebo
YouTube Acupressure Video
is an alternative medicine involving application of pressure to the feet
and hands with specific thumb, finger, and hand techniques without the use
of oil or lotion. It is based on a system of zones and reflex areas that
purportedly reflect an image of the body on the feet and hands, with the
premise that such work effects a physical change to the body.
(image of areas)
Academy of Reflexology
is a form of alternative
medicine in which thin needles are inserted into the body. It is a key
component of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). TCM theory and practice
are not based upon scientific knowledge, and acupuncture is a
pseudoscience. There are a diverse range of acupuncture theories based on
different philosophies, and techniques vary depending on the country. The
method used in TCM is likely the most widespread in the US. It is most
often used for pain relief, though it is also used for a wide range of
other conditions. Acupuncture is generally used only in combination with
other forms of treatment. If you do acupuncture correctly, your body
at the points where the needles are inserted. The nitric
oxide increases blood flow and triggers your body to release natural
More than four hundred acupuncture points have been described
the majority located on one of the main meridians, pathways which run
throughout the body and according to Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)
transport life energy (qi, 氣).
Oriental Chinese Medicine
is a molecular, chemical compound with chemical
formula of ·NO with a short half-life of a few seconds in the blood. Nitric oxide is a
. Nitric oxide is an
important cellular signaling molecule involved in many physiological and
pathological processes. It is a powerful
which results from relaxation of smooth muscle cells
within the vessel walls, in particular in the large veins (called
venodilators), large arteries, and smaller arterioles. The process is the
, which is the narrowing of blood vessels.
is a concept in traditional
Chinese medicine (TCM) about a path through which the
known as "qi
Meridian Tapping Techniques
Meridian Tapping Technique
Emotional Freedom Technique
is a form of
counseling intervention that draws on various theories of alternative
medicine including acupuncture, neuro-linguistic programming, energy
medicine, and Thought Field Therapy (TFT). It is best known through Gary
Craig's EFT Handbook, published in the late 1990s, and related books and
workshops by a variety of teachers. EFT and similar techniques are often
discussed under the umbrella term "energy psychology".
is a type of cosmetic procedure or physical therapy tool which promises to
alter facial contours by means of increasing muscle tone, and facial
volume by promoting muscular hypertrophy, and preventing muscle loss due
to aging or facial paralysis. Facial toning and exercise is therefore in
part a technique to achieve facial rejuvenation by reducing wrinkles,
sagging and expression marks on the face and
. As a physical therapy,
facial toning is used for victims of stroke and forms of facial paralysis
such as Bell’s palsy. Facial toning achieves this by performing facial
muscle exercising. There are two types of facial toning exercises: active
and passive face exercises.
Facial Yoga and Meditation
Lymph Massage Techniques
Lymph Drainage Massage
Health News - Health Resources
Always Ask Questions - Medical Errors
When seeking help
always get a second or third opinion from a professional source
or a very intelligent well trusted friend or family
. There's a lot of fraud
, false medical claims and Doctors
over prescribing medications
. So please do your homework,
especially with medications
Compliance is only expectable after you have done your
. Don't just consult
a physician, you need to ask several experts who have varying degrees of
and be hopeful but don't be
. Not all
Doctors are Honest or Educated, so it's not just about who you can
Remember that experts
make mistakes too. 4 out of 10 doctors
their patients. There's also
and underdiagnosed. And please
. Ask questions and
as much as you can.
Fear of Doctors
is real and life
threatening. And if Doctors don't receive better training and better
education, then these Fears
continue to kill people, and not just from the lack of good training and a
Women Doctors are better then Male Doctors
, it's proven statistically
and from my own personal experience, women doctors are more likely to
consistently follow established medical procedures; other research has
shown that women doctors are more likely to provide preventative care than
male ones, and that they are more likely to prescribe medication
And on top of that, you’re more likely to die in a
hospital under the care of a male doctor than a woman doctor.
Several common Causes for Diagnostic
among clinicians, patients, and their
to doctors about the accuracy of diagnoses.
A culture that discourages
and disclosure of
diagnostic errors, which impedes attempts to learn and improve in the
medical community.Informed Consent
(right to know)
is an approach in which clinicians
and patients communicate together
using the best available
when faced with the task of
. Patients are
supported to deliberate about the possible attributes and consequences of
options, to arrive at informed preferences in making a determination about
the best course of action
respects patient autonomy
well as ethical
Decision Support Center
Structured Clinical Examination
is considering the best available research
bearing on whether and why a
treatment works, (2) clinical expertise (clinical judgment and experience)
to rapidly identify each
patient's unique health state
and diagnosis, their individual risks
and benefits of potential interventions, and (3) client preferences and
values. Evidence-based behavioral practice (EBBP) "entails making
about how to promote
health or provide care by integrating the best available evidence with
practitioner expertise and other resources, and with the characteristics,
state, needs, values and preferences of those who will be affected. This
is done in a manner that is compatible with the environmental and
organizational context. Evidence is research findings derived from the
systematic collection of data through observation and experiment and the
formulation of questions and testing of hypotheses".
