Self-Directed Learning - Independent Learning
Mastering the Power of Learning
First you Learn to Learn
. Second, you
learn everything valuable
increase your knowledge
and understanding of yourself and the world around
you. Third, you never stop
, if you do, you will underutilize
the most power machine on
the planet, the human brain
"To Teach Yourself is to Free
is a method of learning
in which students are
involved in the learning process
and where there are
different levels of active learning
, depending on student involvement.
Human Search Engine
is the "ongoing, voluntary
, and self-motivated
pursuit of knowledge
for either personal or
professional reasons. Therefore, it not only enhances social inclusion,
, and personal development, but also
, as well as
Do it Yourself
- DIY Biology
approach seeks to spark curiosity
and create a self-directed learning
experience that teaches the student how to seek answers
on their own
versus becoming dependent on a teacher.
Learning for Life
designed to prepare
for the complexities of contemporary society and to enhance
their self-confidence, motivation
, and for careers.
Learning for Life
Become a Lifelong Learner
Becoming a Learner for Life
Live, Learn, Love and Progress
is when individual learners construct
order to understand the world around them. Constructionism advocates
student-centered, discovery learning
where students use
already know to acquire more knowledge
. Students learn through
participation in project-based learning
where they make connections
between different ideas and areas of knowledge facilitated by the teacher
through coaching rather than using lectures or step-by-step guidance.
Further, constructionism holds that learning can happen most effectively
when people are active in making tangible objects in the real world. In
this sense, constructionism is connected with experiential learning and
builds on Jean Piaget's epistemological theory of constructivism.
refers to learning that is guided by
metacognition (thinking about
), strategic action (planning, monitoring, and
evaluating personal progress against a standard), and motivation to learn.
"Self-regulated" describes a process of taking control
one's own learning and behavior
Self Directed Learning
is the ability to reflect on an action so as to engage in a
process of continuous learning
. According to one definition it involves
"paying critical attention to the practical values and theories which
inform everyday actions, by examining practice reflectively and
reflexively. This leads to developmental insight". A key rationale for
reflective practice is that
alone does not necessarily lead to
learning; deliberate reflection on experience is essential.
is the act
or process of deriving logical conclusions from premises known or assumed
to be true. The laws of valid
inference are studied in the field of
is the act of learning about a subject or subjects in
which one has had little to no formal education. Many notable
contributions have been made by autodidacts. "everyone starts out as a
Self Made Scholar
Art of Self Education
be a process that facilitates learning, and the acquisition of knowledge,
skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
Purpose of Education
is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of
different subject areas; such a person is known to draw on complex bodies
of knowledge to solve specific problems.
is an educational and psychological term referring
to the ability and preference of a person, particularly one of strong
intellectual or artistic curiosity, to excel in
two or more different
An Independent Learner is a
student who is
and pursues information related to personal interests.
An Independent Learner appreciates literature and
Other Creative Expressions of
and strives for excellence in
information seeking and knowledge generation.
A Master of Independent Learning is an expert analyzer
with a passion and a desire to acquire
so that learning and understanding continues
to thrive for as long as human life exists.
Teaching yourself, being self-taught and self-educated
is not just an option, it is absolutely necessary.
Words that Describe Learning
is a sense of concern. Curiosity about someone or something. A
reason for wanting something done. Having or showing interest; especially curiosity or fascination
or concern. Excite the curiosity of; engage the interest of.
Be of importance or consequence.
is a feeling or emotion that causes
attention to focus
on an object,
event, or process. In contemporary psychology of interest, the term is
used as a general concept that may encompass other more specific
psychological terms, such as curiosity and to a much lesser degree
is to have a wish or
desire to know
state in which you want to learn more about something. Place in doubt or
express doubtful speculation.
(methods and styles)
is to determine the existence, presence, or fact of. Get
to know or become aware of, sometimes accidentally. Make a discovery, make
a new finding. Make a discovery
. Find unexpectedly. Make known to the
that was previously known only to a few people or that
was meant to be kept a secret. See for the first time.
is the act of
detecting something new
or something "old" that had been unrecognized as meaningful.
Searching for Ideas
(innovation) - Creativity
is diligent and
thorough in inquiry
. Having keenness
and forcefulness and penetration in
, expression, or intellect. Exploring thoroughly. Try to locate
or discover, or try to establish the existence of.
is the act of searching for the
of discovery of
A Mans Reach should Exceed his Grasp, for what is
Sometimes you have to go beyond what you see and what
is known. Nothing ventured, nothing gained. A
sometimes necessary. Dammed if you do, Dammed if you don't. But wait, if
you succeed or fail, what will you learn? What is your goal? Will you be
able to except the
? Will you be able to handle the
? Is this your fate, or
just a bad decision? Either way, what
do you have? Will there be another time? Will you have another
is to express recognition of the presence
or existence of.
. A short
is coming to
and distinctly. An acceptance (as of a claim) as true
is to be fully
of. Perceive (an idea
or situation) mentally. Make real or concrete; give
or substance to. Realization is Coming to understand something
clearly and distinctly.
Openness to ExperienceMotivation
is a state in which you want to
something. Eager to
and learn or learn more. (sometimes about others' concerns). Having curiosity
eagerly interested in learning more.
Homo Quaerens is Latin for "human
The drive to learn, to
, to explore, and to study
continuously. The sudden awareness of what you don’t know and
the immediate desire to fill that gap. The brain continuously
calculates which path or action is most likely to gain us the
most knowledge in the least amount of time. Curiosity peaks when
subjects had a good guess about what the answer is but weren’t
sometimes be like you're trying to solve a mystery by following
all the clues."
Intelligent Adaptive Curiosity
to be Alert
and energetic. Cause to
become awake or conscious
is to think strongly
about something, having something on the mind of. Something that interests you because it is
important or affects you.
A feeling of sympathy for someone or something.
is having or showing determination and energetic pursuit of your
ends. Sometimes you have to be aggressive when learning, because some
things will not come easy, especially knowledge and information
that you need. People will try to keep it from you. But if you
are determined, it will be almost impossible to stop you.
Because that is life, and life cannot be stopped. Even through
all the mass extinctions, life has always found a way.
is having a strong desire for success or achievement. Requiring
full use of your abilities
or resources. Aspirational.
is determination in doing something despite
or delay in
continuous and connected period of time. The act of persisting or
persevering; continuing or repeating
is devoting full strength and
motivated to succeed. Shape or influence; give direction to.
The quality of being determined to do or achieve something;
firmness of purpose.
Deciding or controlling something's outcome or nature. The act
of making up your mind about something.
Find out, learn, or determine with certainty, usually by
or other effort.
is the act of binding yourself
(intellectually or emotionally) to a course of action. Faithful.Energetic
is working hard, enterprising or ambitious drive. A healthy
capacity for vigorous activity. Possessing or exerting or
is having or showing keen interest or intense desire or impatient
expectancy. A positive feeling of wanting to push ahead with
something. Prompt willingness
is to carry out or participate in an activity; be involved in.
is to consider in detail and subject to an analysis in order
to discover essential features or meaning. The act of conducting
a controlled test or investigation. Observe, check out, and look
over carefully or inspect.
or examine thoroughly and
Mull it over: meaning to think
about; to consider; to ruminate about; reflect deeply on a
Methods of obtaining Knowledge
is the work of inquiring into something thoroughly and
systematically. Conduct an inquiry or investigation of.
or examine thoroughly and
closely. An exploratory action or expedition. Science
is an unexpected discovery. Finding something interesting while
looking for something else.
is a systematic
investigation to establish facts. Attempt to find out in a systematically
and scientific manner.Research
is produced or marked by conscious design or premeditation.
Consider in detail and subject to an analysis in order to
discover essential features or meaning. Give careful
consideration to. Be a student of a certain subject. Learn by
Think intently and at length, as for spiritual purposes.
Self Organized Learning Environment
Extract Your Own Meaning
reason by deduction
, or construe, which is
to make sense of; assign a meaning
philosophical viewpoint which holds that positions regarding
should be formed on the
basis of logic
, rather than
, revelation, or other
. The cognitive application of
freethought is known as "freethinking", and practitioners of freethought
are known as "freethinkers".
Beatles - Think For Yourself
to gain knowledge or skills, gain through
. Get to know
or become aware of, sometimes accidentally.
Commit to memory
; learn by heart. Be a student of a certain
subject. Impart skills or knowledge to
Find out, learn, or determine with certainty, usually by making
an inquiry or other effort.
Personal Learning Network
is an informal
consists of the people a learner interacts with and derives knowledge from
in a personal learning environment. In a PLN, a person makes a connection
with another person with the specific intent that some type of learning
will occur because of that connection.
, or learning in a school, is just one type of
. It would be
dangerous and ignorant to call self-directed learning "Informal
". When you define the "Education
", and define what being a Trained Teacher is
supposed to be, you will discover that any style of learning is
no different then any other style of learning as long as you
learn in the way that you like, and not in a way that someone
else likes. Social Learning
It would be ignorant to say that self-directed learning is
voluntary. That's like saying that eating is voluntary, you
don't have to eat, but if you don't eat you die. You don't have
to learn, but if you don't learn you die. And just because
something is labeled non-voluntary or
, does not say why it is important or why you need
this more then other knowledge. The sooner you learn to
learn on your own
, the better
your life will be.
"There are many things that seem to big and
complex to figure out, but that's how they all start."
Self Directed Learning
is to explain
something after a
, survey, or study. Find out, learn, or determine
with certainty, usually by making an
effort. Shape or influence; give direction to. Reach, make, or
come to a decision
The act of determining the properties of something, usually by
research or calculation.
is to think about carefully; weigh.
the pros and cons of an
Self-Organized Learning Environment
is to look at thoughtfully; observe deep in thought. Consider as a
possibility. Reflect deeply on a subject.
"Sometimes we learn more by
looking for an answer to a question than we
do from learning the answer itself."
"Everyone is born with an
, but our lives get
complicated and there are many distractions, so we lose our
natural instinct to explore. So we have to manually activate our
love for exploring, which isn't bad, we just have to remember to
do it once a day. We need to look at life as free as a new born
baby. If your not exploring what's
important and valuable
things that you can learn from, then exploring becomes
is to make something new
such as a product or a mental or artistic creation. Gain through
experience. Become technologically advanced. Change the use of and make
available or usable. Create by training and teaching. Grow, progress,
unfold, or evolve through a process of evolution, natural growth,
differentiation, or a conducive environment. Cause to grow and
differentiate in ways conforming to its natural development. Grow
emotionally or mature. Move one's pieces into strategically more
is to prove something to be useful
or correct. Tested and proved to be
reliable, tried and true, well-tried.
Put to the test, as for its quality, or give experimental use to.
Examine someone's knowledge of something.
Determine the presence or properties of (a substance).
Testing Mistakes to Avoid
is doing something successfully
; using knowledge as distinguished
from merely possessing it. Process or manner of functioning or operating.
is a process in which something passes by degrees to a different
stage (especially a more advanced or mature stage).
is having possibilities. The inherent capacity for coming into
being or happening or being true.
A tentative insight into the natural world; a concept that is
not yet verified but that if true would explain certain
Condition of Possibility
is framework for the possible
appearance of a given list of entities.
"Learning should just flow
dams, no restrictions, just discovering where learning and knowledge
will take us."
Learning at Birth
Do It Yourself
Navigating the Internet
Methods for Learning
Home Organized Education
Don't ever assume that everyone knows what the word "Hacker
means. The definition of Hacker has been hacked itself. When I hear the
work Hacker, I'm thinking that some person has some computer hardware and
software skills, but how much knowledge they have is unknown. So the word
Hacker really describes very little about a person, it only says they have
some computer skills, and that's it. Just because someone taught
themselves how to work on their own car doesn't mean that they're a
Hacker. A computer programmer with a college degree isn't a Hacker. And
anyone who self-taught themselves to the same level of knowledge is also
not a Hacker. We should stop using the word Hacker when describing a
person who is "A Self-Taught Learner." Let's just say that someone is
learning, or self-teaching, or exploring, or researching, or computer
programing. Instead of using the term 'Hacker Space', we should call it
or "Science Space" or
. Your Personal Space to
Explore your Ideas, a Space to Build your Inventions, a Space to Learn and Discover.
A place that supply's the Tools and the Resources for Creative Minds.
is a person who enjoys exploring the limits of what is possible, in
a spirit of playful cleverness.
A hacker is one who enjoys the intellectual challenge of
. Someone who likes overcoming and circumventing
, and tries to extend their
A hacker is not just about
, even though computers
are one of our most important tools that we have, it is still
just one of many tools
that people can use. Repurpose
is someone who seeks to breach defenses and exploit
weaknesses in a computer system or network. Hackers may be motivated by a
multitude of reasons, such as profit, protest, challenge, recreation, or
to evaluate system weaknesses to assist in formulating defenses against
potential hackers. The subculture that has evolved around hackers is often
referred to as the computer underground. Note:
I'm more worried about the Human Brain
that goes on from the media and schools, that kind of hacking
does more damage then anything else. People who hack computers actually
shows the irony of our reality. So you have to ask yourself, how much of
your mind has been hacked? Do you know how to scan the human mind for
are individuals who enjoy the intellectual challenge
of creatively overcoming limitations of software systems to achieve novel
and clever outcomes.
is a person
who is interested in a subject or an activity in their
spare time, something other than their main occupation.
refers to temporary repairs made with only the tools and materials that
happen to be on hand.
Deal With a Bad Repair
is a community-operated workspace where people
with common interests, often in computers, machining, technology, science,
digital art or electronic art, can meet, socialize and collaborate. Cooperate
and not Compete
of Hacker Spaces
Do it Yourself
is the processes of extracting knowledge or design information from
anything man-made and re-producing it or re-producing anything based on
the extracted information. The process often involves disassembling
something (a mechanical device, electronic component, computer program, or
biological, chemical, or organic matter) and analyzing its components and
workings in detail.
is a place where your voice and your ideas can be heard.
A learning environment
environment. A community
An interactive library.
A collaboration space. A collection of unique and diverse
individuals who like exploring knowledge, solving problems,
researching ideas, and expressing themselves creatively. A place
where a person can share and have access to tools,
Electronic Test Equipment
, knowledge, books, ideas, skills,
materials and resources. A place where a person can learn about
the power of
by using the talents and skills
of other people collectively to solve problems and create new advances in
technology. A place where you can have your own project area
with a large
When you combine the talent and skills of many people, you
create more potential. When you have an idea that you can
quickly get feedback and insight on, you don't have to waste
time wondering about the possibilities. We don't want to judge
other peoples ideas until we learn and understand what they want
innovates on software and hardware projects.
