Water - H2O
or H2O, is a liquid
necessary for the
that occurs at
as a clear colorless odorless
tasteless liquid; freezes into ice
below Zero degrees centigrade and
above 100 degrees centigrade; widely used as a
. The part of the
covered with water (such as a river or lake or
). There are 3
in a Water
(H), and 1 Oxygen
Over 70% of our
is covered by water. 97.5% of all
on earth is
. Only 2.5% is fresh water,
and less then 1% is
is frozen in the icecaps.
(what is water?)
Filters for Water
Quality of Water
(water testing and monitoring)Pesticides
(poisons and water pollution)
The Average American uses 99 Gallons
of Water a Day
for activities like
bathing, toilet-flushing and cooking. Then on top of
the average American uses
another 250 gallons of
water per day to generate
daily electricity usage, =
350 gallons. Water
Efficiency in Rural Areas is Getting Worse, Even as it Improves in Urban
Since there are no federal
regulations either guaranteeing a citizen’s right to water or water
affordability, water and sewer prices more than doubled between 2000 to
, outpacing price increases for other basics such as electricity.
Sectoral contributions to surface water stress in the coterminous United
environmental, social and economic issues contributing to
the drought crisis in California.
Global Precipitation Measurements
Climate ChangeDry Land Farming
Water Resources in the U.S.
Desalination Water from
is an underground layer of water-bearing
permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand,
or silt) from which groundwater can be extracted using a water well.
Water Use Tips
- Run off
Clean Water Rights
Clean Water Act
is the primary federal law in the United States
governing water pollution. Its objective is to restore and maintain the
chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the nation's waters by
preventing point and nonpoint pollution sources, providing assistance to
publicly owned treatment works for the improvement of wastewater
treatment, and maintaining the integrity of wetlands.
. Documenting the Hidden History of Chemical and Pesticide
Hazards in the United States.
Safe Drinking Water Act
is the principal federal law in the United States intended to ensure safe
drinking water for the public.
Over 1 Million American Rural Residents Don't Have Clean
An Analysis of Water Collection Labor among Women and Children in 24
Sub-Saharan African Countries
. An estimated 13.54 million women (and
3.36 million children) who are responsible for water collection trips that
take 30 minutes or longer.
Resource Conservation Recovery Act
is a program designed to fund the cleanup of sites contaminated with
hazardous substances and pollutants.
Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act
to encourage and
support emergency planning efforts at the state and local levels and to
provide the public and local governments with information concerning
potential chemical hazards present in their communities.
Drugs in Public Drinking Water
Nearly 200 million Americans across all 50 states are exposed to unsafe
levels of chromium-6 or hexavalent chromium
, a heavy metal known to
cause cancer in animals and humans.
Michigan Mayor Declares State Of Emergency Over Lead
are at it again. We have too many
criminals in our local city governments. We need
Diets high in iron, calcium or vitamin C can limit the
absorption of lead in your body and promote its
HERE'S TO FLINT 2016
Financial Emergency in Michigan
Elevated levels of Lead in Children
from Flint, Mich
S.2377 - Lead-Free Drinking Water Act of 2004
Today at least
million households have children living in them that are being exposed to
high levels of lead
. Almost 3,000 areas with poisoning rates far
higher than in the tainted Michigan city. Yet many of these lead hotspots
are receiving little attention or funding.
Our National Lead Problem Is Bigger Than Flint
America's lead poisoning problem isn't just in Flint.
More than 5,000 water systems across the country are
violating rules meant to keep lead out of drinking water,
Nationally, nearly 1,400 water systems serving 3.7
million Americans violated the federal standard at least
once over that time period. The information was based on
data current as of September 2015.
39 of 1,082 water systems
serving schools, office
parks, a state office, and apartment and condominium
complexes have exceeded federal lead levels at least
once since January 2013.
than 6 million Americans are drinking water laced with unsafe levels of
chemicals linked with cancer and other illnesses
immunotoxicant exposure and postnatal autoimmune disease.
Indigenous Americans Have Been Living Flint's Nightmare for Decades
First Nations Water Crisis in Indigenous Communities
Deficits in Psychologic and Classroom Performance of Children with
Elevated Dentine Lead Levels
What Do Parents Need to Know to Protect Their Children? Prevent lead
exposure before it occurs.$2.2 billion
over five years to Service Men Poisoned by Water
former reservists and former National Guard members who served for at
least 30 days at the U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune in North Carolina
from 1953 to 1987,
up to 900,000
service members, were potentially exposed to the tainted water at the base
They developed adult leukemia, aplastic anemia, bladder cancer, kidney
cancer, liver cancer, multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and
Parkinson’s disease. Contaminants included the volatile organic compounds
trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, benzene and vinyl chloride.