Duty of Care
is an approach to making
quality decisions and providing
based upon personal clinical expertise in combination with the
most current, relevant research available on the topic. This approach is
using evidence based practice (EBP) as a foundation. EBN implements the
most up to date methods of providing Care
which have been proven through appraisal of high quality studies and
statistically significant research findings. The goal of EBN is to improve
the health and safety of patients while also providing care in a
cost-effective manner to improve the outcomes for both the patient and the
healthcare system. EBN is a process founded on the collection,
interpretation, appraisal, and integration of valid, clinically
significant, and applicable research. The evidence used to change practice
or make a clinical decision can be separated into seven levels of evidence
that differ in type of study and level of quality. To properly implement
EBN, the knowledge of the nurse, the patient’s preferences, and multiple
studies of evidence must all be collaborated and utilized in order to
produce an appropriate solution to the task at hand. These skills are
taught in modern nursing education and also as a part of professional
Comparative Effectiveness Research
is the direct comparison of existing health care
interventions to determine which work best for which patients and which
pose the greatest benefits and harms. The core question of comparative
is which treatment works best, for whom, and under
Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency
is responsible for
ensuring that medicines and medical devices work and are acceptably safe.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence
in four areas: the use of health technologies within the NHS (such as the
use of new and existing medicines, treatments and procedures); clinical
practice (guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with
specific diseases and conditions); guidance for public sector workers on
and ill-health avoidance; and guidance for social
care services and users. These appraisals are based primarily on
evaluations of efficacy and cost–effectiveness in various circumstances.
(Ottawa Hospital Research Institute)
Shared Decision Making
(Informed Medical Decisions)
refers to the coordination and continuity of health
care during a movement from one healthcare setting to either another or to
home, called care transition, between health care practitioners and
settings as their condition and care needs change during the course of a
chronic or acute illness. Older adults who suffer from a variety of health
conditions often need health care services in different settings to meet
their many needs. For young people the focus is on moving successfully
from child to adult health services. The 12 questions every patient
should ask doctors and nurses.
After admission, ask the names of your primary hospital doctor and the
other specialists who make up your physician team. Your primary hospital
physician will coordinate with the team, and your nurses will assist you
during your stay.2
. Ask your physician:
What is my main diagnosis, and are there any other newly diagnosed issues?
Feel free to express your fears and anxieties about your diagnosis to the
physicians and nursing staff. Don’t let the anxiety build until it becomes
. Ask your nurse or
physician: How are my illnesses responding to treatment? Ask the nursing
staff in particular about how your condition is progressing and how you
can facilitate your recovery. It’s your fundamental right to obtain
information regarding your medical condition. Understanding both your
diagnosis and your treatment plan is a central tenet of the Patient’s Bill
of Rights, which was adopted by the Association of American Physicians and
Surgeons in 1995. According to this document, all patients are entitled
“to be informed about their medical condition, the risks and benefits of
treatment, and appropriate alternatives.”
Number Needed to Treat4
Ask your family, friends, or other trusted individuals to be involved and
help support you in your recovery. Yes, it’s hard to put ourselves in a
situation where we feel like we’re burdening someone or losing our
independence, even for a little while. Understand that these people are an
integral part of your treatment team and contribute to the success of your
Ask to speak with a
hospital social worker if you have questions about insurance and billing
related to your stay. The social worker is there to help clarify what your
insurance covers and how much you may be required to pay. If you need
assistance with payment, discuss the options available to you with the
social worker before you leave as well.6
Ask to see the nurse manager or charge nurse if you’re experiencing
ongoing issues with care or communication about your condition. The person
in this role is responsible for helping patients and easing any
misunderstanding or tensions that may arise during your stay.
. As you approach discharge, ask if you
should continue taking any of the medications (including vitamins and
supplements) you took before you were admitted. This information should be
included in your discharge instructions, but take the time to fully
understand this aspect of your care to avoid potentially disastrous or
even fatal complications later.8.
the staff to show you and your caregivers how to perform any tasks
prescribed for after you’ve left the hospital, especially any treatments
that may require a special skill, such as changing a bandage or giving an
injection. Ask the nurse or physician to remain in your room while you
practice to ensure you’re doing it correctly.9
Ask your nurse or physician if it’s safe to perform ordinary tasks alone,
like bathing, dressing, driving, or exercising. Make sure you’ve arranged
for help with any of these activities before you leave the hospital.
. Ask your nurse or physician if you can
or should use any medical equipment, such as a walker, brace, or health
monitor, to help with your recovery and comfort. If the answer is yes, ask
for assistance in obtaining these items before you leave or shortly after
your return home.11
. At the time of
your discharge, ask the discharge nurse any questions you have about your
discharge information. You should have been provided with printed
discharge instructions. Don’t leave the hospital without obtaining these,
reading them (or having them read to you), and making sure you
understanding all of the information they cover.