Science Tools and
MIT Media Lab
24 research groups on more than 350 projects that range from
digital approaches for treating neurological disorders, to a
stackable, electric car for sustainable cities. Annual operating
budget: approx. $60 million.
is a community where you can learn how to investigate
environmental concerns. Using inexpensive DIY techniques, we
seek to change how people see the world in environmental,
social, and political terms.
The Silicon Valley of Hardware (Full Documentary) | Future
Cities | WIRED
for Inventors and Makers
Original Equipment Manufacturer
is a company that makes a
part or subsystem that is used in another company's end product.
For example, if Acme Manufacturing Co. makes power cords that
are used on IBM computers, Acme is an OEM.
This Scientist makes Ears out of Apples: Biohacker Andrew
(video and Interactive Text)
is not a rule, it's what we have witnessed and
documented as being the
amount of time that it takes for
the average person to become really good at something, like
playing the piano or playing sports at a professional level.
Everyone starts as a Novice or a beginner, then it's up to you
if you want to be an Expert
. You may need help from
Whether the proficiency
is relevant or not relevant, proficiency
levels will vary from person to person. It's not so much the
quantity of time
that you spend
, but more importantly, it's the quality of the time
that you spend
There are also other factors involved in determining proficiency
levels, like physical or mental limitations, good teaching
, access to valuable knowledge, information and tools,
having a good memory
, and having the time and the
. Practicing right
before you go to sleep
, and learning one hour
before you go to Sleep could help improve memory and learning new skills. You can become really
good at something, but if you stop practicing for a while, your
proficiency level will decrease and you will not become great.
You should also determine the value of your proficiency, like
being a surgeon compared to being a professional sports player.
The bottom line is, it could take a long time to become really
good at something, and if time is all you have, then you should
spend your time
effectively and efficiently as possible, and learn the most
important things first. Practice makes perfect, but not always,
for chess players, practice only accounted for 34% of what
determined the rank of a
If you practice 2 hours a day, that's 730 hours a year, it will
take about 13 years to master a skill.
If you practice 4 hours a day, that's 1,460 hours a year, it
will take about 7 years to master a skill.
If you practice 6 hours a day, that's 2,190 hours a year, it
will take about 4.5 years to master a skill, on
Table Tennis Every Day for a Year and goes from beginner to
expert in just one year
Expert in a Year
How to get better at the things you care about: Eduardo Briceño
and interactive text)
Accelerated Learning: How To Get Good at Anything in 20 Hours
, or developing in oneself or others,
any skills and
that relate to specific useful
. Training has specific
goals of improving one's capability, capacity,
Practice (learning method)
is the act of
a behavior over and
over, or engaging in an activity again
, for the purpose of improving or mastering it, as in the
phrase "practice makes perfect". Sports teams practice to prepare for
actual games. Playing a musical instrument
well takes a lot of practice.
It is a method of learning and of acquiring experience.
is the process
of learning a new or the same old
skill or trade
for the same group of personnel. Refresher/Re-training is required to be
provided on regular basis to avoid personnel obsolescence due to
technological changes & the tendency to forget. This short term
instruction course shall serve to re-acquaint personnel with skills
previously learnt (recall to retain the potentials) or to bring one's
knowledge or skills up-to-date (latest) so that skills stay sharp.
is a principle of efficient learning, which
claims the need to actively stimulate memory during the learning process.
It contrasts with passive review, in which the learning material is
processed passively (e.g. by reading, watching, etc.).
is a learning technique that incorporates
increasing intervals of time between subsequent review of previously
learned material in order to exploit the psychological
. Alternative names
include spaced rehearsal, expanding rehearsal, graduated intervals,
repetition spacing, repetition scheduling, spaced retrieval and expanded
is the finding that long-term memory is
increased when some of the learning period is devoted to retrieving the
to-be-remembered information through testing with proper feedback. The
effect is also sometimes referred to as retrieval practice, practice
testing, or test-enhanced learning.
is distinguished into two specific
processes, synaptic consolidation, which is synonymous with late-phase
long-term potentiation and occurs within the first few hours after
learning, and systems consolidation, where hippocampus-dependent
become independent of the hippocampus
over a period of weeks to years. Recently, a third process has become the
focus of research, reconsolidation, in which previously-consolidated
memories can be made labile again through reactivation of the memory
is the means by which memories are stored as
biophysical or biochemical changes in the brain (and other neural tissue)
in response to external stimuli.
- "Neurons that fire together, wire together."
"Practice makes Perfect"
is learning to carry out a task with pre-determined results
often within a given amount of time, energy, or both.
skills that are part of a larger skill.
is defined as the process of bringing
together the component subsystems into one system and ensuring that the
subsystems function together as a
or skill in a subject or accomplishment.
Control or superiority over someone or something.
don't have to be great in order to get started, but you have to get
started if you want to be great."
is hierarchically above the
and below the Doctorate.
refers to the confirmation of certain
characteristics of an object, person, or organization. This confirmation
is often, but not always, provided by some form of external review,
education, assessment, or audit. Accreditation is a specific
organization's process of certification.
is the process in which certification of
competency, authority, or credibility is presented.
refers to that permission as well as to the document
recording that permission.
can refer to an individual or firm that is
recognized as an authority in a specialized field and whose
expertise is sought and often rewarded.
Not Always an Expert
20 Minutes Per Day Rule
Even spending just 20 minutes a day doing something valuable can
still add up.
minutes a day exercising, 20 minutes a day reading, 20 minutes a
day making phone calls, 20 minutes a day researching,
20 minutes a day meditating, 20 minutes a day organizing, 20
minutes a day learning something new, and so on.
Unicycle in 2 Hours and 38 minutes
The speed at which you learn is based on
that are related to a new skill that you
are trying to learn. The more abilities you have that are
related to a new skill that you are trying to learn, the faster
you will learn. Learning some of the basic skills of a
particular process, will also help you learn faster. You
shouldn't have to rush learning, and you shouldn't have to
struggle trying to learn something new. Learning is a process
that every human is born with, but if you don't learn to
understand the process of learning, starting with knowing the
How, What, Where, When and Why you are learning, is the first
If you practice a slightly modified version of a task that you
want to master, then it's possible to learn more and faster than
if you just keep practicing the exact same thing multiple times
in a row. Make small variations in practice sessions.
is the act of
repeating a process
, either to
generate an unbounded sequence of outcomes, or with the aim of approaching
a desired goal, target or result. Each repetition of the process is also
called an "iteration", and the results of one iteration are used as the
starting point for the next iteration.
Logically Ordered Steps in the Correct Sequence
Sometimes it takes me months and years to learn things that
should only take few hours or minutes. That is why I teach, to
save people time, which leaves more time for people to enjoy
life much more then I did, and I enjoyed a lot, even with all
that wasted time it took for me to learn important lessons.
The average student spends around
Hours in School
. And they end up not being experts of
anything, why is that?
How Skill Expertise Shapes the Brain Functional Architecture:
An FMRI Study of Visuo-Spatial and Motor Processing in
Professional Racing-Car and Naïve Drivers.
Mental Function might actually be Enhanced in Winter
is a study of cognitive performance in summer and
winter at 69°N.
How many hours a day do you have to
spend reading in order to become a Doctor in 6 years?
It's estimated that a student would need to read 4 hours a day
(book study) and take another 4 hours a day of class time, hands
on instructions and laboratory work. About 40 hours per week.
First you have to start out with a good High school Education.
Then take a 2-4-year undergraduate degree program. The take the
Medical College Admission Test
(MCAT), which is a
computer-based standardized examination for prospective medical
students in the United States, Australia. Then spend 4 years
in medical school. And then complete 3-7 years of residency
training. Then take
United States Medical Licensing Examination
, which is
administered by the National Board of Medical Examiners. Now
you're a Doctor.
10 Books every Pre-Med should read while not studying
On Becoming a Doctor: Everything You Need to Know about Medical
School, Residency, Specialization, and Practice
Mistakes - Failure
There's no such thing as
, there's only Learning. Learning
what works and learning what doesn't work. Don't consider mistakes, or an
, as failure,
because mistakes can help us understand what's good and what's not
so good. A mistake is a process of learning. Without mistakes it
would be almost impossible to know
Right from Wrong
look at mistakes as failure, just see them for what they are, an
that didn't work out the way you thought it would, and
hopefully, you will learn
something did not work. Learning
Opportunities are everywhere
. Never miss out on an Opportunity to
Learn something valuable. The brains
memory has enormous capacity
If you don't
from your mistakes, then your
mistakes will come back to haunt
you forever, in ways that you will not even be aware of. You have to move
on and get pass your mistakes, don't leave them hanging around. It's much
more then just
yourself, you have
from mistakes and make changes
and updates to your way of thinking and doing.
"I did not make a
mistake, the mistake made me, made me realize that I did something wrong,
so I made the correction and moved on (progress
). You only make a mistake when you make the same
mistake twice, or when you ignore the facts. Now that's when you make a
real mistake. And those are the types of mistakes that do the most damage
to yourself and the world."
is fallible to some degree, and everyone is vulnerable to making mistakes
attributable to bad judgment
. An understanding of
something that is not correct. Failure to anticipate, Failure to perceive,
Failure to carry out a task.
To err is human
means that everyone makes mistakes.
is trying different things to solve a problem.
Coming up with creative ways of
. It is characterised by repeated, varied
attempts which are continued until success, or until the agent stops
trying. Error Types
is the process
to determine the
failure, often with the goal of determining corrective actions or
liability. Quality Control Failure
is the frequency with which an engineered system or
component fails, expressed in failures per unit of time. It is often
denoted by the Greek letter λ (lambda) and is highly used in reliability
Famous People who Persevered
up to early.
Every opportunity to explore an idea is also
an opportunity to fail or make a mistake. But as long as you don't keep
making the same mistakes, every exploration
opportunity to learn. And learning is progress,
is advancing, and
advancing is improving. Learning is essential for living a good life.
Without learning, how would you know what a good life is?
is falling short of a Goal
. An event that does not accomplish its intended
with Failure. Failure is realizing that you made a
is when you do nothing to
stop the mistake from
. So the only time that you can become a failure
is when you allow known mistakes to continue, especially
when you have the power and the ability to stop these mistakes
from happening again, then you are a failure. But still not
broken. Fail = Future Always Involves Learning. Praising
The Benefit of Generating Errors during Learning
Desirable Difficulties Perspective on Learning
(ways to learn)
Desirable Difficulties Perspective on Learning
Anna Karenina Principle
describes an endeavor in which a
deficiency in any one of a number of factors dooms it to failure.
Consequently, a successful endeavor (subject to this principle) is one
where every possible deficiency has been avoided.
Things Happen for a Reason
"I have not failed. I've just found 10,000 ways that won't
And since Thomas Edison, the world has found a million things
that don't work and a million ways that don't work. The last 117
years has been like one crazy experiment after an other.
Sacrificing millions of people and destroying the enormous
potential that every human has. As of 2016, we have learned so
much about ourselves and the world, and that realization is
slowly beginning to grow. It's time we put our lessons learned
into practice. Millions of people are dying every year from
things that we can avoid. We need to take
Without the transfer of information, life does not exist. We
have the ability to solve every problem that we have. But just
having abilities is useless unless we take action and use our
abilities accurately and effectively. We are not fully
addressing the multitude of social problems that we have. We
need to address these issues by communicating more in our
schools and in our governments. We need to improve education and
make education more accessible and affordable to everyone. And
at the same time, we need to improve our governments, and we
need to improve all the different ways that we communicate. We
have the technology, and we also have a skilled workforce of
educated people, people who are either sitting idol or being
under utilized doing some other job or function. There needs to
be a clear plan on how this will work. We can clearly calculate
every step that we need to take for the next 100 years or even
the next 1000 years.
China is using this process in the renewable energy revolution
But here in America we will focus more on the power of the mind
as well as the energy that will
us for the next millennium.
is the primitive terror of self
dissolution, triggered by the sudden exposure of one's sense of
a defective self, death by
. Mistakes happen, accidents happen, learn as
much as you can and move on. No
just learning, learning is a lot more productive and a lot more
healthier for everyone. Play the odds
as best as you can, and remember there are no guarantees, but
you can definitely increase your chances of
is an unfortunate mishap; especially one causing damage or injury.
Anything that happens suddenly or by chance without an apparent
cause or reason
It's good to have a
, you realize
something is wrong
perceived as wrong, or verified as
Justice, not revenge, forgiveness, not hate. Life is long, don't
carry any unnecessary baggage. Travel light and travel tight.
Is there a
Single Point of Failure
? No, there's only a very important
aspect of a particular function, that when removed, creates a
problem that needs to be solved. Failure only happens when you
don't solve a problem
, or understand a problem accurately.
Everything in life can be disrupted, but that doesn't mean that
it has to stay disrupted. We have choices, we have options, and
we have potential. When things go wrong it is sometimes a good thing because you
can learn a lot of things when things go amiss. Things that you
would have not learned if everything went smoothly. So when
things go perfect it sometimes works against you because if
gives you a false sense of security and makes you believe that
everything is working OK. But when things go bad it forces you
to examine the process more closely, so you learn more, which
prepares you more for when things go bad. So your trouble
shooting becomes less labor intensive because you can now rule
out certain factors, which will give you more time to check for
other possible causes of your problem, thus problem solving
takes less time. So don't get
when things go wrong, because it may turn out to be something
very beneficial, and a great opportunity to learn something important.
“You never make the same mistake
twice. The second time you make it, it is no longer a mistake.
It is a choice”
"No matter how many mistakes you make or how slow you progress,
you are still way ahead of everyone who isn’t trying."
"Turning over a rock and finding nothing is still progress, as
long as it's documented so that others will not waste their time
turning over the same rocks."
"You can’t start the next chapter of your life if you keep
re-reading your last one."
"If you only go so far then you will never go far enough. If the
changes needed don't happen soon enough or quick enough, then
you will fail."
"Things turn out best for people who make the best out of the
way things turn out."
Be Persistent, but not stubborn or narrow minded.
Be Determined, but still be aware of your
Ambitious, but still maintain
Giving up is not giving in
. Not being able to reach your goals
does not mean defeat. You're just suspending operations until more
information is available. Information that would allow you to
continue or information that would prove you should no longer
There is no failure in making an effort or an attempt, unless
good planning was ignored. The act of conducting a controlled
test or investigation takes time, patience and thorough
Knowing your Limits when Reaching for the Top
Every mistake that is made is either from the lack of knowledge,
or from the misunderstanding of knowledge that a person has.
No one is stupid or completely ignorant, every single person on
the planet either lacks certain knowledge, or misunderstands the knowledge they
have. But there's only one way for anyone to realize what knowledge
they are lacking, or to realize what knowledge they are misunderstanding,
which is for every person to have 24/7 access to the worlds most valuable knowledge and information,
along with the guidance and instructions on how to use the
worlds most valuable knowledge and information effectively and
efficiently as possible. This way people can learn everyday and grow wiser
everyday. A world full of educated people is a world full of potential,
a potential to solve every problem on the planet.