Toxic Water Polluters List
Pollution of Groundwater
"No more Exemptions to the Law
can occur from on-site sanitation systems, landfills,
effluent from wastewater treatment plants, leaking sewers, petrol stations
or from over application of fertilizers in agriculture.
Toxic carcinogen found in 80 of New Jersey water systems
comes from breathing in small water droplets or
mist contaminated with the
Biofilms in Drinking Water Distribution Systems: Significance and Control
5.2 million Americans learned that their drinking water
is contaminated with man-made Unsafe Levels of PFCs
DuPont, despite knowledge that the chemical was linked
to increased rates of cancer and other horrific health
conditions in animals and human beings, had dumped
mountains of the stuff into the local water supply for
Water for People
Agua 4 All
World Water Day
UNICEF Tap Project
World Water Day
Keep body clean without water
3.4 million people die each year
from water-related diseases.
Water Smart Innovations
and Water Watch
is the contamination of water bodies
(e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers and groundwater). This form of
environmental degradation occurs when pollutants are directly or
indirectly discharged into water bodies without adequate treatment to
remove harmful compounds. Water pollution affects the entire biosphere –
plants and organisms living in these bodies of water. In almost all cases
the effect is damaging not only to individual species and population, but
also to the natural biological communities.
refers to the chemical, physical, biological, and radiological
characteristics of water. It is a measure of the condition of water
relative to the requirements of one or more biotic species and or to any
human need or purpose. It is most frequently used by reference to a set of
standards against which compliance can be assessed. The most common
standards used to assess water quality relate to health of ecosystems,
safety of human contact, and drinking water.
is water that is safe to drink or to
use for food preparation, without risk of health problems. Globally, in
2015, 91% of people had access to water suitable for drinking. Nearly 4.2
billion had access to tap water while another 2.4 billion had access to
wells or public taps. 1.8 billion people still use an unsafe drinking
water source which may be contaminated by feces. This can result in
and typhoid among others. (Potable Water
Water Quality Database
Since 2010, water utilities' testing has found
pollutants in Americans' tap water, according to an EWG drinking water
quality analysis of 30 million state water records.
All 50 states in America have
polluted waters where fish are
unsafe to eat.
City Fish Farmer
Urban Fish Farm
Water is Life
(manual on amazon)
Recreational Water Quality Alerts
River Preservation Groups
Environmental Quotes and Sayings
Drinking Water Test Kit
Handheld TDS Meter
TDS-EZ Water Quality
City Drinking Water Test Kits
Water Test Kits
Water Test America
Tox-Spot Water Toxicity Test
Low Cost inkjet Printed Nano
A pill with pesticide-detecting enzymes
is used in various breath freshener or oral hygiene products.
Water Filtering - Purification
Water Filter Kit and Faucet
Brita Water Filter Pitcher
Perfect Water Purifier
ZeroWater ZD-013 8-Cup Pitcher
Water Filter Pitcher
Waves for Water
Portable Filtration Systems.
Life Saver Water Bottle Filter Systems
Wateroam Fieldtrate Lite
LifeStraw Personal Water Filter
Katadyn Survivor 06 Desalinator
SolarSack Water Purification
is a special bag that is filled with four
liters of water and placed in the sun for four hours. Using UVA and UVB
rays, as well as heat from the sun, the water is cleaned of pathogenic
bacteria. The user can then drink the water and reuse the bag for water
Solar Pure Water
distills water, using the
heat of the Sun
evaporate, cool then collect the water. There are many types of solar
still, including large scale concentrated solar stills, and condensation
traps (better known as moisture traps amongst survivalists). In a solar
still, impure water is contained outside the collector, where it is
evaporated by sunlight shining through clear plastic or glass. The pure
water vapor condenses on the cool inside surface and drips down, where it
is collected and removed. Distillation replicates the way nature makes
. The sun's energy heats water to the point of
. As the
water evaporates, water vapor rises, condensing into water again as it
cools and can then be collected. This process leaves behind impurities,
such as salts and heavy metals, and eliminates microbiological organisms.
The end result is pure distilled water.
The Solar Still Water Purification Kit
UMD Researchers Work to Mitigate Water Scarcity Crisis with Solar-Powered
Devices Made of Wood
. Water can be transported through wood, purifying
it for safe use.
To accurately taste water
, water should be
at room temperature, not chilled.