. Ask about any follow-up appointments or
additional testing. Take a moment now to record anything that’s already
been scheduled or to schedule necessary appointments in the coming weeks.
is a preventable adverse effect of care,
whether or not it is evident or harmful to the patient. This might include
an inaccurate or incomplete diagnosis or treatment of a disease, injury,
syndrome, behavior, infection, or other ailment. Globally, it is estimated
that 142,000 people died in 2013 from adverse effects of medical
treatment; this is an increase from 94,000 in 1990. However, a 2016 study
of the number of deaths that were a result of medical error in the U.S.
placed the yearly death rate in the U.S. alone at 251,454 deaths, which
suggests that the 2013 global estimation may not be accurate.
is the leading cause of
medical malpractice claims in the US, and is estimated to cause
40,000-80,000 deaths annually. One in every ten diagnoses is wrong and one
in every thousand ambulatory diagnostic encounters result in harm.
are the kind of mistake or medical error that
should never happen in the field of medical treatment.
is the diagnosis of "disease" that will never cause symptoms or death
during a patient's lifetime. Overdiagnosis is a side effect of screening
for early forms of disease. Although screening saves lives in some cases,
in others it may turn people into patients unnecessarily and may lead to
treatments that do no good and perhaps do harm.
Millions of people get tests, drugs, and operations that won’t
make them better
, may cause harm, and cost billions.
30 Percent of all Health Spending — $750 billion — is wasted on fraud
administration and needless procedures.
Mammograms needed is overblown.
As many as five fewer deaths for 1,000 women.
Number Needed to Treat
Medical Malpractice Payout Statistics
Have you been Harmed in a Medical Facility, please Share your
Medical Harm: Patient Perceptions and Follow up Actions
Preventive Services Task Force
Surgical Risk Calculator
Risk Factors in Surgery
Into Health Care To Engage Patients And
or PRO is a method or questionnaire used in a
clinical trial or a clinical setting, where the responses are collected
directly from the patient.
are outcomes from medical care that are
important to patients.
"Knowledge is the Best Medicine
but you need to do your homework to maximize the benefits"
ASA Physical Status Classification System
ASA Physical Status Classification System
Partners In Health
Optum Health Care
and Innovation Center
(ERIC) Vulnerable and Diverse
The Peckham Experiment
Health Media Collaboratory
Nutrition Gap, are Doctors ready think outside the Pillbox
full-service funding healthcare entrepreneurs.
Latif Nasser: the amazing story of the man who gave us modern
(video and text)
Bj Miller: What really matters at the end of life
Empowering people, nurturing community, promoting
health and wellbeing.
to improve the health and health care of all
Awards Program since 1945 has recognized the contributions
of scientists, physicians, and public servants who have made major
advances in the understanding, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of
Hospital-Acquired Conditions Update, Saving Lives and Saving
is an undesirable situation or
condition that affects a patient and that arose during a stay in a
hospital or medical facility.
Interim estimates for 2014 show a sustained 17 percent decline
in hospital-acquired conditions (HACs) since 2010. A cumulative
total of 2.1 million fewer HACs were experienced by hospital
patients over the 4 years (2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014) relative
the number of HACs that would have occurred if rates had
remained steady at the 2010 level. The measured interim rate for
2014 held steady from 2013 at 121
per 1,000 discharges, down from 145 in 2010. We
estimate that nearly 87,000 fewer patients died in the hospital
as a result of the reduction in HACs and that approximately
$19.8 billion in health care costs were saved from 2010 to 2014.
The federal government is penalizing 758 hospitals
higher rates of patient safety incidents, and more than half of
those places had also been fined last year in 2014.
(HAC) Reduction Program
Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
The CDC has reported that urinary tract infections caused by
catheters became slightly more prevalent through 2013
global health organization dedicated to improving the health of
people in the developing world by focusing on serious challenges
like a lack of family planning, HIV and AIDS, barriers to
maternal health, and the greatest threats to children under
five, including malaria, diarrhea, pneumonia and malnutrition.
Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation
health innovation across five platforms—vaccines, drugs,
diagnostics, devices, and system and service innovations.
Surgical never events in the United States
. A total of 9,744
paid malpractice settlement and judgments for surgical never
events occurring between 1990 and 2010. Malpractice payments for
surgical never events totaled $1.3 billion.
Human Factors Analysis
Common Cause Analysis
National Quality Registry Network
Network of institutions and committed individuals whose mission
is to Strengthen Health Systems
Physicians for Human Rights
Oaths of Service
Racial Bias in Health Care
Women's Medicine Differences
Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in
Health Care (with CD) ( 2003 )
Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Emergency Department Analgesic
Total Transparency Manifesto
for Social Responsibility
Who's My DoctorRate your Doctor and Hospital
is a person, or paraprofessional, who
specializes in charting physician-patient encounters in real time, such as
during medical examinations. Depending on which area of practice the
scribe works in, the position may also be called clinical scribe, ER
scribe or ED scribe (in the emergency department), or just scribe (when
the context is implicit). A scribe is trained in health information
management and the use of health information technology to support it. A
scribe can work on-site (at a hospital or clinic) or remotely from a HIPAA-secure
facility. Medical scribes who work at an off-site location are known as
virtual medical scribes and normally work in clinical settings.Health Records
RFID solutions for the pharmaceutical and healthcare industries.