"You can learn a lot things
from your mistakes, but only when you finally stop denying the
fact that you've made a mistake."
"No matter how many mistakes you make or how slow you progress,
you are still way ahead of everyone who isn’t trying."
"Do, or do not, there is no try"
meaning..define " Try or Trying "...what did you do?
I tried to do this...I did this...
and Examining, or trying something new in order to gain
experience, is essential for learning, as long as it's safe.
If it is not safe then you must prove that the information that
you claim to be seeking is
extremely important, important enough for you to justify the
the danger and the consequences. Live and learn.
The reasons that you had for doing something might not be the
same reasons that you end up with. Things change and so do
reasons, so be prepared to
Think Outside the Box
or just the
of Punishment, bad for
someone tells you that your idea
, or your desired goal, can not
be reached, then plainly ask them to please share those facts
that proves their statement to be true, because if they can not
produce the facts that proves the goal can not be achieved, or
was already attempted and here's the results, or that they want
to discourage you and here are the reasons, then let them know
that you will continue to search for those facts, to either
confirm the idea was just, or just a waste of time.
Don't ever believe that a Problem is to
big to solve.
A lot of
problems always look to big and complicated at first, but once
you start taking the necessary steps in order to
and understand it, you will discover that every problem
can be solved, you just have to learn how to solve it. Every day
is a step closer, as long as you take that step every day.
Though things will look complicated and almost impossible to
, don't worry, everything starts out that way. But as
soon as you learn more and experience more, the things that you
thought were impossible, will become possible."
How can someone tell you what you can't do when that person hasn't done it
themself? It can't be done, why?
If the question ' why
' does not go far
enough, or if you stop asking questions after a certain point, you may
fail to see the whole picture and limit your ability to accurately define
the actions that you must make. Asking Questions
is a lot easier then coming up with excuses why you didn't ask questions
in the first place.
It's only impossible if you can correctly calculate that it
is impossible, being verified by testing and
experiments. But even then, how can you be sure that the
experiments were done correctly? Or if they were done with the same
information? So when you hear someone say it's impossible, you
tell them, it's only impossible until all possibilities have
been explored. Just because something is impossible does not
mean that I will not learn anything valuable from exploring the
possibility. Even if it does turn out that this one thing is in
fact impossible, it's only for the current moment in time
because you have suspended the research for now.
Como "It's Impossible"
Asking Questions is the first step to Understanding
When things don't make sense, or look weird, or seem unfamiliar,
or if things are not known to you, or fully understood, you have
if it does turn out to make sense, it's always a good idea to
confirm your suspicion and your doubts.
The Blind Leading the Blind
is adhering to established
styles, standards of conduct or doctrines. But if you don't feel
comfortable or if something doesn't feel right to you, then you
are done this way. What is the
Just because everyone else is doing it, or it seems popular or
normal, doesn't necessarily make it right or good.
You need to confirm
with evidence or facts that what you are
doing is right, or even needed, this is called learning.
You need to be certain, you must specify or identify, and
establish beyond doubt or question, that what you see is
Don't Feel Shame or Regret
Learn from your mistakes and then move on...
There is no need to
yourself. No need to create your own
. No need for
. What you need to do is to learn from your
so that you can avoid repeating the same mistakes, and learn to
make better decisions. So there is no need for
. I made a mistake and I will correct it, and I will
always remembered what I have learned. I have a
, and I will use it to avoid mistakes, and not use
it to punish myself. I have
, and I also have
There is no need to
Don't ever regret
, regretting is
such a huge waste of time because you will never be able to
calculate all the different
that could have happened
if your decision was different. Regret or 'What
' will never tell the whole
story, or whether that one decision changed your life in any way.
So it is what it is, and the only logical reaction is to learn
from it and move on. Wishing things could have been different is
like wishing your life away. You have already lived the life
that you were wishing for when you find yourself dreaming of
things that you wished for. It's hard to know what things to
appreciate in your life when they only way to know that you
appreciate something is when it's gone. Keep going, this ride is
far from being over.
is a negative
conscious and emotional reaction
to personal past acts and behaviors. Regret is often a feeling of sadness,
shame, embarrassment, depression, annoyance, or guilt, after one acts in a
manner and later wishes not to have done so.
is feeling or expressing pain or
sorrow for sins
emotional expression of personal regret felt by a person after they have
committed an act which they deem to be shameful, hurtful, or violent.
Remorse is closely allied to guilt and self-directed resentment.
is a cognitive or an
experience that occurs when a person believes or
realizes—accurately or not—that he or she has compromised his or her own
standards of conduct or has violated a moral standard and bears
significant responsibility for that violation. It is closely related to
the concept of remorse.
a painful, social emotion that can be seen as resulting "...from
comparison of the self's action with the self's standards...". but which
may equally stem from comparison of the self's state of being with the
ideal social context's standard. Thus, shame may stem from volitional
action or simply self-regard; no action by the shamed being is required:
simply existing is enough. Both the comparison and standards are enabled
by socialization. Though usually considered an emotion, shame may also
variously be considered an affect, cognition, state, or condition.
is the activity of reviewing one's actions and feeling contrition or
regret for past wrongs. It generally involves a commitment to personal
change and the resolve to live a more
is repentance of Sins
Penance is remorse for your past conduct. Atone for some
is the condition of being
by a priest
in the sacrament of penance. The act of absolving or remitting; formal
redemption as pronounced by a priest in the sacrament of penance.
is to let off the hook. Grant
remission of a sin to.Atone
is to make
is something done or
paid in expiation of a wrong. Set straight or right.
is repentance for sins one has committed. The remorseful
person is said to be contrite.
self in instances of perceived inadequacy, failure, or general suffering.
Being composed of three main components –
, common humanity, and
is the act of refraining from sins that are known
to cause more harm then good, It is stopping oneself from doing
Don't confuse Acceptance with Understanding
is only a pause in time, you can come back
later after you have learned more about the subject and
just what exactly is happening, then and only then do
you adapt to that Reality
change and modify
oneself to new or different
conditions. Make fit for, or change to suit a new purpose.
is to enhance the fitness and survival of
individuals by adapting, learning and changing to ones environment.
I have been ashamed of myself a
few times in my life. I have done things and said things that
were incredibly stupid, and they were not even close to being
logical. So what causes a person to lose control, or to lose
awareness, or to lose their understanding of things. You can
easily say that I never learned the right things at the right
time that would give me the skills and
that a person needs. I never learned how, and I never
learned why? So I'm thankful I felt shame, at least I knew I
made a mistake. It seems that shame makes us aware that we have
. Some people never feel shame about the mistakes
they make. It's not that they don't feel shame, they just don't
feel shame when they should. Shame comes from being able to see
yourself as the other person, as well as being able to know how
it feels to be victimized yourself, which mostly comes from
memories of being
. So I know what being victimized
feels like, so I can apply that feeling as reference to what
people feel like when they are victims of my ignorance. But not
all people learn the same way
, or do we have access to the right
information and knowledge.
Sometimes it's better to figure
stuff out on your own, but not always.
Sometimes you do learn more by looking for the answer yourself
then you would if someone just gave you the answer, but not
always. You learn more from solving a problem yourself then you
would if someone else solved the problem for you, but not
Problem Solving Skills
are extremely valuable, but so is
getting accurate answers to questions, answers to questions that
would save you lots of time and lower the amount of mistakes
that you might have to make. Yes you need problem solving
skills, but you also need to know how to effectively use the
enormous amount of resources and knowledge that other people
have. Everyone is
standing on the shoulders of giants
, and everyone has
benefited from the efforts of others. So it's extremely
important to know how those giants made their advancements, but
it is also extremely important to use those advancements
effectively and efficiently as we can. We need to keep
advancing and developing
, and we also need to keep learning
and honing our skills.
“We learn more by looking for the answer to
a question and not finding it than we do from learning the
(but not always, or can it apply to
Learning is a process that everyone should fully understand, and
everyone should fully understand that the process of learning
should continue your entire life. But for this to happen,
everyone needs access to the most valuable knowledge and
information that the world has to offer. And everyone should be
on how to use knowledge and information effectively and
efficiently as possible. If this were to happen, then the world
would continually improve, and every problem would be solved.
"I don't have all the answers, but I do
have more answers then most people, and I'm always learning, so
my ability to answer more questions is always increasing."
There is no replacement for learning, learning is something that
you have to do. If you don't keep learning, then you will suffer
from your own ignorance, and most likely, make other people
suffer from your
Welcome to the knowledge Palace
is a familiarity,
someone or something, such as facts
, descriptions, or
which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving,
, or learning. Knowledge is the
Acquaintance with facts, truths, or principles, as from study or
investigation; general erudition.
Knowledge of many things. Acquaintance or familiarity gained by
, or report.
The perception of fact or truth; clear and certain mental
, as of a fact or circumstance, cognitive condition of
someone who understands
Know and comprehend
the nature or
of. To become aware of
through the senses
studies the nature of knowledge, the
rationality of belief, and justification.
Epistemic Modal Logic
is a subfield of modal logic that is concerned with reasoning
I am acquainted with many people and things,
which I know very little about.
Sociology of Knowledge
is the study of the
relationship between human thought and the social context within which it
arises, and of the effects prevailing ideas have on societies.
Knowledge Representation and Reasoning
is the field of
(AI) dedicated to representing information about the
world in a form that a computer system can utilize to solve complex tasks
such as diagnosing a medical condition or having a dialog in a natural
language. Knowledge representation incorporates findings from psychology
about how humans solve problems and represent knowledge in order to design
formalisms that will make complex systems easier to design and build.
Knowledge representation and reasoning also incorporates findings from
logic to automate various kinds of reasoning, such as the application of
rules or the relations of sets and subsets. Examples of knowledge
representation formalisms include semantic nets, systems architecture,
Frames, Rules, and ontologies. Examples of automated reasoning engines
include inference engines, theorem provers, and classifiers.
is the field of artificial
intelligence (AI) dedicated to representing information about the world in
a form that a computer system can utilize to solve complex tasks such as
diagnosing a medical condition or having a dialog in a natural language.
is the ability to acquire knowledge
without proof, evidence, or conscious reasoning, or without understanding
how the knowledge was acquired.
Beyond the Senses
in a structured form,
consistent with human cognitive processes as opposed to simple lists of
is the process used to define the
rules and ontologies required for a knowledge-based system
is the creation of knowledge from
structured (relational databases
, XML) and unstructured (text, documents,
images) sources. The resulting knowledge needs to be in a machine-readable
and machine-interpretable format and must represent knowledge in a manner
that facilitates inferencing
is knowledge that is
or nearly everyone, usually with reference to the community in
which the term is used.
is the kind of knowledge that is
difficult to transfer
to another person by means of writing it down or verbalizing it.
is knowledge that can be readily articulated,
codified, accessed and verbalized and easily transmitted
Brain waves reflect different types of learning
. For the first time,
researchers have identified neural signatures of
explicit and implicit learning.
is not forming an essential
part of a thing or arising or originating from the outside.
to a thing by its very nature.
is knowledge about
methods of planning, modeling, tagging, and modification of a domain
is the knowledge exercised
performance of some task. Procedures
Body of Knowledge
is the complete set of concepts, terms and
activities that make up a professional domain, as defined by the relevant
learned society or
. It is a type of knowledge
representation by any knowledge organization
knowledge that is used by members of a discipline to guide their practice
(2) “The prescribed aggregation of knowledge in a particular
area an individual is expected to have mastered to be considered or
certified as a practitioner.”
The systematic collection of activities and
outcomes in terms of their values, constructs, models, principles and
instantiations, which (a) arises from continuous discovery and validation
work by members of the profession and (b) enables self-reflective growth
and reproduction of the profession (Romme 2016).
A set of accepted and
agreed upon standards and nomenclatures pertaining to a field or
profession (INFORMS 2009).
A set of knowledge within a
subject area which is generally agreed as both essential and generally
known (Oliver 2012).
Domain of Knowledge
is valid knowledge used to refer to an
area of human endeavour
, an autonomous computer activity, or other
Techniques of Knowledge
is an exchange of
among individuals. In
knowledge management economics, knowledge spillovers are non-rival
knowledge market costs incurred by a party not agreeing to assume the
costs that has a spillover effect of stimulating technological
improvements in a neighbor through one's own
innovations often come from specialization within an industry.
is any information or knowledge that is
known within a tribe but often unknown outside of it. A tribe may be a
group or subgroup of people that share a common knowledge
. With a
corporate perspective, "Tribal Knowledge or know-how is the collective
wisdom of the organization. It is the sum of all the knowledge and
capabilities of all the people.
Outline of Knowledge
familiarity with someone or something,
which can include facts, information, descriptions, and/or skills acquired
through experience or education. It can refer to the theoretical or
practical understanding of a subject. It can be implicit (as with
practical skill or expertise) or explicit (as with the theoretical
understanding of a subject); and it can be more or less formal or
refers to knowledge systems embedded in the
traditions of regional, indigenous, or local communities.
is the practical problem of transferring knowledge from one part of the
organization to another.
has been defined in differential
psychology as "culturally valued knowledge communicated by a range of
non-specialist media" and encompassing a wide subject range.
is the type of knowledge that is, by
its very nature, expressed in declarative sentences or indicative
propositions. This distinguishes descriptive knowledge from what is
commonly known as "know-how", or procedural knowledge (the knowledge of
how, and especially how best, to perform some task), and "knowing of", or
knowledge by acquaintance (the knowledge of something's existence).
Nomothetic and idiographic
describes two distinct approaches
to knowledge, each one corresponding to a different intellectual tendency,
and each one corresponding to a different branch of academe. Nomothetic is
based on what Kant described as a tendency to generalize, and is typical
for the natural sciences. It describes the effort to derive laws that
explain types or categories of objective phenomena, in general.
Idiographic is based on what Kant described as a tendency to specify, and
is typical for the humanities. It describes the effort to understand the
meaning of contingent, unique, and often cultural or subjective phenomena.
stated “All wish to know but none wish to
pay the price".
Constructivism (philosophy of education)
is a philosophical viewpoint
about the nature of knowledge.
knowledge", gnosis (variously interpreted as knowledge, enlightenment,
salvation, emancipation or 'oneness with God') may be reached by
to the point of personal poverty and diligently searching for wisdom by
helping others. The world of God is represented by the upper world and is
associated with the soul and perfection. The world of God is eternal and
not part of the physical. It is impalpable and timeless.
deliverance of man from the constraints of earthly existence through
insight into an essential relationship, as soul or spirit, with a
supramundane place of freedom.
is the salvation through knowledge.
is the Greek noun for knowledge.