Federation of State Medical Boards
Health Care Systems Four Basic Models
for Medical Education in Europe
Treating Patients in the ER costs, on average, $600 to $1,200 per visit
, compared with
$165 to $262 if the patients were treated in an outpatient
clinic. Last year, the Houston Fire Department logged more than
318,000 incidents, but only thirteen percent of them were actual
Council Against Health FraudQuack Watch
"People are receiving inadequate information, education and
advice on managing their health." Upstreamists
You have a responsibility to
yourself, to maintain a healthy mind and body. To love yourself
this way is to reward yourself for loving life. To love life is
to be willing to spend some time on the
maintenance of life
maintenance that helps increase the quantity and the quality of
life. Maintenance is its own reward. And part of the maintenance
is to keep learning. If you are not increasing your knowledge
and understanding about life, then life becomes vulnerable and
you will not know enough in order to react accurately to the
changes that life throws at you. All life forms perform
maintenance, and maintenance is a small price to pay for life,
it's totally worth the investment.
fewer than 25 percent of physicians believe they have
sufficient training to talk to patients about diet or physical
. Meanwhile, a good number of physicians are overweight
and don't exercise regularly themselves.
is one of the first to teach medical students how to
cook healthful food, with the goal that they'll share that
knowledge with patients.
Health Care Fraud and Abuse
Medicare and Medicaid fraudsters are beating taxpayers out of an
estimated $90 billion a year - $60 billion of it from Medicare -
using a billing scam that is surprisingly easy to execute.
And you wonder why
Health Care Reform
is so important.
are related to Medical Bills from people being
overcharged by greedy hospitals, and on top of that almost 70%
of those people had insurance. So medical fraud is everywhere
and no one is safe.
is the estimated
cost of Health Care in the US in 2013.
Time Magazine Article "Bitter Pill"
Beware of the
Why does surgery costs differ from town to town
Council Against Health Fraud
Why are Doctors allowed to charge
insurance companies for unnecessary tests, and also charge to
give patients unnecessary drugs. But when a patient needs certain
medical care, it's not covered and the patient is forced to pay
out of pocket. WTF? It's like you have to be a criminal in order
to get help, or to be covered. So who's more criminal, the doctors or the
estimates that 90 percent of the drugs work in only 30 to 50
percent of the people. 300 people have to take the drug
statin for a year before one heart attack, stroke or other
adverse event is prevented. And five percent of those 300 have
side effects, that's 15 people. So you're 15 times more likely
to be harmed by the drug than you are to be helped by the drug.
There are other ways to reduce your cholesterol that will not
For the most widely performed surgery on men over the age of 50,
removal of the prostate for cancer, the
Number Needed to Treat
is 49. That means that 49 surgeries
are done for every one person who's helped. And the side effects
in that case occur in 50
percent of the patients. They include impotence, erectile
dysfunction, urinary incontinence, rectal tearing, fecal
incontinence. And if you're lucky, and you're one of the 50
percent who has these, they'll only last for a year or two.
Medicare and Medicaid Services
officials chose to do just 30
financial audits to recover overpayments
each year, even
though the records make clear they could complete many more, up
to 80 audits a year. So only 5 percent of the roughly 600
Medicare Advantage contracts in force would be audited in a
year. But overspending tied to fast-rising risk scores has cost
taxpayers billions of dollars in recent years, as the
for Public Integrity
reported in a series of articles
in 2014, leading to widespread suspicions that some risk scores
are being purposefully inflated. Many of the records released by
CMS are heavily redacted, with dates and the names of their
authors sometimes missing. More than 1,400 pages have been
"withheld in their entirety" by CMS, including names of the
health plans and how much they were overpaid. It's like we have
criminals watching criminals. If we
pay more people to over see and to look for fraud
, we could
save billions. So we can create thousands of jobs that pay
Government Accountability Office Audit: Feds Failed To Rein In Medicare
Private Medicare Advantage plans treating the
elderly have overbilled the government by billions of dollars, but rarely
been forced to repay the money or face other consequences for their
actions, according to a congressional audit.
does not mean better care or better health.
Good health mostly comes from
acquiring valuable knowledge and experience. And Health
Insurance does not guarantee good care because 9 out of 10 Doctors
and Dentists commit insurance fraud by doing unnecessary work. So too many Doctors
victimize their patients by not giving them the best care
that they need, mostly because they are more concerned with how
much money they can bilk the insurance carrier for, and not
paying attention to the persons needs. So
can actually be
bad for you, especially when you don't have a good experienced
and educated Doctor who is also honest, so be very careful.
is a means of protection
financial loss. It is a form of risk
primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent,
you can have is
. Because in order to avoid sickness you have to
do all the things that prevent illness. Insurance does not
prevent illness or injury, in fact, insurance might encourage
illness and injury because people are given a
false sense of security
and thus fail to take the proper
measures that would improve their health, like eating the
. In 2009
there were 48.6 million people in the US (15.7% of the
population) who were without
Health Insurance Coverage
is insurance that covers the whole or a part of the
risk of a person incurring medical expenses, spreading the risk over a
large number of persons. By estimating the overall risk of health care and
health system expenses over the risk pool, an insurer can develop a
routine finance structure, such as a monthly premium or payroll tax, to
provide the money to pay for the health care benefits specified in the
insurance agreement. The benefit is administered by a central organization
such as a government agency, private business, or not-for-profit entity.