"Knowledge is multi dimensional with
many layers. So if you only see the surface of what is known, then you
will never understand knowledge enough in order to use it effectively or
efficiently enough to solve problems or make positive improvements in
life. This is one of the main reasons for improving education." Curious
is to be cognizant or aware of a fact or a specific piece of
information; possess knowledge or information.
of the truth of something; regard as true beyond any doubt.
Be familiar or acquainted with a person or an object. Not
the same as
of states, situations, emotions, or sensations.
; having extensive information or understanding.
do you Know
? - I
Self Directed Learning
is to declare something to be true or admit the existence or reality or truth of.
Express recognition of the presence or existence of, or acquaintance with.
is to be fully aware or cognizant of. Detect with the senses. Perceive
to be the same. Exhibit recognition for (an antigen or a
is to perform mathematical and
according to instructions or prescribed procedures in order to
obtain the required
Process - Science
Information and Data Processing
is the knowledge acquired through study or
experience or instruction.
A collection of facts from which
conclusions may be drawn.
Correct and Free From
. (words, letters, numbers,
, whether the experience is doing, watching,
then a person must have the
is the ability to apply knowledge and
Information into the correct
to achieve a
Wisdom is showing good
Wisdom is also understanding the future and
that might happen. Being
because some changes might be indications that bigger changes
are coming, so good
is fully understanding Knowledge, Information and Wisdom.
Searching for Truth,
Looking for Answers
Other ways to Explain Information and
is any type of
that can be interpreted and
is accurately understanding that information and
then knowing how to use that information effectively in order to accomplish a goal.
is the ability to use Knowledge and
learn more about yourself and the world around you, and also continually
acquiring more abilities and more skills so that you can increase your
potential and creativity.Wisdom
is understanding how all your actions
and inactions effect yourself and the world around you.
knowing how to maximize your actions so that you can continually
while at the same time, lower your
, vulnerabilities and decay.
First there's information, and then there's knowing how to
process and understand the information, then there's knowing
what correct action to take based on the information, knowledge
and your experience. Input - Process - Output.
"Knowledge is something that
can not be easily explained, it's abstract, nonobjective,
subjective and non-subjective."
"Great knowledge often
comes from the humblest of origins."
"Knowledge is love and light
and vision." -
(born with the ability to see and hear, but at 19 months old
she contracted an unknown illness that left her both deaf and blind for
the rest of her life).
Knowledge does not come with age,
knowledge comes from learning.
does not guarantee
learning, or that understanding will take place. And not every
experience will benefit you. Though the lesson was given,
there's no sure way to tell if the knowledge was correctly
understood. Knowledge comes from learning, and associating what
you have learned with the appropriate experiences and knowledge
that you have acquired up to this point. Accumulating and
building, becoming more aware and more wiser, all because you
continue to learn, and not from growing older.
Be a Consumer of Knowledge
Never Stop Learning
you will become a little smarter each
and everyday, and you will continually improve things, and you
will become better at solving problems, and you will become an even better
person then the day before. You will become more knowledgeable about
yourself and the world around you to a point where nothing will seem
imposible. You will be incredibly intelligent and have unlimited potential
with unlimited abilities. Knowledge and information will accumulate into a
beautiful system of love and awareness.
Knowledge gives you Power, Power gives you Control, Control
gives you Freedom, Freedom gives you Potential, Potential gives
you Endless Possibilities.
Live, Learn, Love and Progress
The more you know, the more you understand.
The more you understand, the more control you have.
The more control you have, the more power you have.
The more power you have, the more freedom you have.
The more freedom you have, the more potential you have.
The more potential you have, the more possibilities you have.
The more possibilities you have, the greater your life can be.
There will always be more, as long as you
keep learning the
right things at the right time
Schools today are just a primer.
You don't finish school, because school is just an introduction.
80% of the worlds most important knowledge and information is
outside the classroom. So the real learning comes after school.
But that's only if you have access to the worlds most valuable
knowledge and information, and, have a firm understanding about
what you should be learning, and when you should learning it.
Feed the Brain
You must Consume more then just
Food and Water Daily, you also need to consume Knowledge and Information Daily. Learning should be as easy as eating
food. And consuming knowledge should make you feel good.
makes you healthy and strong.
makes your mind strong and increases your potential.
You need healthy food to live.
You also need healthy knowledge to live. You
need clean water to live. You also need clean information to
live. Either you find clean information or learn how to
to make sure that it's free from errors, or
viruses. Unclean information
creates mistakes that don't need to
be made. If you want healthy food you may need to grow it
yourself. If you can't find healthy knowledge then you have to
learn how to create your own healthy knowledge. Unhealthy food
will cause unhealthy body, unhealthy knowledge will create an
unhealthy mind with unhealthy behaviors. You need to consume
knowledge and information, so you you need to know what knowledge
and information is important.
- You are what you
Your Brain needs Knowledge and information, so please don't
Feed the Mind
It's your brain, feed it
Ways to "Feed Your Brain" - Marc David
increases growth, so does knowledge.
Feed in Seymour -
Little Shop Of
Horrors - Feed Me
(Got It) (youtube)
Why would you fill your
car with gas and then let it run without driving it anywhere? Then why
would you eat and not use that energy to learn something new or to do
Information and knowledge needs to be clean and edible so that
it can be easily consumed. And just like food, you have the eat
the right foods in the right amounts at the right times. Imagine
eating a food and having the energy from that food stay with you
forever, that is what knowledge is, that is why learning the
right things at the right time is so extremely important.
is the same as Life Long Eating.
Learning everyday is like eating
everyday. You eat to live,
you learn to live
, you learn to live
better. Not learning how to improve yourself, or not learning
how to make yourself more knowledgeable about yourself and the
world around you, is like
but never doing
anything valuable, never working or
never doing anything productive or
, or never doing things that enhance or improve your
life, so you're pretty much just waiting to die, which is a total waste. So
please keep learning.
A Mind is a terrible thing to waste
When feeding the hungry and starving you must also feed them
knowledge and information that would educate people enough so
that they will be able to solve their own problems without
having to depend on others. Making them self-reliant and
self-sufficient, as well as, give them the abilities to help
others who are also experiencing difficulties. This is the
intelligent thing to do; this is
the right thing to do. Invest in education and not just
Energy from food diminishes in a few days. Knowledge stays in
the memory for life. And this knowledge has the potential to
create energy. Feed the mind, not just the body. Some of the
energy from food should be used for learning, if not, then the
energy from the food is wasted, and an opportunity is lost.
"If you don't eat, you will eventually die from starvation, if
you stop learning, you will eventually die from lack of
education, like the tens of
thousands of people who die every single day from things they could have
. If they had the necessary knowledge, they would have lived
If you can learn to read on your own, from a tablet pc
or other ways, then you could have access to the worlds most valuable
knowledge and information. From there, you could learn how to use
knowledge and information effectively to reach your goals, and learn
things that are needed that would improve your life continually. Things
may start out slow, but every day that you take a step, is a step closer
to fulfilling your goals and creating a healthy and happy life. You must
learn something new and valuable everyday. Your brain has
incredible memory bank
, and if you
keep depositing more valuable knowledge everyday, you will have built and
saved an enormous wealth of knowledge, And your personal bank of knowledge
never closes, and you can carry your wealth of knowledge where ever you
travel, and the knowledge yours to keep, no one could ever take it from
you or steal it from you. This is why
Knowledge is the worlds most perfect currency
Summer School - Homework
Summer School is saying that your
school sucks, it's not saying that you're a slow learner.
All young people experience learning losses during the
because schools are
inadequate and ineffective
. In order to be
good at something, you need to practice, when you stop practicing,
your skill level decreases. When you are not actively using
knowledge that you have learned, it's
easy to forget
If you don't use it you lose it.
Students need to learn how to maintain their skill
level and knowledge level, but they must be given the
knowledge and the right skills
, if not, you're wasting time,
energy resources and people.
Schools need to teach students how to use their skills and
knowledge in the real world, instead of just on paper.
is a school, or a program that provides
lessons and activities during the summer vacation. Memory
"Homework should be about
, it should
done at home. Don't force kids to take your
crappie education home, if you can't teach students effectively
at school, then something is wrong with the school."
(what schools should be like)
a set of tasks assigned to students by their teachers to be completed
outside the class. Common homework assignments may include a quantity or
period of reading to be performed, writing or typing to be completed, math
problems to be solved, material to be reviewed before a test, or other
skills to be practiced. The effect of homework is debated. Generally
speaking, homework does not improve academic performance among children
and may improve academic skills among older students. It also creates
stress for students and their parents and reduces the amount of time that
students could spend outdoors, exercising, playing sports, working,
sleeping or in other activities.
"It's amazing how we still made progress even after all the
mistakes that we made. We spent years experimenting with many
different ideas, most of which did not benefit us. We have made
a lot of mistakes ,and we have wasted a lot of time, but
we have learned many things. It's time to put our knowledge into
actions. We know what to do, and we know what not to do. But we
must do. Just knowing will not solve our problems."
"Learning should be like Life, a
"The more you learn the more you will see, whether that is
good or bad depends on you."
"Everyone should be an avid searcher
I guess this was just
a natural progression of my curiosity
. I went
looking for adventure
and I eventually found
knowledge, and some of that knowledge actually pertained to me.
But I wouldn't say that I found myself, I would just say that I
understand myself a lot more then I did before, and I also
understand the world more then I did before. Seeking knowledge
is truly the greatest adventure of all time."
"I'm sometimes 20 or 30 questions
ahead of the current question, only because the current question
needs certain questions answered first before you can even start
to figure out just exactly what the actual question is, and
sometimes people are just asking the wrong question, which makes
it almost impossible to answer correctly."
"When you're 5 to 10
questions ahead of the conversation
, you are at a
level of thinking
that solves problems a lot faster."
"Some people just ask
never really look for the answers, I like to search for answers
because searching for answers is much more
rewarding instead of just wondering what the answers might be."
"If you don't try to be great at
something then you will never be great at anything. But
you can be good at doing many things, which could count as doing
something great, but being really good at something will have
its own rewards."
"I sometimes feel like a black hole, and my curiosity is the gravitational force that
gradually pulls in knowledge and information from the universe.
The more knowledge and information I consume, the farther I see.
Everyday is another step forward on a never ending quest to
understand more. Breaking down knowledge into smaller more
defined elements. With each element symbolizing a doorway in the
hallways of knowledge. And each door acting like an electrical
circuit, open or closed,
on or off
computer counterpart. But instead of words being defined as
zeros and ones, the words in my mind are defined by on or
off. On or Off? Natural intelligence and Artificial intelligence
working together in harmony as if they were one. Ones and zeros,
on or off...Huston, we have lift off...Engage."
if you will live forever...because there is a chance that
you may live forever
don't learn the things that matter, then learning doesn't
Questioning is the need for more information
in order to
something more accurately. Questioning is
of the information
is a linguistic expression used to make a
request for information
, or the request made using such an expression. The
information requested should be provided in the form of an
is to challenge the accuracy, probity, or
propriety of. A sentence of inquiry that asks for a reply.
Uncertainty about the
factuality or existence of something. Place in doubt or express
is a search for
of a matter of public
is showing curiosity
or a desire to know something. Conduct an
Sometimes when people ask a question, the original question is not the actual question
that they are asking. They are in fact asking other questions, most
likely because they're making false assumptions
or they have no idea which
questions they should be asking. So you might have
to verify what the actual questions are that someone is asking, without
you yourself making any assumptions. This also applies to certain answers that people may give.
The answer someone gives might not be the whole story, so you may have to
and ask a few more
questions in order to get the truth. This type of awareness and skill is the power of Human Intelligence, an ability that
will never be able to
accurately reproduce or imitate. And when things can't be accurate,
can't be trusted, whether it's a machine or a human.
, and then
There may be a story within a story
Example Scenario: I know this person, so when they ask a particular
question at a particular time, I know what they are really asking me. And
when they answer a particular question at a particular time, sometimes the
answer is saying that they don't want to talk about this particular
subject at this particular time. They may also be saying that they are
unclear how to answer that question accurately. Example Questions
and Answers: So how do you feel? I'm OK. Where have you been? Around. Do
you want to talk about something? Not right now.
is doubting the truth or accuracy of something. Questioning certain
knowledge or beliefs. Skeptic
unsure of something. Uncertainty about the truth or
or existence of something.
is someone who is
is to examine carefully for accuracy with the intent of
. The act of
something closely (as for
mistakes). To look at
or searchingly, or
in minute detail. A prolonged intense look.
is a consideration which justifies
is a systematic process of being skeptical about (or doubting) the truth
of one's beliefs, which has become a characteristic method in philosophy.
is the philosophical principle that human beings could be
about their beliefs,
expectations, or their understanding of the world.
is a misconception
resulting from incorrect reasoning
is a statement, hypothesis, or theory with the inherent possibility that
it can be proved false.
studies the nature of knowledge
, the rationality of belief, and
is the second level of deciding issues using judicial review. The other
levels are typically referred to as rational basis review (least rigorous)
and strict scrutiny (most rigorous). In order to overcome the intermediate
scrutiny test, it must be shown that the law or policy being challenged
furthers an important government interest by means that are substantially
related to that interest. That should be contrasted with strict scrutiny,
the higher standard of review that requires narrowly tailored and least
restrictive means to further a compelling governmental interest.
a judicial inquiry
in common law jurisdictions, particularly one held to
determine the cause of a person's death.
describe a claim, belief, or practice
presented as scientific, but which does not adhere to the
are commonly held scientific beliefs that
have no basis in actual scientific fact. Scientific misconceptions can
also refer to preconceived notions based on religious and/or cultural
influences. Many scientific misconceptions occur because of faulty
teaching styles and the sometimes distancing nature of true scientific
, given their inherently
nature, many scientific
concepts, such as Newton's laws of motion, directly conflict a "working"
and immediate understanding of the world. Where this is the case, such
conceptual conflicts can give rise to serious obstacles to students'
acceptance and understanding of scientific ideas. In contrast, a wide
range of other scientific ideas,
, and concepts are not obviously related to practical
experience. Students misconceptions about these more abstract scientific
ideas, for example, the atomic theory, the wave–particle nature of light,
the cell theory of biological organization, and the theory of
are often grounded in
past instruction. In analogy to physician-induced (iatrogenic) disease (iatrogenesis),
didaskologenic (or didaktikogenic) (from the Greek dáskalos for "teacher")
ideas (and misconceptions) arise from and are reinforced during the course
of instruction. Particularly in the more abstract sciences, where many
ideas are inherently counter-intuitive, didaskologenic scientific
through the use of inappropriate
in the course of instruction. As examples, there are the
ideas that the breaking of a bond can release energy (when all bonds
require energy to break), the depiction of molecular processes using
non-random molecular motions, the depiction of electron orbitals, and the
molecular level effects of mutations on organismic phenotypes. A number of
such errors are found in textbooks and various instructional animations.
is an area of research where "people
are tricked into false results
refers to a false statement of fact made by one party to another party,
which has the effect of inducing that party into the contract.
is a question format that limits
respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to
answer the question.
is a research instrument consisting of a
series of questions
prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents.
Q & A
is a series of questions
asked to individuals to obtain statistically useful information about a
given topic – when properly constructed and responsibly administered,
become a vital instrument by which statements can be made about specific
groups, or people, or entire populations.
is the study of
is the interrogation of a witness called
by one's opponent. It is preceded by
, which is the process of adducing
in a court of law.
is a form of
dialogue between individuals
, based on asking and answering questions to
stimulate critical thinking
to draw out ideas and underlying presumptions.
is disciplined questioning that can be
used to pursue thought in many directions and for many purposes,
including: to explore complex ideas, to get to the truth of things, to
open up issues and problems, to uncover assumptions, to analyze concepts,
to distinguish what we know from what we don't know, to follow out logical
implications of thought or to control the discussion.
is a discourse
between two or more people holding
different points of view about a subject but wishing to establish the
truth through reasoned arguments
Frequently Asked Questions
Seek more Information
is a game where one player is chosen to be
the answerer. That person chooses a subject (object) but does not reveal
this to the others. All other players are questioners. They each take
turns asking a question which can be answered with a simple "Yes" or "No."
In variants of the game, multiple state answers may be included such as
the answer "Maybe." The answerer answers each question in turn. Sample
questions could be: "Is it bigger than a breadbox?" or "Can I put it in my
mouth?" Lying is not allowed in the game. If a questioner guesses the
correct answer, that questioner wins and becomes the answerer for the next
round. If 20 questions are asked without a correct guess, then the
answerer has stumped the questioners and gets to be the answerer for
another round. Careful selection of questions can greatly improve the
of the questioner winning the game. For example, a question such as "Does
it involve technology for communications, entertainment or work?" can
allow the questioner to cover a broad range of areas using a single
question that can be answered with a simple "yes" or "no". If the answerer
responds with "yes," the questioner can use the next question to narrow
down the answer; if the answerer responds with "no," the questioner has
successfully eliminated a number of possibilities for the answer. The game
encourages deductive reasoning
Can you Solve the Three
Gods Riddle? - Alex Gendler
is a statement that solves a problem
or explains how to solve the problem.
A statement (either spoken or written) that is made to reply to a
question. The speech act of replying to a question.
of. Be sufficient; be adequate, either in quality or quantity. Be
satisfactory for; meet the requirements of or serve the purpose of. React
verbally. Show a response or a reaction to something. A
is a reply to a question. It can be solution or a response to it.
is seeking answers to questions that can explain an event so
that understanding can be obtained in order to learn from the experience
and avoid confusion
and the vulnerability of
experiencing a similar mistake again in the future. Also to avoid reliving
a traumatic moment
always attempt to acquire new knowledge to satisfy questions regarding
particular issues. Seek a
or a conclusion
but always leave room for new information that might formulate a more
How many questions do you think you need
to ask in order to fully understand something?
Depends on the answers.
Why? Why does this matter?
What? What is the most important matter at this moment? What are
Where? Is the location relevant?
Where is this information
Who? What person or people is this in reference to? Does it
matter who it is?
When? When will this information affect me? When will I need to
end this transmission?
How? How did this happen? How did this
transmission first initiate?
Do I have the time? Do I care what time is?
Am I learning something
? Am I teaching something?
Are there any other questions that I should be asking?
After the transmission is completed, please show appreciation
So what's next?
You need to know the
, and you also need to know why some people
Some people have personal motives
when giving opinions, so they
are corrupted, narrow minded and very dangerous.
need to be questioned too, as well as the
Don't Blindly Believe
Being able to explain and
ask a question correctly is half the job of getting the correct
answer that you are seeking.
One of the main goals of Questioning
is to help you avoid
Jumping to Conclusions
, but you have to be asking the right
"Sometimes people don't know what questions to
ask, and other times, people believe they know the answers
, so they don't
bother asking questions."
"Asking a stupid question
usually gets a stupid answer, but
asking no question, gets no answer."
everything, even myself."
People who decline
avoid certain information
are just misinformed and really
don't understand the benefits of information and how knowing
things actually helps their decision making. This is just
another side effect of our
failing education system
that is combined with our
. If people were better informed on how to use
information, and better educated to correctly understand
information, then people would never decline or avoid
information, in fact people would seek information instead of
waiting for it to appear. People opting to remain ignorant is
that they can easily fix.
Philosophy and Theory, Vol. 33, Nos. 3 & 4, 2001
Questioning as an Epistemic Process of Critical Thinking
Department of Philosophy, Kent State University
The idea of questioning one’s idea is regarded by many as an
affront. This attitude towards questioning suggests that it is
rude, especially when it is persistent. Questioning is
considered a way of casting aspersions on one’s ability or the
reasonableness of one’s view. Questioning is often taken to mean
that one is not making a good point or one is not articulating
one’s ideas properly. As a result, questioning tends to engender
a defensive response. This attitude has a long tradition. It was
responsible for how
was received by Athenians, and why
he was eventually killed.
By questioning persistently for
clarifications, Socrates got on people’s nerves and sometimes
humiliated them; he made people realize they did not quite know
what they thought they knew. This angered them. Socrates argued
that the attitude of wanting one’s ideas to be always
‘validated’ and not questioned is intellectually stagnating and
is a mark of ‘ignorance’. He pointed this out in his idea of
‘wisdom’. A wise person is one who is always willing to ‘learn’.
Such a person assumes tentatively that she does not know. She is willing to
methodologically suspend her belief and question it for the
purpose of exploring it, to expand her knowledge. The process of
questioning—for the purpose of eliciting information and
adequate justifications—represents an epistemic attitude which
is necessary for critical thinking. Such attitude is often what
teachers want to engender in students as critical thinkers.
In this paper I explore, in general, the sense in which
questioning may be regarded as an
and I offer a theoretical foundation and argument for
encouraging such process. More specifically, I do this by
analyzing the notion of questioning, to show its logic as an
open-ended process of inquiry and its function, as a process of
critical thinking. Critical thinking involves a disposition to a
rigorous process of inquiring, learning and acquiring knowledge,
in terms of rationally evaluating and
argue that the open-ended logic of questioning reveals its
epistemic feature and heuristic value as a process of critical
thinking. And that the epistemic value of this process is given
credence and motivated by human
. The realization of
such fallibility and the effort to avoid or correct errors is a
motivation for critical thinking, construed in terms of
fallibilistic epistemology. The epistemic value of questioning
is usually not adequately appreciated, hence its negative connotation. An appreciation of
the plausible epistemic basis and value of questioning may
obviate the negative connotation it engenders. This apparent
problem unduly hangs clouds over questioning as an epistemic
process and a pedagogical tool
. Any theoretical effort to
motivate questioning as a process of learning and teaching will
be adequate only if it is sensitive to this problem. We should
bear in mind the theoretical connection between the process or
method of learning or acquiring knowledge (epistemology) and the
tools or methods for teaching (pedagogy). The process or method
of imparting knowledge, teaching and helping people
learn and the process or method of acquiring knowledge
theoretically coextensive. As such, questioning may be a
valuable tool for teaching and learning critical thinking
skills. I do not provide a detailed description of how this
strategy could be used in class the way Hyman (1979), Dillon
(1983) and Blosser (1973) do. I only provide a theoretical
foundation and justification for its use in relation to
teaching and acquiring critical thinking skills and abilities.
Thus my concern is whether there is a way to motivate
questioning or highlight its value both as a process of
acquiring knowledge and of teaching, to make it appealing. I
suggest that exploring the logic, epistemology and functions of
questioning as an epistemic process of critical thinking may be
able to do this. In order to appreciate how questioning may be
construed as an epistemic process of critical thinking, we need
to understand the nature of critical thinking and its
. We may start by addressing the following questions:
(1) What is critical thinking? (2) What are its epistemological
features and motivation? (3) What are the logical and
epistemological nature and functions of questioning? (4) How
does the nature and function of questioning make it a process of
critical thinking? Fallibilism and an Epistemic View of Critical Thinking Critical
thinking involves the rigorous process or method of ascribing
reasonableness to a belief. In Goldman’s view (1986), an
epistemic theory of justified belief is necessary to account for
a justifiable ascription of reasonableness to a belief. A
plausible epistemic conception of the process of critical
thinking may be couched in terms of a normative fallibilistic
epistemology. This view is grounded in the fact of human
fallibilism, the limitations in human cognitive abilities, our
awareness of such a fact and the conscious effort and
willingness to avoid or mitigate such fallibilism. Such effort
or willingness involves adopting a rigorous and critical
attitude for evaluating a belief, which requires that we be
tentative about the reasonableness of our beliefs and that we be
always open to other plausible evidence or counter
evidence. Fallibilism in this sense implies that we accept a
belief tentatively in the context of the currently available
evidence. We may need to distinguish between substantive
skepticism and fallibilism (which is a kind of methodological
skepticism). Substantive skepticism says we do not or cannot
have knowledge. This view is considered incoherent because to
say that we do or cannot have knowledge is to imply that we do
in fact have some knowledge, which is that we cannot have
knowledge. Fallibilism says we could be mistaken but grants that
we do in fact know some things. The implication of
for critical thinking is that we should adopt stringent methods,
whereas the implication of substantive skepticism is that there
is no need to try. An epistemic view of critical thinking
specifies how we ought to acquire and justify beliefs. This
process must involve rigorous inquiry and the critical analysis
and evaluation of evidence. The normative view regarding how we
ought to acquire beliefs implies that we have an epistemic
obligation to use the appropriate method
or process that will lead to reasonable beliefs. If we do not,
there is a reasonable basis to make an epistemic judgment that
we do not have a reasonable belief. However an epistemic theory
must be sensitive to human fallible cognitive processes, which
are the causal and justificatory basis for acquiring belief.
These causal processes and beliefs are circumscribed by and
contingent on the facts about one’s context and condition. So
the normative view of fallibilism is parasitic on some factual
properties and conditions about human fallibilism. The normative
view presupposes, in part,
that we are cognitively capable of using the normatively
prescribed process or method. One needs to appreciate the
distinction between the factual and epistemic claims about
fallibilism in order to understand the plausible connection
between them, as a way to illuminate the epistemic notion of
critical thinking. The epistemic claim of fallibilism involves a
prescription to adopt critical thinking process and attitude
regarding what ought to be considered knowledge. It specifies
the rigorous standards by which we determine whether one’s belief is
. To the extent that we are aware of our
fallibility, we should make reasonable efforts to guard against,
avoid and correct our errors. This involves being tentative and
methodologically skeptical (McPeck, 1981). It involves
questioning and ‘methodologically casting aspersions’ on beliefs
and evidence, being open to new
evidence and being willing to change one’s beliefs with new
evidence. This process is methodologically adversarial and
confrontational. According to Siegel (1988),
is ‘the thesis that all our knowledge-claims are
open to revision and are possibly mistaken’ (p. 145n). This
statement regarding the nature and motivation for critical
thinking is ambiguous in a sense. It could be understood as a
factual thesis about the nature of human knowledge-claims. It
could also be understood as a normative statement regarding how
we ought to determine the nature of a knowledge-claim. This is
the view that is directly relevant to the nature of critical
thinking as an epistemic process of inquiry. We need to know how
such factual statements may motivate an epistemic view of
critical thinking as a process by which we ought to reason,
acquire beliefs or engage in inquiry. Fallibilistic
epistemology, as a normative thesis, says that S knows that q,
if and only if there is a justification r for S’s belief that q,
such that r being a confirmed and ‘undefeated’
evidence for q only makes it highly probable that q is true.
This theory allows a person to know ‘something’ on the condition
that a plausible justification exists in support for what one
claims to know, such that the supporting evidence being well
confirmed and ‘undefeated’ only makes it reasonable to believe
that what one claims to know is highly likely to be true.
Fallibilistic epistemology implies that if a belief is well
confirmed and we have no negative evidence or ‘defeater’ to
vitiate our justification, we hold it as conditional knowledge
in the given context of relevant
alternatives and available evidence, we are able to get new
information to improve our state of knowledge, such that when
the hitherto warranted evidence no longer supports our beliefs,
we are bound to modify our beliefs. There is a plausible
universal and intuitive appeal for fallibilistic epistemology.
Part of this appeal derives from the obvious truth that human
beings are by their nature susceptible to error. Human beings realize as part of
their rationality that they are fallible, and this is reacted in
their cognitive processes which play an important role in their
process of acquiring, justifying and modifying beliefs.
and reasoning are susceptible to error, and since
knowledge is a product of either the process of reasoning or
perception or both, it is invariably susceptible to error—as a
function of the ‘faulty’ process. However people have strong
intuitions that we do know many things. Fallibilistic
epistemology is the attempt to articulate a theory of knowledge,
which will square with our common-sense view that we do know
many things, and that we are also susceptible to error. It is an
attempt to avoid substantive skepticism in spite of our fallible
cognitive processes. Fallibilism provides a foundation for
Nicholas Burbules’ (1991) conception of critical thinking as
reasonableness, which he argues, involves ‘being willing to
admit that one is wrong’ (p. 250). Such reasonableness suggests
that we are willing to evaluate evidence and that we make
concerted efforts to provide adequate justifications. Since we
can be in error, we should not immediately accept a belief without proper
examination. Critical thinking specifies a set of attitudes,
processes, methods and contexts which will facilitate our
ability to do inquiry, to avoid and correct errors so as to
arrive at a reasonable belief. Such attitudes include, according
to D’Angelo (1971), open-mindedness, intellectual curiosity,
flexibility, intellectual honesty, methodological skepticism,
persistence, objectivity and respect for views (pp. 7–9). The
plausible connection between the factual and epistemic claims of
fallibilism—in terms of the factual claim motivating the
epistemic claim—may be illuminated by the ‘ought implies can
principle. What we ought to do implies what we can indeed do. If
we cannot do something, then it is unreasonable to expect that
we ought to do it or make a judgment about us on the basis of a
standard which we cannot achieve. This suggests that we may not
hold one ‘epistemically responsible’ persona
or epistemically evaluate one’s belief on the basis of what it
is impossible for one to do or avoid doing. So considerations
about how we ought to acquire knowledge or what ought to be
considered knowledge (epistemic claim) has to be sensitive to,
or parasitic on, considerations regarding how we can possibly
acquire knowledge and what we can possibly know (factual claim).