According to the Health Insurance Association of America, health insurance
is defined as "coverage that provides for the payments of benefits as a
result of sickness or injury. It includes insurance for losses from
accident, medical expense, disability, or accidental death and
Who Still Doesn't have Health Insurance
describes a situation in which a person does not take
out any third party insurance. The essence of the concept is that a
business that is liable for some risk, such as health costs, chooses to
"carry the risk" itself and not take out insurance through an insurance
Approximately 12 million adults who seek outpatient medical care
Comparing and Rating
Elderly and Insurance
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
Association for Community Affiliated Plans
(ACAP) is a
national trade association representing 60 not-for-profit Safety
Net Health Plans in 24 states. Collectively, ACAP plans serve
more than fifteen million enrollees, representing more than 50
individuals enrolled in Medicaid-focused health plans.
"Insurance is knowing someone who is
intelligent, someone you can trust"
"The purpose of insurance is not just about money, it's about
having a well thought out
"if things don't turn out the way you wanted, you should have a
backup plan, an alternate option, what choices do you have?"
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force say the link between medical
recommendations and insurance coverage leads to financial incentives that
can corrupt the process and distort people's health care decisions
(affordable care act)
Each year, 1 in every 20 Americans racks up
just as much in medical bills as another 19 combined. This critical
of the U.S. population is key
to solving the nation's health care spending crisis. The United States
spends the most on health care per person — $9,237 – according to two new
papers published in the journal The Lancet. The U.K. spends less per
person ($3,749) on health care than the U.S. ($9,237). Despite its high
spending, the U.S. does not have the best health outcomes. Life
expectancy, for example, is 79.1 years in the U.S. and 80.9 years in the
U.K. And while the U.S. spends more on health care
than any country in the world
, it ranks
12th in life expectancy
among the 12 wealthiest industrialized
countries, according to the
Kaiser Family Foundation
, a non-profit organization focusing on health
are a group of the 4 to 6 most important signs that indicate the status of
the body’s vital (life-sustaining) functions. These measurements are taken
to help assess the general physical health of a person, give clues to
possible diseases, and show progress toward recovery. The normal ranges
for a person’s vital signs vary with age, weight, gender, and overall
are quantifiable characteristics of a
population which researchers use as supporting evidence for describing the
health of a population.
is the property of a system in which variables are regulated so that
internal conditions remain stable and relatively constant.
are key molecular or cellular events that link a
specific environmental exposure
health outcome. Biomarkers play an important role in understanding the
relationships between exposure to environmental chemicals, the development
of chronic human diseases, and the
identification of subgroups
that are at increased risk for disease.
Much progress has been made in identifying and validating new biomarkers
that can be used in population-based studies of environmental disease.
Strength and Mortality
Smartphone Medical Apps
- Analyzing Tools
high blood pressure
reading does not necessarily mean that
you have high blood pressure. However, if readings stay at
140/90 mm Hg or above (systolic 140 or above OR diastolic 90 or
above) over time, your doctor will likely want you to begin a
White coat hypertension is a phenomenon in which patients
exhibit a blood pressure level above the normal range, in a clinical
setting, though they don't exhibit it in other settings.
High blood pressure affects 1.13 billion people around the world
blood pressure has dropped sharply in high-income countries, it has risen
in many low and middle-income countries, especially those in Africa and
South Asia. Globally, 597 million men had raised blood pressure, compared
to 529 million women. High blood pressure puts extra strain on the blood
vessels and major organs such as heart, brain and kidneys. It is the
world's leading cause of cardiovascular disease, which leads to stroke
and heart attacks, and is thought to cause 7.5 million deaths a year
across the globe.
Global Disparities of Hypertension Prevalence and Control
Analysis of Population-Based Studies From 90 Countries says 32 percent of
low-income people have high blood pressure, compared with 29 percent in
high-income countries. Long term high blood pressure is a major risk
factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, peripheral
vascular disease, vision loss, and chronic kidney disease.
High Blood Pressure (hypertension)
10 ways to control high blood
pressure without medication.
is a muscular organ in humans and other animals, which
pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system
provides the body with oxygen
, as well as assists in
the removal of metabolic wastes. The heart is located in the middle
compartment of the chest.
is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and
transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon
dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to
provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize
, and maintain
. The study of the blood flow is
. The study of the properties of the blood flow is called
is the branch of medicine concerned with the study,
diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases related to blood.
is a body fluid in humans and other animals that
delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen
to the cells
and transports metabolic waste products away from those same
. Human blood is
, which is
carried in the blood and functions to transport oxygen, is iron-rich and
red in color. Veins, which are sometimes visible through the skin, may
look bluish. It has to do with the way tissue absorbs, scatters and
classification of blood based on the presence and absence of antibodies
and also based on the presence or absence of inherited antigenic
substances on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs). These antigens may be
proteins, carbohydrates, glycoproteins, or glycolipids, depending on the
blood group system. Some of these antigens are also present on the
surface of other types of
of various tissues. Several of these red blood cell surface
antigens can stem from one allele (or an alternative version of a gene)
and collectively form a blood group system. Blood types are inherited and
represent contributions from both parents. A total of 35 human blood group
systems are now recognized by the International Society of Blood
Transfusion (ISBT). The two most important ones are ABO and the RhD
antigen; they determine someone's blood type (A, B, AB and O, with +, − or
Null denoting RhD status). Many pregnant women
carry a fetus with a blood type which is different from their own
which is not a problem. What can matter is whether the baby is RhD
positive or negative. Mothers who are RhD- and carry a RhD+ baby can form
antibodies against fetal RBCs. Sometimes these maternal antibodies are IgG,
a small immunoglobulin, which can cross the placenta and cause hemolysis
of fetal RBCs, which in turn can lead to hemolytic disease of the newborn
called erythroblastosis fetalis, an illness of low fetal blood counts that
ranges from mild to severe. Sometimes this is lethal for the fetus; in
these cases it is called hydrops fetalis.
is a type of epithelium that lines the interior surface of
blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between
circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.
It is a thin layer of simple squamous cells called endothelial cells.
Endothelial cells in direct contact with blood are called vascular
endothelial cells, whereas those in direct contact with lymph are known as
lymphatic endothelial cells. Vascular endothelial cells line the entire
circulatory system, from the heart to the smallest capillaries. These
cells have unique functions in vascular biology. These functions include
fluid filtration, such as in the glomerulus of the kidney, blood vessel
tone, hemostasis, neutrophil recruitment, and hormone trafficking.
Endothelium of the interior surfaces of the heart chambers is called
is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood
sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a needle, or
via fingerprick. Multiple tests for specific blood components (such as a
glucose test or a cholesterol test) are often grouped together into one
test panel called a blood panel or blood work. Blood tests are often used
in health care to determine physiological and biochemical states, such as
disease, mineral content, pharmaceutical drug effectiveness, and organ
function. Typical clinical blood panels include a basic metabolic panel or
a complete blood count. Blood tests are also used in drug tests to detect
drug abuse. In some of the United States, a blood test is required before
Blood Work Sample
also known as hemorrhaging or
, is blood escaping from the
. Bleeding can
occur internally, where blood leaks from blood vessels inside the body, or
externally, either through a natural opening such as the mouth, nose, ear,
urethra, vagina or anus, or through a break in the skin. Hypovolemia is a
massive decrease in blood volume, and death by excessive loss of blood is
referred to as exsanguination. Typically, a healthy person can endure a
loss of 10–15% of the total blood volume without serious medical
difficulties (by comparison, blood donation typically takes 8–10% of the
donor's blood volume). The stopping or controlling of bleeding is called
hemostasis and is an important part of both first aid and surgery.
Vetigel Stops Bleeding
(also known as clotting) is
the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood
clot. It potentially results in hemostasis, the cessation of blood loss
from a damaged vessel, followed by repair. The mechanism of coagulation
involves activation, adhesion, and aggregation of platelets along with
deposition and maturation of fibrin. Disorders of coagulation are disease
states which can result in bleeding (hemorrhage or bruising) or
obstructive clotting (thrombosis).
is a thrombus, colloquially called
a blood clot, is the final product of the blood coagulation step in
hemostasis. There are two components to a thrombus: aggregated platelets
and red blood cells that form a plug, and a mesh of cross-linked fibrin
protein. The substance making up a thrombus is sometimes called cruor. A
thrombus is a healthy response to injury intended to prevent bleeding, but
can be harmful in thrombosis, when clots obstruct blood flow through
healthy blood vessels.
is the process of making an
incision in a vein with a needle. The procedure itself is known as a
venipuncture. A person who performs phlebotomy is called a "phlebotomist",
although doctors, nurses, medical laboratory scientists and others do
portions of phlebotomy procedures in many countries.
Red Blood Cells
are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate organism's
principal means of delivering
(O2) to the body tissues—via blood
flow through the circulatory system. RBCs take up oxygen in the lungs or
gills and release it into tissues while squeezing through the body's
capillaries. Red blood cells are produced by cores of bone marrow in the
heads of long bones in a process known as
White Blood Cells
of the immune system
that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease
and foreign invaders. All white blood cells are produced and derived from
cells in the
known as hematopoietic stem cells.
are found throughout the body, including the blood and
are a type of white blood cell of the lymphocyte subtype. They function in
the humoral immunity component of the adaptive immune system by secreting
is part of the circulatory system
and a vital part of the
, comprising a
network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph (from
Latin, lympha meaning "water") directionally towards the heart.
is generally the process of
receiving blood or blood products into one's circulation intravenously.
Transfusions are used for various medical conditions to replace lost
components of the blood. Early transfusions used whole blood, but modern
medical practice commonly uses only components of the blood, such as red
blood cells, white blood cells, plasma, clotting factors, and platelets.
At Home Dialysis Machine
- Heart Attack
Symptoms and Warning Signs of a Heart Attack
Heart Attack Quiz
Heart Works 3D Video
Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy
Foundation)American Heart Association
Cardiovascular Diseases killed 17.5 million People in 2012
The incidence of
coronary heart disease
in the U.S. declined nearly 20 percent from
1983 to 2011, mostly because people are
Unhealthy diets linked to more than 400,000 cardiovascular deaths
is a group of diseases that affect the heart muscle. Early on there may be
few or no symptoms. Others may have shortness of breath, feel tired, or
have swelling of the legs due to heart failure. An irregular heart beat
may occur as well as fainting. Those affected are at an increased risk of
sudden cardiac death.