If we ought (or are expected) to acquire knowledge or justified
belief by the process of questioning and
then (1) we must, given our cognitive abilities, be capable of
engaging is such process, and (2) the conditions and context which support such
processes of questioning and examination must exist. Such
context includes what Bridges characterizes as
, namely: reasonableness, receptivity, peaceableness, orderliness, truthfulness, freedom, equality and
respect (Bridges, 1979, pp. 21–24). These conditions imply that
we do not see questioning as critical thinking ability in a
negative light; we should be receptive to it instead. They imply
that we provide a motivation for the requisite abilities and
investigate the ‘contexts that support or encourage them; and
into the barriers that impede them’ (Burbules, 1991, p. 250).
The epistemic importance of the plausible connection between the
factual and normative theses of fallibilism with respect to
critical thinking has to do with the idea that the factual
thesis and our realization of such fact engender that we set a
high and rigorous standard for acquiring knowledge, with a view
to avoiding or correcting errors: this is the motivation for
critical thinking. The fact that our knowledge is only highly
probable (given human fallibilism) implies that there is a
window of opportunity for one to be in error. Insofar as such a
window exists, no matter how small, we should be committed to
questioning and critically exploring it. This is because the
most reasonable belief is one which approximates the truth and
is held by one based on critical thinking. Truth in some
metaphysical or logical sense is an ideal (Popper, 1985;
Russell, 1965) that we are trying to epistemically get at by a
process of inquiry. This requires that we engage in the process
of critical thinking which is more likely to get us closer to
such an ideal. It is assumed that given our fallibilism, we may
not know what the truth is or arrive at the ideal, in terms of
the true metaphysical nature of reality. Truth in this
metaphysical sense is the actual state of affairs or reality
itself in terms of what Kant calls the noumena, to which
statements approximately correspond. It is in this regard that
Popper sees truth epistemically as a verisimilitude.
Human knowledge can be conceived only in terms of a
verisimilitude because it is based on induction, the
‘defeasibility’ of available evidence, and susceptibility to
error; this necessitates critical thinking. The more rigorous
our critical thinking and the more the belief is confirmed via
such processes, the nearer to the truth our knowledge will be
and the more reasonable. Bertrand Russell (1959) argues that
most of our beliefs are based on induction, and we accept them
because they have a probability of being true. The higher the
probability the nearer we are to truth, but we may never reach
the truth because there is always the possibility of error. He
concludes that the highest probability is all we ought to seek
via a critical process; it is all that we can achieve. To accept
a belief as the truth (as opposed to an approximation of the
truth or the most reasonable belief) is, in some sense, to say
that the belief is no longer open to question or further
consideration of new
evidence. The inquiry is closed! This attitude is considered in
many relevant contexts as dogmatic. This is inconsistent with
the idea of critical thinking and fallibilism. So the attitude
or principle of rigorous inquiry which a critical thinker must
have entails an understanding of the criteria for assessing
reasons offered for the justification of one’s beliefs and being
able to apply these criteria. This idea is couched in the
normative notion of ‘reason’ and its cognates, such as
rationality, evaluation, justification, reasonableness,
assessment and judgment, which feature pervasively in the
different conceptions of critical thinking. To think critically
involves being able to question and evaluate beliefs in order to
optimize the reasonableness of a belief. This is a process of
placing evidential strictures on one’s doxastic attitude and the
process of justification, to approximate the truth. After
critically evaluating and questioning a number of evidence, then
one is ‘moved’ to
make the judgment that there is adequate evidence to consider it
reasonable. 330 P. Ikuenobe
It is in this sense that Siegel (1988) argues that critical
thinking involves being ‘appropriately moved by reasons’ (pp.
32–42) to accept a belief after a rigorous process of
questioning. This involves using the
dispositions, attitudes and habits that are required to assess
statements, beliefs and issues as a basis for accepting them as
reasonable. He accepts that the criteria by which we assess the
appropriateness of the reasons which ‘move’ us to accept beliefs
reasonable are fallible, open to revision and are possibly
mistaken (p. 145). Thus critical thinking ‘may include the use
(or rejection) of methods, strategies and techniques as
(McPeck, 1981, p. 13), which requires questioning our
fundamental methods. This suggests why we may not accept a
belief as the truth such that we regard further inquiry closed.
Critical thinking process suggests some strictures which may
help us to minimise our fallible tendencies.
makes this point rather ambiguously with respect to the
connection between critical thinking and fallibilism, when he
argues that ‘Fallibilism… requires that we keep open the
possibility of criticizing the very criteria of legitimate
criticism we utilize’ (p. 144n). It is not clear whether it is
the fact of human fallibilism and our awareness of it that
requires this or the epistemic standard regarding how we ought
to know, or both, in the sense that the epistemic is dependent
or parasitic on the factual.
So a robust sense of critical thinking may be seen as a
fallibilistic epistemic process of questioning and evaluating
statements, beliefs, arguments, knowledge and experience. Being
able to question as a rigorous process of inquiry, to evaluate
evidence and determine the reasonableness of a belief, is
regarded as the hallmark of a critical thinker, who is also
regarded as the paradigm of a liberally educated person. This
process implies that all available evidence, assumptions and
general network of beliefs in a given context be questioned and
critically examined and evaluated. This, according to Paul
(1982), involves a broad view or a ‘strong’ sense of critical
thinking. This involves, (1) the avoidance of atomistic view of
logical errors in individual reasoning, (2) a concern about
self-deception with respect to reasoning, and (3) the
disposition of a person in a given context to have a reasonable
doxastic attitude. It also requires some sensitivity to the
psychological, sociocentric, cognitive and egocentric components
of one’s world-views, which shape one’s beliefs and reasoning.
The ‘strong’ sense of critical thinking requires the exploration
of the network of arguments, issues and views as the context for
justification, in the attempt to ‘depersonalise’ one’s
world-view. This strong view demands that people be willing and
encouraged to actively question, challenge and criticize their
most fundamental beliefs. A core feature of some conceptions of
critical thinking involves having a disposition, attitude, and
willingness, (1) to actually use one’s abilities to effectively
analyze issues, solve problems, reason, organize and express
ideas, and make reasoned judgments, and (2) to contextualize the
use of these abilities to different relevant subject matters.
According to Morgan & Wayne (1995), one of the points ‘of
agreement among the definitions concerns the effective component
of critical thinking. Critical thinking is dependent upon a
person’s disposition to use it’ (p. 338). Critical thinking
involves a disposition which depends on a context that allows
for its development and use. Hence the process of questioning
needs to be taught in the context of a subject matter. We also
need to teach how it is best used to achieve the requisite
result. This idea is illuminated by Aristotle’s view of virtue.
Critical thinking involves, in some sense, the practical
disposition to be epistemically virtuous. Such virtue would
emerge only if someone learns to do virtuous acts all the time
and thus forms the habit of doing virtuous acts; this requires a
context which engenders such disposition and actions. Hence many
theorists (McPeck, Siegel and
Burbules, among others) see critical thinking as a set of
intellectual behaviors and abilities which have to be used,
nurtured and demonstrated—but only when such a context exists.
The Logic and Epistemology of Questioning Hintikka argues that a
striking feature of questioning as a philosophical method, and
in my view as an epistemic process, is its inherent open-ended
process, in that there is the possibility of one question to
lead to another. The process of questioning implies that it has
the logic of open-ended question-and-answer sequences.
Questioning implies a process of continuously opening up issues about the
reasonableness of a belief; it requires providing better
evidence or counter-evidence. This idea is coextensive with the
idea that, with better evidence or counter-evidence, what we
thought we knew could in fact be false—which is the idea that we
are indeed fallible. The epistemic standard of fallibilism which
is parasitic on this idea or fact about human fallibilism
provides a theoretical motivation for critical thinking, which
involves the need for us to acquire and adopt a fallible
disposition and critical attitude. Such an attitude or
disposition involves using the process of questioning to
critically engage in inquiry. Such an attitude can be learned if
one can be taught to appreciate the logic, functions and
significance of questioning with respect to knowledge
acquisition. However it is pertinent to address more precisely
the logic of
questioning as an open-ended process. In this regard,
analysis of questioning as a philosophical method may
illuminate its nature as an epistemic process of critical
thinking. In his analysis, he argues that questioning ‘offers a
useful model for many different types of knowledge-seeking’
(1984, p. 25). These types of knowledge-seeking include, in my
view, learning, inquiring, eliciting information, reasoning,
evaluating evidence and determining the reasonableness of a
belief. Hintikka construes questioning as having a logical structure,
which involves a question-and-answer sequence. A question has a
logical correlative in terms of an answer, which provides the
information being sought by questioning. It is by virtue that
this logic may be seen as an epistemic process of critical
thinking, to the extent that critical thinking involves the
process and attitude of being always open to new evidence and
questioning one’s evidence and the reasonableness of beliefs.
This logic implies that we should never dogmatically accept a
belief or regard any issue as settled. However we may accept
that an issue is tentatively settled and a belief is
unquestionable given the evidence we have. To regard an issue as
unquestionable implies an attitude of dogmatism which is opposed
to the fact that we may be mistaken. This is also akin to the
idea of critical thinking insofar as critical thinking is
opposed to dogmatism. To the extent that questioning has the
logic of opening up a new set of question-and-answer sequences
and the opportunity to be open to new evidence it is not
dogmatic. The logic of questioning implies that we have the
attitude that we may be mistaken. This logic indicates its value
as an epistemic process of critical thinking. This logic is
manifested in our ordinary use of language. When we say that the
point is ‘unquestionably’ correct, this implies that
the issue is resolved, it is understood and no further questions
may be asked to explore it further. But if it is questionable,
then it has to be explored or clarified further. By this
open-ended logic of questioning, ‘we can discuss and evaluate,
not just someone’s state of knowledge at a given time (vis-a-vis
the evidence one has at the time) but also entire strategies of
knowledge-seeking’ (Hintikka, 1984, p. 30). Anytime a person asks a question, she is seeking information in
the form of an answer. This information seeks to eliminate some
plausible alternative answers to the question. For instance, the
question ‘What caused the American civil war?’ suggests that
there is a logical correlative in terms of an answer, ‘x caused
the American Civil War.’ The question seeks information
regarding x, which ‘is a conclusive answer if and only if it
provides the questioner with the information that was requested’
(Hintikka, 1984, p. 27). For this information to be knowledge,
(1) it must be true or at least likely to be true, (2) the
person who provides it is honest, serious and sincerely believes
in it, and (3) it is backed up by sufficient and ‘undefeated’
evidence. When the information is presented to the questioner
and she accepts it, it becomes reasonable for her to say truly
‘I know that so-and-so caused the American Civil War’. The
information presents a factor in a possible range of factors
that may have caused the American Civil War. The information may
not imply that one and only one factor caused the American Civil
War. The person who provides the information must not absolutely
believe that one and only one factor caused the American Civil
War. Her belief or answer can be further questioned or explored
to determine its adequacy and reasonableness. There may be other
information, evidence, factors and insights that have not been
explored which may justify one’s belief. This idea is given
credence by the iterative nature of justification which might be
understood against the background of human fallibilism. If I use
x to justify my belief y, then I need to justify x with z, and z
with w, and so on. Hence a belief is reasonable only in the
context of evidential or inferential relations among all
available beliefs and evidence. Thus the value of any answer is
determined in terms of the information it provides for the
questioner in the context of the inferential and evidential
relations among all available evidence and accepted beliefs and
the opportunity and possibility for it to lead to further
indeterminate question-and answer sequences. However an answer
to a question may not satisfy a questioner. In this regard, the
notion of questioning has a psychological correlative, which is
the expectation that an answer should provide some information
and satisfaction. This derives from the idea that an answer must
satisfy our curiosity and make sense, in that we believe it is
likely to be true based on its evidential relations to our
background beliefs, meta-beliefs and conceptual scheme. We are
then emotionally satisfied by an answer if it makes sense to us;
it is consistent with our coherent set of beliefs; hence it is
considered justified. If the information is inconsistent with our system of beliefs
and our expectation of what the ‘correct’ answer should be, then
we are not likely to be satisfied with the answer provided. Such
inconsistency provides an uncomfortable feeling of
dissatisfaction with the answer provided. The process of
questioning helps us to critically think and react on our
background beliefs and the inferential relation between answers
and our beliefs, to make sense of it in order to satisfy us.
Thus questioning is a powerful epistemic tool, with tremendous
value in that it allows us to regard any
issue as open—it is not unquestionable. This open-ended logic of
questioning, Hintikka (1984) argues, derives in part from the
fact that questions are usually not asked in vacuum, but within
the context of some assumptions, background beliefs,
meta-beliefs and the available information. There are explicit
or implicit evidentiary and inferential links between
assumptions, evidence or justification, and answers or beliefs,
which questions, and the process of questioning, seek to bring
out, to get a satisfactory answer. In this regard, questions and answers are
in the same way in which the
reasonableness of a belief is contextual in relation to the
available evidence. This gives credence to the idea that
critical thinking as a process of questioning and determining
the reasonableness of a belief is also contextual (Burbules,
1991). The assumptions and context that underlying questions
raise are in themselves antecedent questions, which have to be
answered in order to provide adequate information which may illuminate the
target question. Just as a question presupposes other questions
and answers, an answer is also provided within the context of
about other questions and answers. These assumptions
may raise questions which have to be answered, to see how the
individual who provides an answer ‘makes’ the logical
question-and-answer connection or the inferential connection
between belief and evidence. This includes observational or
perceptual beliefs and evidence. What we claim to know, as the
basis for answers, may derive from observations and beliefs.
They are a kind of inference which is made on the basis of our
conceptual scheme, background beliefs and meta-beliefs. Critical
thinking in this regard involves the process of questioning,
examining and evaluating beliefs to determine whether our
experience and beliefs are warranted. We may say that the
process of observation involves critical thinking:
that of making a reasoned connection between our conceptual
scheme or background beliefs as evidence and our perception. For
instance my ability to adequately observe, justifiably believe,
identify or know that a certain object is a chair suggests that
I do have some concept of a chair. This means that the object
that I perceive falls into the conceptual category of things
that I think of as ‘chairlike’. So if my concept of chair is
correct, and my ‘perception’ of the features of the object
is correct, my identification of the object as a chair cannot be
false; it follows necessarily from my premisses. We can ‘see’
and evaluate a conceptual scheme and the reasoning process of
making observations by asking some appropriate questions. If
someone asks me why I identify x as a chair, I would answer by
providing the necessary and sufficient conditions for what I
think must hold for an object to be designated as a chair. I
would catalogue the relevant features of a chair that the thing
x has and I would say that it is as a result of these features
that I have categorized x as a chair. You will then have an idea
of my beliefs about the nature of a chair, the object x, and my
reasoning in terms of how I make the connection between my idea
of the nature of a chair and the features of x as observations
or beliefs. The fact that a question-and-answer sequence has the
possibility of generating other series of question-and-answer
sequences suggests that there is always the possibility of
exploring the context and assumptions which underpin the
questions and answers. This helps one to come to grips with one’s fallibilism and
assumptions which were not obvious. If a set of assumptions is
seen as plausible, then one is able to know this in relation to
one’s belief and answers. If they are not plausible, then they
have to be jettisoned, modified or changed. This idea of seeing
a network of assumptions and beliefs and questioning or
examining them is what is captured by Paul’s (1982) view of
‘strong’ critical thinking. When certain assumptions are
questionable and therefore questioned, then one realizes that the basis for one’s
answer is suspect. One can reasonably see how such assumptions
may contaminate one’s answer for one to be mistaken. One may see
how differences or similarities in assumptions, evidence and
reasoning may illuminate a view and make it understandable. This
realization may engender the process of critical thinking and a
positive attitude towards questioning. The Functions of
Questioning: epistemic and pedagogical implications From the
analysis of logic questioning, we can, in some sense, see some
of the functions it performs and their epistemological and
pedagogical implications. Questioning performs the functions of
increasing our overall knowledge, which may result in our
ability to avoid or correct errors because we are fallible. It
helps us to get a deeper understanding of issues. In this
regard, we may identify two fundamental functions of
questioning. The primary function is that it is
information-seeking. An answer to a question provides
information which adds something to the epistemic
state of the questioner. The secondary function is that it
engenders critical analysis. Questioning can help us to explore
issues about the initial information provided, to determine its
adequacy. This secondary function of questioning includes, among
others, challenging and criticizing in a positive and
constructive way, to help people explore their ideas. The
questioning that proceeds after an initial question has been
answered may be for the purpose of exploring and providing new
perspectives. This could be in the form of playing the ‘devil’s
advocate’, in order to provide an opportunity for both the questioner and the questionee to react
on a belief and the underlying reasoning or evidence. The
function of questioning is illuminated by its logic, which is
similar to the logic of dialectics. Such a dialectical process
involves seeing the answer to a question as a thesis, which can
be further questioned to arrive at an antithesis. The antithesis
can in turn be questioned to arrive at a synthesis, and this may
be seen as a different thesis which can be questioned ad indium.
This open-ended nature of questioning involves a method of
moving knowledge and inquiry forward.
With respect to the primary and secondary functions of
questioning, we may distinguish between fact-finding questions
and analytical questions.
questions are questions
which require one to supply informational facts which are
verifiable. For instance, I may ask, ‘On what date did America
become an independent country?’ or ‘Who is the author of
Macbeth?’ These questions are fact-finding, in that they are
seeking specific answers in the form of facts which can be
verified. The notion of ‘information-seeking
’ is broader than the notion
of ‘fact-finding’. One may seek information in terms of opinions
or ideas which may not constitute facts. If, for instance, I ask
in an Ethics class, ‘What is your stance on abortion?’ or ‘What
is the argument for your stance?’, I am seeking information
about a plausible opinion and reasons which are not facts as
such. These are not fact-finding questions but are
information-seeking; thus, all fact-finding questions are
information-seeking, but the converse is not true. An analytical
question is one which requires one to explore,
explicate, examine, clarify, dissect, react on and relate issues
or ideas. Analytical questions unlike fact-finding questions
might help to elicit the reasoning behind an idea in order to
fully unpack it and make it accessible and understandable, such
that the reasonableness of the idea may be evaluated and
determined. The following may constitute a systematic sequence
of analytical questions in social and moral discourse: What do you mean when you say all
humans are equal? What does equality mean? Can we distinguish
between factual and prescriptive equality? In what sense are all
human beings equal? Are you saying that as an adult, I am equal
to a one-year-old baby? Do you want to suggest that a medical
doctor should receive the equal wage to a cashier in a McDonalds
restaurant? These questions do not seek facts as such, but they
seek to explicate and analyze issues and concepts. These
analytical questions are information-seeking in the primary
sense; they open up the opportunity to ask further exploratory
questions, to improve one’s epistemic state. So analytical
questions may be information-seeking as well. Hintikka draws an
analogy between the analytical-information-seeking variant of
questioning in interrogation and deductive reasoning (1984, p.
35). He provides an example of this in Plato’s dialogue, Meno,
which shows how by questioning, Socrates helped a slave-boy to
analytically elicit complicated knowledge of geometry. This
represents a classic case of how appropriate questioning may
help someone to unearth tacit knowledge or unpack complex and implicit meaning of concepts. In
this sense, analytical questions involve a process of critical
thinking, in that they seek to explore implicit meanings,
inferences, underlying assumptions and justifications. They
involve exploring implications of ideas and the evidential or
causal relations among evidence, ideas, contexts, patterns and
trends. From the distinction and characterization of
fact-finding and analytical questions, we can see that
statements regarding the evidentiary or inferential connection
between answer and question may be either a posteriori and
synthetic or a priori and analytic. For instance, a question may
be a way of requesting that one makes some analytic connections
between two sets of ideas in order to clarify meaning. For
instance, one might ask, ‘What do you mean when you say Jane is
a spinster?’. The answer would be, ‘I mean that Jane is an
unmarried female’. The question requires that one articulates
the idea of ‘spinster’ which is not fully grasped by the
questioner in terms of ‘unmarried female’. A question could also
be a request for one to be aware of and to react on one’s tacit
reasoning process or belief. In making the connection between
inference or reasoning (which has relevance to the notion of
critical thinking) and questioning, Hintikka (1981, 1983) argues
very forcefully that what people call ‘inference’ or ‘deduction’ in a
parlance is actually a sequence of implicit
question and answer. We sometimes see this in a court of law
where a lawyer may use questions to elicit a set of answers from
witnesses, from which she makes inferences and connections as a
basis for making her cases, and by which a judge or jury decides
a case regarding guilt or innocence. The questions in this case
elicit tacit or implicit information. The principle of
fallibilism, which requires us to be methodologically tentative
about our beliefs, is a motivation for questioning, as a process
of seeking information,
activating tacit knowledge
evidence and examining beliefs. This principle governs the quest
for the best deductive procedures (Hintikka, 1981,
1983). It has to do with a process of infusing rigor into
inquiry, making sure that there is consistency or coherence
among beliefs and that there is appropriate justifiatory
connection between belief and evidence. The truth of a
proposition in a deduction is evidentially transmitted to other
propositions that it entails to form a consistent and
justifiable set of propositions. This principle explains how we
rationally form, justify, modify or change our beliefs. However
it is pertinent to distinguish between the proper epistemic
sense of questioning, that which performs the above functions
and has the requisite logic and heuristic value, and the
attenuated senses of questioning, which may legitimately
engender negative attitudes. Some of these attenuated senses of
questioning are used in a confrontational manner for badgering
and as a rhetorical device. These senses my analysis of
questioning as an epistemic process of critical thinking wants
to delegitimise, to obviate the negative attitude. Questioning
is supposed to help build a bridge between a questioner and
questionee in terms of the each sides cognitive state; such possibility is
vitiated by the negative attitude associated with it. If I ask a
question with the expectation that you will understand my
question and provide me with a plausible answer, then my
assumption is that we do at least have similar or coextensive
background beliefs or cognitive abilities. We have ideas about
the nature of rational processes or background and meta-beliefs
that a person should have in order to engage in a meaningful
question-and-answer sequence for the sake of examining issues
and improving knowledge. Critical Examination of Questioning as a Process of Critical
Thinking In the Humanities, analytical questioning is used to
explore the components of an issue, the reasoning behind views
and beliefs, and their implications, such that one can come to a
better understanding, and perhaps, different ways of looking at
an issue. This point is usually not well appreciated by many
students. They think that learning involves knowing the correct
answer to a question, which is synonymous with knowing the
truth. Thus they are more interested in finding the true answer
to a question. Once we have arrived at an answer which
represents the ‘truth’, inquiry ends. Their view is that the
notion of truth is absolute. We should not question the answer
any further to explore its implications, assumptions, merits and
flaws. Although some students appreciate the importance of an
intellectual inquiry in its attempt to arrive at truth, they do not seem to
appreciate the importance of the rigorous, analytical and
critical process for arriving at truth: that the rigor of the
process determines in part the reasonableness of what is
accepted as true. Such reasonableness depends on the adequacy of
the evidence and the method bringing evidence to bear on our
beliefs. As far as many students are concerned, if questioning
has any merit at all, it is vitiated by what is considered its
adversarial and confrontational approach, which engenders a negative attitude.
This attitude towards questioning is similar to Moulton’s (1983) attitude towards the
method of analytic philosophy. She argues that this method
involves constantly looking for better reasons and
counter-examples to refute or rebut another person’s argument.
She argues that this method is fundamentally adversarial and it
is not conducive for learning philosophy. Although Moulton’s
argument is instructive regarding the attitude associated with
the adversarial method, she does not address the adequacy of the
rigour of such a method. One gets the impression that she is
suggesting that the adequacy of the rigor of the method is
irrelevant insofar as it engenders a negative attitude. However
if questioning is seen as reacting this adversarial approach,
then one can appreciate why, according to Moulton’s arguments
regarding the negative attitude, it may not be seen as a tool
that is conducive for teaching and helping students learn. It is
also pertinent to mention that if one appreciates the heuristic
value of questioning, the negative attitude it generates may be
for the most part deemed unwarranted. One heuristic value of an
argument for questioning in relation to fallibilistic
epistemology is that it represents the falsification method of
inquiry in science. Science is generally accepted as involving a
paradigm case of rigorous inquiry. Questioning represents the
rigorous process of testing a belief as a hypothesis. In an
attempt to falsify it, we question the reasons and evidence that
are brought to bear on it. This process, which many have
characterized as critical thinking, may be uncomfortable.
Because people usually emotionally invest in their
the beliefs are deemed to be awed or unjustifiably held, it
appears as if they have lost their investment. This is the idea
reacted in the old saying ‘if ignorance is bliss it is folly to
be wise’. The corollary of this idea is that if
is unpleasant, then it is appropriate to be ignorant: if the
process of learning and acquiring ‘wisdom’ is not pleasurable,
then it is apparently more comfortable
to be ignorant
is a humbling process, thus it is unpleasant.
But the actual feeling involved in one’s realization and state
of knowing (as opposed to the process of knowing) is pleasant,
hence it is unpleasant if it turns out we do not actually know
what we thought we knew. It is in the sense of such a
possibility that learning, which derives from critical thinking,
is an on-going, never-ending process. We always entertain doubt
and question in order to expand our knowledge. Thus the rigorous
process of acquiring knowledge is open-ended; this suggests why,
given fallibilism, the open-ended logic of questioning is
coextensive with the open-ended process of acquiring knowledge.
338 P. Ikuenobe However the open-ended implication of questioning and the
indeterminacy of question-and-answer sequences could be seen as
implying an unsatisfactory epistemological position. This is the
position of perpetual or absolute skepticism, which is that,
since we cannot be certain about our knowledge because we could
be in error
, therefore, we cannot have knowledge. If we cannot
be certain about any belief because it is always open to
question (not ‘unquestionable’), then it is not worth the name
knowledge. So if we can always doubt our knowledge, it seems to
follow that we do not know, since what we know should not be susceptible to
doubt or error. This conclusion is a non-sequitur because the
fact that we are sometimes in error (fallibilism) does not imply
that we are always in error (skepticism). By a nonvacuous
contrast, if we know when we are in error, then we should know
when we are not likely to be in error. We do have strong
intuitions that we know many things. The implication of
open-endedness, Hintikka (1984) argues, should not count against
the value of questioning as a philosophical and epistemic tool;
hence, in my view, it can be used as a tool for teaching and
learning. He argues instead that this view of questioning
highlights its heuristic value as a methodology of learning and
imparting knowledge. That it implies this interesting epistemic
situation is a strong reason to favor it; it involves the
process of exploring and examining beliefs to avoid dogmatism.
However the fact that questioning can help us avoid dogmatism
and move knowledge forward, in terms of the possibility of
highlighting a lack of appropriate justification, it may lead to
the frustration that we cannot arrive at the truth, especially
in the Humanities, where many of the issues are abstract and
conceptual. This is an indication of human nature with fallible
cognitive processes; we should neither be frustrated about it
nor lament it. Since questioning as an epistemic process helps
to foster growth in knowledge, to avoid questioning is to
foreclose growth in knowledge that may be brought about by new
and rigorous perspectives, and to tend towards dogmatism. The
connection between questioning and critical thinking can be
understood, in part, by seeing that they are both conceptually
grounded in the theory of fallibilistic epistemology—which is
motivated by the facts about human fallibilism. In this sense,
at least, they are conceptually coextensive. However we may also
see questioning as theoretically motivated by fallibilism, where
the process of questioning involves the process of critical
thinking. Fallibilism helps us to make sense of the open-ended
nature of the logic of questioning as a process of acquiring
knowledge. Questioning and critical thinking both involve a
process by which we are sensitive to human fallibilism and are
able to bring about approximation to truth and progress in
knowledge. We are able to bring about progress because, by the
rigorous process of questioning involved in critical thinking,
we unearth and explore what we did not know before or initially
see as reasonable. We question and justify our beliefs so that
those that are justifiable will be sustained and those that
cannot be justified will be further questioned, examined,
modified or changed. But the converse, that progress implies
questioning with respect to rigorous critical analysis is not
necessarily true, because progress could arise from guesses,
fortuitous revelations and accidental discoveries without any
concerted and rigorous efforts to question, inquire and examine.