Heart Disease Symptoms
CausesThe Food you Eat can Kill you
Heart failure afflicts 5.7
million Americans, costs the country $30.7 billion every year
Scientists create Heart Cells better, faster and stronger
that in humans is encoded by the GATA4 gene.
also known as MADS box transcription enhancer factor 2, polypeptide C is a
protein that in humans is encoded by
the MEF2C gene. MEF2C is a
transcription factor in the Mef2 family.
is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TBX5 gene.
are the noises generated by the beating heart
and the resultant flow of blood through it. Specifically, the sounds
reflect the turbulence created when the heart valves snap shut. In cardiac
auscultation, an examiner may use a stethoscope to listen for these unique
and distinct sounds that provide important auditory data regarding the
condition of the heart.
is an acoustic medical device for auscultation, or listening to
the internal sounds of an animal or human body. It typically has a small
disc-shaped resonator that is placed against the chest, and two tubes
connected to earpieces. It is often used to listen to lung and heart
sounds. It is also used to listen to intestines and blood flow in arteries
and veins. In combination with a sphygmomanometer, it is commonly used for
measurements of blood pressure. Less commonly, "mechanic's stethoscopes"
are used to listen to internal sounds made by machines, such as diagnosing
a malfunctioning automobile engine by listening to the sounds of its
internal parts. Stethoscopes can also be used to check scientific vacuum
chambers for leaks, and for various other small-scale acoustic monitoring
tasks. A stethoscope that intensifies auscultatory sounds is called
is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of
the heart per minute (bpm). The heart rate can vary according to the
body's physical needs
, including the need to absorb oxygen and excrete
. It is usually equal or close to the pulse measured at any
peripheral point. Activities that can provoke change include
, sleep, anxiety, stress, illness, and ingestion of drugs.
Heart Rate Variability
is the physiological phenomenon of
variation in the time interval between heartbeats. It is measured by the
variation in the beat-to-beat interval.
is the process of recording the electrical
activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the
skin. These electrodes detect the tiny electrical changes on the skin that
arise from the heart muscle's electrophysiologic pattern of depolarizing
and repolarizing during each heartbeat. It is a very commonly performed
cardiology test. In a conventional 12-lead ECG, 10 electrodes are placed
on the patient's limbs and on the surface of the chest. The overall
magnitude of the heart's electrical potential is then measured from 12
different angles ("leads") and is recorded over a period of time (usually
10 seconds). In this way, the overall magnitude and direction of the
heart's electrical depolarization is captured at each moment throughout
the cardiac cycle. The graph of voltage versus time produced by this
noninvasive medical procedure is referred to as an electrocardiogram.
During each heartbeat, a healthy heart has an orderly progression of
depolarization that starts with pacemaker cells in the sinoatrial node,
spreads out through the atrium, passes through the atrioventricular node
down into the bundle of His and into the Purkinje fibers, spreading down
and to the left throughout the ventricles. This orderly pattern of
depolarization gives rise to the characteristic ECG tracing. To the
trained clinician, an ECG conveys a large amount of information about the
structure of the heart and the function of its electrical conduction
system. Among other things, an ECG can be used to measure the rate and
rhythm of heartbeats, the size and position of the heart chambers, the
presence of any damage to the heart's muscle cells or conduction system,
the effects of cardiac drugs, and the function of implanted pacemakers.
represents the tactile arterial palpation of the
heartbeat by trained fingertips.
when the heart quivers instead of pumps due to disorganized electrical
activity in the ventricles. It results in cardiac arrest with loss of
consciousness and no pulse. This is followed by irreversible death without
treatment. Ventricular fibrillation is found initially in about 10% of
people in cardiac arrest.
Cardiac Arrhythmia Irregular Heartbeat
the heartbeat is
irregular, too fast, or too slow. A heart rate that is too fast – above
100 beats per minute in adults – is called
and a heart rate that is too slow – below 60 beats per
minute – is called
is a perceived abnormality of the heartbeat
characterized by awareness of heart muscle contractions in the chest: hard
beats, fast beats, irregular beats, and/or pauses.
are heart sounds produced when blood flows across one
of the heart valves that is loud enough to be heard with a stethoscope.
Types of murmurs are due to structural defects in the heart itself.
Heart Rate Monitors for Home
Researchers develop ‘living diode’ using cardiac muscle cells
cardiac muscle cells and cardiac fibroblasts – cells found in connective
heart tissue – researchers at the
University of Notre Dame
have created a “living diode,” which can be
used for cell-based information processing.
is a genetic disorder of the connective tissue. The
degree to which people are affected varies. People with Marfan tend to
be tall, and thin, with long arms, legs, fingers and toes. They also
typically have flexible joints and scoliosis. The most serious
complications involve the heart and aorta with an increased risk of mitral
valve prolapse and aortic aneurysm. Other commonly affected areas include
the lungs, eyes, bones and the covering of the spinal cord.
The Heart-Brain Connection
A new way to heal hearts without surgery: Franz Freudenthal
Breathalyzer can diagnose 17 different diseases
via Pattern Analysis
of Exhaled Molecules
Through Breath Prof. Hossam Haick Technion
Na-Nose: A Nanoscale Artificial Nose to Detect Specific Medical Conditions
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath, sweat or urine carry
much information on the state of human health. Volatile Biomarkers.
is a term referring to the fraction of
-saturated hemoglobin relative to total hemoglobin (unsaturated +
saturated) in the blood. The human body requires and regulates a very
precise and specific balance of oxygen in the blood. Normal blood oxygen
levels in humans are considered 95-100 percent. If the level is below 90
percent, it is considered low resulting in
. Blood oxygen levels
below 80 percent may compromise organ function, such as the brain and
heart, and should be promptly addressed. Continued low oxygen levels may
lead to respiratory or cardiac arrest. Oxygen therapy may be used to
assist in raising blood oxygen levels. Oxygenation occurs when oxygen
molecules (O2) enter the tissues of the body. For example, blood is
oxygenated in the lungs, where oxygen molecules travel from the air and
into the blood. Oxygenation is commonly used to refer to medical oxygen
Oxygen Saturation Monitoring by
Pulse Oximetry. Normal oxygen saturation values are 97% to 99%
in the healthy individual.
is a noninvasive method for monitoring a person's oxygen saturation (SO2).
Its reading of SpO2 (peripheral oxygen saturation) is not always
identical to the reading of SaO2 (arterial oxygen saturation) from
arterial blood gas analysis, but the two are correlated well enough that
the safe, convenient, noninvasive, inexpensive pulse oximetry method is
valuable for measuring oxygen saturation in clinical use. In its most
common (transmissive) application mode, a sensor device is placed on a
thin part of the patient's body, usually a fingertip or earlobe, or in the
case of an infant, across a foot. The device passes two wavelengths of
light through the body part to a photodetector. It measures the changing
absorbance at each of the wavelengths, allowing it to determine the
absorbances due to the pulsing arterial blood alone, excluding venous
blood, skin, bone, muscle, fat, and (in most cases) nail polish.
Reflectance pulse oximetry may be used as an alternative to transmissive
pulse oximetery described above. This method does not require a thin
section of the person's body and is therefore well suited to a universal
application such as the feet, forehead, and chest, but it also has some
limitations. Vasodilation and pooling of venous blood in the head due to
compromised venous return to the heart, as occurs with congenital cyanotic
heart disease patients, or in patients in the Trendelenburg position, can
cause a combination of arterial and venous pulsations in the forehead
region and lead to spurious SpO2 results.
Physiologic Status Monitoring via the Gastrointestinal Tract
Physiologic Status Monitoring via the Gastrointestinal Tract
Syncope: Review of Monitoring Modalities
is the short loss of consciousness and muscle
Health Home Test
is around 37C (98.6F), although it depends
on: The person, Their age, What they've been doing, the time of day, and which part of the body you take the
temperature from. It is generally accepted that
ranges between 36.1C (97F) to 37.2C (99F).
The Human Body
is a measurement of relative weight based
on an individual's mass and height.
is defined as a body
mass index, or BMI, of 25 to 29.9, which is about ten to 30 pounds
overweight depending on your height. Obese is defined as anyone with a BMI
of 30 or above.
Underweight = <18.5
Normal weight = 18.5–24.9
Overweight = 25–29.9
Obesity = BMI of 30 or greater
Examination VisitsBody Burden Test Analysis
factors that influence Inner Age:
Brainwaves could be the next Health Vital Sign
Health Status Calculators
Calculate Body Health
22 Senior Health Risk Calculators for Healthy Aging
Risk of Developing Chronic Diseases
Smartphone Health Monitoring Technology Tools
is the level of functional and metabolic efficiency of a living organism.
In humans it is the ability of individuals or communities to adapt and
physical, mental or social challenges.
means a healthy balance
of the mind,
body and spirit that results in an overall feeling of well-being.
Wellness Study in the Workplace
Integrative Healing Center
healing program for body, mind, and spirit,
which combines conventional medicine along with alternative forms of
healing to allow for complete restoration of the human body that is
naturally designed to heal itself when given the proper balance of
nutrition, sunlight, rest and relaxation, and detoxification.
is the level of functional and metabolic efficiency
of a living organism. In humans it is the ability of individuals or
communities to adapt and self-manage when facing physical, mental or
means the individual or group's condition is
positive, while low well-being is associated with negative happenings.
is any workplace health promotion
activity or organizational policy designed to support healthy behavior in
the workplace and to improve health outcomes.
Wellness Alternative Medicine
a healthy balance of the mind,
body and spirit that results in an overall feeling of well-being.
encompasses nutrition, physical fitness and the avoidance of unhealthy
habits like smoking, drinking too much and doing drugs.
Universal access to physical activity could save billions in
Intellectual wellness -
dimension refers to the amount of information and knowledge
you take in, and the amount of creative, analytical thinking you
put out. Learning, problem solving and mental productivity are
important aspects of intellectual wellness.
Emotional wellness - Spiritual
pertains to how
well you are aware of, accepting of and able to deal with your
feelings. Relationships, stress, self-esteem and life outlook
are all factors that play into emotional wellness. It can make
you feel more resilient.
involves health-promoting medical practices like medical
check-ups, preventative healthcare and medical health
relates to your level of environmental consciousness.
Remember that every cell in your body was created by elements
from the environment through the food you eat, what you drink
and breathe. Your well-being is intertwined with the well-being
of the environment.
has to do with how you see your
place in the world and in society, and how well you adjust to
your personal role in society.
the importance of a positive attitude towards work, and a rewarding and
enriching career path.
Create a Wellness Program
Health Research Institute
understands the basis of wellness
and the dysfunctions of the body and mind that result in