Given the plausibility of these statements, by
deny growth implies the denial of rigor inherent in questioning
regarding critical thinking. An important character and value of
rigorous and critical inquiry is its ability to bring about
progress in knowledge. This is engendered by the process and
method of questioning. This argument may be illuminated by
(1970) conceptual distinction between ‘normal’ and
‘revolutionary’ sciences. Kuhn argues that ‘revolutionary’
science has rigor, because it involves questioning and critical
examination; this involves seeking new evidence, trying to
falsify old theories, thus facilitating progress and growth in
human knowledge. The concept of critical thinking and the
associated principles and process involves being able eschew
dogmatism and avoidable errors. This epistemic process of
eschewing dogmatism requires that we be appropriately moved by
reason, which involves, according to Siegel (1988), ‘a proper
understanding of the relevance of reasons and the rules of
inference and evidence’ (p. 43). This idea is captured by the
notion of ‘constructive’ questioning or criticism, which is a
rigorous process by which one may systematically bring evidence
to bear on belief, to bring about growth and progress in
knowledge. Lack of such process can lead to intellectual
stagnation and decay. In this sense, questioning may be seen as
an aspect of critical thinking which involves the process and
general context of learning, the acquisition of knowledge and
education. My analysis of questioning shows how its logic and
functions provide a context which may encourage the epistemic
virtue of the process of examining evidence as a basis for
optimizing the reasonableness of beliefs and how lack of such
context may impede the process. Paradoxically the advantage and
heuristic value of fallibilism as a grounding for the process of
questioning with respect to critical thinking may be part of the
problem and the negative attitude usually associated with
questioning. The relationship between questions and answers also creates an
epistemic problem similar to
. If I ask a question
seeking information, I should already ‘know’ (implicitly) or
presuppose an answer. If I do not already ‘know’ (implicitly) an
answer, I would not know if the answer that is provided is the
correct one in order to accept it as satisfying my inquiry. I
would not even ask the question if I did not already ‘know’
(implicitly) the correct answer I should accept. The
notion of question thus seems to suggest that one somehow
presupposes the answer or a plausible range or spectrum of
alternatives, hence one questions to get something that falls
into the spectrum, to validate what one knows. At the same time,
if one does not already know what the information or spectrum
is, one will not know what one is looking for because even if
one lands it one will not recognize it as representing what one
is looking for, since one does not ‘know’ it. However the
logic of questioning in its open-ended process helps us to avoid
this epistemic problem in Meno’s paradox. The logic of
questioning implies that nothing is absolutely known;
assumptions are open to questioning and further exploration. By
questioning the assumptions underlying questions and answers in
an open-ended sense, we are able to clarify our ideas. When we
ask a question, we do so within the contexts of our background
beliefs, available evidence or knowledge,
and conceptual scheme. When we accept an answer, we do so
tentatively within 340 P. Ikuenobe
these contexts as inference to the best explanation which could
be questioned further given better evidence.
I have analyzed questioning to show its connection with
fallibilistic epistemology as a basis to motivate
as a process of inquiry. By questioning texts, views,
assumptions and beliefs, students may be able to learn the
process of inquiry and acquire the ability and disposition of
critical thinking. My analysis seems to lend credence to some
commonplace views regarding how teaching and using the process
of questioning could help students acquire critical thinking
abilities. This requires that,
(1) instructors motivate questioning by explaining to students its logic, functions
and basis as an epistemic process—this may help to vitiate the
negative attitudes and implications;
(2) students have to see
the connections among questioning, critical thinking, inquiry
and learning, and fallibilism;
(3) instructors have to develop a
constructive and non-threatening way to ask questions and teach
students a process of asking questions so that one does not
alienate and intimidate;
(4) the instructor must create, in
general, a classroom environment that will allow
students to express themselves, and they must be given the
opportunity to actively participate in their own learning
process, which involves acquiring the skills of questioning for
the purpose of bringing about understanding, growth and progress
BLOSSER, P.E. (1973) Handbook of Effective Questioning
Techniques (Worthington, Education
BRIDGES, D. (1979) Education, Democracy and Discussion (Windsor,
BURBULES, N. (1991) Rationality and Reasonableness: A Discussion
of Harvey Siegel’s Relativism
Refuted and Educating Reason, Educational Theory, 41(2), pp.
D’ANGELO, E. (1971) The Teaching of Critical Thinking
(Amsterdam, B.R. Gruner).
DILLON, J.T. (1983) Teaching and the Art of Questioning
(Bloomington, IN, Phi Delta Kappa, No.194).
GOLMAN, A. (1986) Epistemology and Cognition (Cambridge, MA,
Harvard University Press).
HINTIKKA, J. (1981) The Logic of Information-Seeking Dialogues:
A Model, in: W. ESSLER &W.
BECKER (Eds) Konsepte der Dialektik (Frankfurt, Vittorio
HINTIKKA, J. (1983) Rules, Utilities, and Strategies in
Dialogical Games, in: J. HINTIKKA & L.
VAINA (Eds) Cognitive Constraints on Communication (Dordrect,
Holland, D Reidel).
HINTIKKA, J. (1984) Questioning as a Philosophical Method, in:
J.H. FETZER (Ed.) Principles of
Philosophical Reasoning (Totowa, NJ, Rowman & Allanheld).
HYMAN, R.T. (1979) Strategic Questioning (Englewood Cliffs,
KUHN, T. (1970) The Structure of Scientific Revolutions
(Chicago, University of Chicago Press).
MCPECK, J. (1981) Critical Thinking and Education (New York, St
MORGAN, J. & WAYNE, R. (1995) Critical Thinking—What Does that
Mean?, Journal of College
Science Teaching, March/April, pp. 336–340.
MOULTON, J. (1983) A Paradigm of Philosophy: the adversary
method, in: S. HARDING &M.B.
HINTIKKA (Eds) Discovering Reality (Boston, MA, D. Reidel &
PAUL, R.W. (1982) Teaching Critical Thinking in the ‘Strong’
Sense: A Focus on Self-Deception,
World Views and a Dialectical Mode of Analysis, Informal Logic
Newsletter, 4(2), pp. 2–7.
Questioning as an Epistemic Process 341
POPPER, K. (1985) Truth and Approximation to Truth, in: D.
MILLER (Ed.) Popper Selections
(Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press).
RUSSELL, B. (1959) The Problems of Philosophy ( New York, Oxford
RUSSELL, B. (1965) An Inquiry Into Meaning and Truth (
Baltimore, Penguin Books).
SIEGEL, H. (1988) Educating Reason (New York, Routledge).
0013-1857 print; ISSN 1469-5812 online/01/03&40325-17
Ó 2001 Philosophy of Education Society of Australasia
DOI: 10.1080/00131850120064063326 P. Ikuenobe
Why do we never get an answer
When we're knocking at the door
With a thousand million questions
About hate and death and war
It's where we stop and look around us
There is nothing that we need
In a world of persecution
That is burning in it's greed
Why do we never get an answer
When we're knocking at the door
Because the truth is hard to swallow
That's what the wall of love is for
It's not the way that you say it
When you do those things to me
It's more the way that you mean it
When you tell me what will be
And when you stop and think about it
You won't believe it's true
That all the love you've been giving
Has all been meant for you
I'm looking for someone to change my life
I'm looking for a miracle in my life
And if you could see what it's done to me
To lose the the love I knew
Could safely lead me through
Between the silence of the mountains
And the crashing of the sea
There lies a land I once lived in
And she's waiting there for me
But in the gray of the morning
My mind becomes confused
Between the dead and the sleeping
And the road that I must choose
I'm looking for someone to change my life
I'm looking for a miracle in my life
And if you could see what it's done to me
To lose the the love I knew
Could safely lead me to
The land that I once knew
To learn as we grow old
The secrets of our souls
It's not the way that you say it
When you do those things to me
It's more the way you really mean it
When you tell me what will be
Why do we never get an answer
When we're knocking at the door
With a thousand million questions
About hate and death and war
It's where we stop and look around us
There is nothing that we need
In a world of persecution
That is burning in it's greed
Why do we never get an answer
When we're knocking at the door...
Dunlap: The life-long learner
Sometimes there are questions that you need to answer that go
way beyond the
, like the
, questions that if answered correctly will
help paint a clearer picture.
Who? When? Where? Why?
Where did it take place?
When did it take place?
Who was involved?
Why did that happen?
How did it happen?
: Good Instincts, Good Imagination, Good Memory, Good at
Estimating and Good Common Sense.
: Sight, Hearing, Smelling, Taste and Touching or Feeling.
Some statements create more questions then they answer
, it forces other people
ta ask questions because the person did not
about their statement. And some
create more questions. Not to say that the
newly created questions are relevant or important, or does it
mean that we should be discouraged from asking questions just because
it may lead to more work
more questions. It only means that we must
realize that just because we answered one question, that does not necessarily
mean that we have answered all the questions completely. Some
need further inquiring in order for us to better
something, this way we have a better chance
. Knowing is a
lot better then not knowing,
but believing that you
is the most
damaging thing in the world.
No Such thing as a stupid question
is a popular
that has had a long history.
It suggests that the quest for knowledge includes failure
, and that just
because one person may know less than others they should not be afraid to
ask rather than pretend they
. In many cases multiple people may not know but are too
afraid to ask the "stupid question"; the one who asks the question may in
fact be doing a service to those around them.
Never discourage a child's need for
Movie clip where the kid keeps asking the
?' over and over again. This is a clip from the HBO pilot show called
Lucky Louie. You should always answer with better answers of course.
"It's better not knowing what you don't
know, then not even knowing that you don't know
. Even if the
pursuit of knowledge creates more questions, at least you know
that there are more questions to answer, because if you didn't
know that there was more questions to ask, then you will never
become more knowledgeable. Learning
is a good thing.
is a bad thing."
Asking too many questions
can sometimes have the opposite effect by making things more
complicated then they need to be. Stick with the known facts and
for a later time
more is known about the problem
When giving answers you want to avoid being
. So how
do you know how much information a person requires? By giving
that person an answer and then saying that there is more
information if needed. So depending on that person's knowledge,
and their ability to know when more information is needed, will
ultimately determine how much information is needed.
A funny thing happens when learning,
the more you know the more you will
realize what you don't know
is not bad because now you know what you don't know, so you're
still learning. But now you're a little more aware, and you now
have more choices and more options, with several choices being,
Do you need to seek out missing knowledge on your own? Or find
someone who has the missing knowledge that you need? Or, if
unable to access needed information, what actions can you make,
Learning how much you don't know is just the beginning
Know it All
is kind of
like learning, it's endless. The more you learn, the more you know. And
the more you know, the larger your circle of awareness and understanding
gets. And as you keep learning more, the more you learn about what you
still don't know. But it's not just learning about all the different things that you
still don't know, it's learning about all the things that you can
know, and all the choices and possibilities that knowledge gives you. So
you can say that learning is its own reward, but it's much bigger than
that, much much bigger.
Our desire to know things and to
learn things is either a gift from God or just a natural process that life
created in order for life to prosper and survive. If we did not have this
gift to learn we would not be here. So if you take this gift for granted,
or ignore its potential, your life will be meaningless and very
- Self Directed Learning
Knowing more and more about less and
less until you know everything about nothing, is just another
"One side effect of learning is that the
more you learn about the world, the more you will realize how
many problems there are in the world, which is a good thing.
Because you can't solve a problem if you don't realize a problem
exists. Don't be discourage by knowing how f*cked up the world
is, be thankful that you know it. And be thankful that this is
not all that you know, because you also know how wonderful life
is. You have to
between fixing the problems and enjoying life."
"What ever you do,
do not discourage yourself from learning
, or frustrate
yourself because of difficulties. Obstacles and obstructions are
a part of life. They are not barriers, they are only
problems that require a little more thinking in order to solve
is an appraisal of the
of something. An expert
, quantity, and other characteristics of someone or something. Credit
is the evaluation or assessment
of something, in terms of
a critic rating a novel), quantity (as with an athlete being rated by his
or her statistics
), or some combination of both.
System for Movies
is something of superior grade. An essential and distinguishing attribute. A
characteristic property that defines the apparent individual
nature of something. Excellence or worth measured by long
lasting, durable, repairable, recyclable.Quality
property of a device measured under closely
In order to speed up the process
is the best or the most valuable
product or process, you need a
rating system that can quickly calculate the most important
aspects and features, and at the same time explain why these
aspects are the most important. A person might have particular
needs, so then and only then, does a product or process need to
be changed or modified. A Rating System can never be about
opinions, it can only be based on
, user feedback and
. A Rating System can never be accurately
measured using money because money does not have any useful
information attached to it.
Money only indicates the price of something
, money does not
calculate the true cost, the amount time, the amount of people,
the amount of resources, its durability, its recyclability, its
ease of repair, its ease of
, or the impacts and the
side effects that a particular product or process has on the
environment or people.
Ratings and Reviews from others helps us to choose, but not without risk.
There's more to choosing
then meets the
is a relationship
between a set of items such that, for any two items, the first is either
'ranked higher than', 'ranked lower than' or 'ranked equal to' the second.
In mathematics, this is known as a weak order or total preorder of
objects. It is not necessarily a total order of objects because
two different objects
can have the same
ranking. The rankings themselves are totally ordered. For example,
materials are totally preordered by hardness, while degrees of hardness
are totally ordered.
refers to the relative position,
, complexity, power, importance
, authority, level, etc. of a
person or object within a ranking.
can be manipulated like with the
2008 Financial Scam
Americans almost 1 Trillion
these criminals are still stealing money
is the degree of agreement among
raters. It gives a score of how much homogeneity, or
, there is in the ratings
given by judges. It is useful in refining the tools given to human judges,
for example by determining if a particular scale is appropriate for
measuring a particular variable. If various raters do not agree, either
the scale is defective or the raters need to be re-trained. There are a
number of statistics which can be used to determine inter-rater
reliability. Different statistics are appropriate for different types of
. Some options are:
joint-probability of agreement, Cohen's kappa and the related Fleiss'
kappa, inter-rater correlation,
concordance correlation coefficient
a statistic which measures inter-rater agreement for qualitative
(categorical) items. It is generally thought to be a more robust measure
than simple percent agreement calculation, since κ takes into account the
agreement occurring by chance.
a statistical measure for assessing the reliability of agreement between a
fixed number of raters when assigning categorical ratings to a number of
items or classifying items.
is a form of qualitative research in which a
group of people are asked about their perceptions, opinions, beliefs, and
attitudes towards a product, service, concept, advertisement, idea, or
packaging. Questions are asked in an interactive group setting where
participants are free to talk with other group members. During this
process, the researcher either takes notes or records the vital points he
or she is getting from the group. Care should be noted to select members
of the group carefully for effective and authoritative responses.Statistics
a systematic determination of a
subject's merit, worth and significance
, using criteria governed by a
set of standards. It can assist an organization, program, project or any
other intervention or initiative to assess any aim, realisable
concept/proposal, or any alternative, to help in
; or to
ascertain the degree of achievement or value in regard to the aim and
objectives and results of any such action that has been completed. The
primary purpose of evaluation, in addition to gaining insight into prior
or existing initiatives, is to enable reflection and assist in the
identification of future change.
about that entity,
typically a result of social evaluation
on a set of criteria.
Popularity can be Flawed
, or an uneducated opinion, both can have value, and
both can have very little Value
Questions and Answers System
is to appraise critically.
How to Spot a Fake Review on Amazon
has 236,337,760 Total Reviews Analyzed.
Consumer Review Fairness Act of 2016- H.R.5111
restricts people from
writing fake reviews or having other people write fake reviews on their
behalf. But how will this stop the
A Rating System
must standardized, incorruptible and easily deciphered. (5 Star)
The Rating System must be able to be updated when user feedback
reveals new insights or new information.
Calculations - Techniques - Processes
- Facts - Figures - Weights - Measures and Size - Dimensions -
Technical Descriptions - Manufacturer Sustainability -
Recyclable - Ingredients - Chemicals used - Parts - Components -
Comparisons to other Techniques
Unbiased Product Reviews or
User Feedback that analyzes and evaluates a product accurately.
does not determine
of a product or
service, it only determines the price that someone is willing to