Amazon water Sanitation Hygiene Project
is a point-of-use water treatment
system adapted from traditional slow sand filters. Biosand filters remove
pathogens and suspended solids from water using biological and physical
processes that take place in a sand column covered with a biofilm. BSFs
have been shown to remove heavy metals, turbidity, bacteria, viruses and
protozoa. BSFs also reduce discoloration, odor and unpleasant taste.
Studies have shown a correlation between use of BSFs and a decrease in
occurrence of diarrhea. Because of their effectiveness, ease of use, and
lack of recurring costs, biosand filters are often considered appropriate
technology in developing countries. It is estimated that over 200,000 BSFs
are in use worldwide.
Quest Water Solutions
Can Produces Potable Water
is a water purification technology
that uses a semipermeable membrane to remove ions, molecules, and larger
particles from drinking water. In reverse osmosis, an applied pressure is
used to overcome osmotic pressure, a colligative property, that is driven
by chemical potential differences of the solvent, a thermodynamic
parameter. Reverse osmosis can remove many types of dissolved and
suspended species from water, including bacteria, and is used in both
industrial processes and the production of potable water.
5 Stage Reverse Osmosis Water Filter
is an home appliance which claims to raise the pH of drinking water by
using electrolysis to separate the incoming water stream into acidic and
alkaline components. Proponents claim that consumption of the alkaline
stream results in a variety of health benefits, making it similar to the
alternative health practice of alkaline diets. Such claims are not
accepted in chemistry, physiology, and evidence-based medicine.
Make Alkaline Water
is water that has had many of its impurities removed through distillation.
Distillation involves boiling the water and then condensing the steam into
a clean container.
Slingshot water vapor distillation system Distillation
PTG Wastewater Disinfection
is water that has been mechanically
filtered or processed to remove impurities and make it suitable for use.
Distilled water has been the most common form of purified water, but, in
recent years, water is more frequently purified by other processes
including capacitive deionization, reverse osmosis, carbon filtering,
microfiltration, ultrafiltration, ultraviolet oxidation, or
Aquaporin Water Purification
MSR SE200 Community Chlorine Maker
Alter Ego Personal Water Filtration
Google Project 10^100
Drinkpure Water Filtration Device
The Drinkable Book - Water is Life
The Drinkable Book - Water is Life
Eureka Forbes AquaSure Amrit with Kitanu Magnet
Method of Binding Pollutants in Water
Arsenic Water Filter
Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash (ARUBA)
SE200™ Community Chlorine Maker
with a porous form of
, superior to traditional
filters could be washed at room temperature with
methanol or ethanol.
Novel Nanoparticle to remove Cadmium Toxicity from a Freshwater System
Coffee-infused foam removes lead from contaminated water
Water near the beach often has a slight scent of sulfur
because of sulfur-producing microbes in groundwater. The stuff purified
from some rivers or lakes can have an earthy, organic taste to it that
results from leftover bits of decomposing plant matter. If you live in
cities like New York or San Francisco, you enjoy pristine, delicious
reservoir water piped in from distant mountains. Water bottled from
mountain springs, like that from wells, can be packed with minerals that
alter its flavor. Calcium makes water taste milky and smooth,
magnesium can be bitter, and sodium makes it taste salty.
Pesticide Action Network
Integrated Pest Management
are a class of neuro-active
insecticides chemically similar to
is a substance used to kill
are chemicals that are meant to kill
or weedkillers, are chemical substances
used to control unwanted
is a type of insect trap that uses pheromones to lure insects.
larvae can destroy significant percentages
Lawns and Yards
Food Pesticide List
Foods that Have Pesticides
Smart Safe Pesticides
Shoppers Guide for Pesticides
is an herbicide of the triazine class.
Atrazine is used to prevent pre- and postemergence broadleaf weeds in
crops such as maize (corn) and sugarcane and on turf, such as golf courses
and residential lawns.
An effective way to eliminate atrazine and its by-products in surface
is a pesticide being phased out by most
countries in the early 2000s.
is a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide
and crop desiccant.
is Linked To Parkinson's Disease.
is a crystalline organophosphate
insecticide, acaracide and miticide. Chlorpyrifos exposure has been linked
to neurological effects, persistent developmental disorders and autoimmune
disorders. Exposure during pregnancy retards the mental development of
children, and most home use was banned in 2001 in the U.S. In agriculture,
it is "one of the most widely used organophosphate insecticides" in the
United States, according to the United States Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA), and before being phased out for residential use was one of
the most used residential insecticides. On March 29, 2017, EPA
Administrator Scott Pruitt denied a petition to ban chlorpyrifos.
War against Americans
Denial by poisoning the land, air, food and water.
involves using the toxic properties of
chemical substances as
. This type of warfare is distinct from nuclear warfare and
biological warfare, which together make up NBC, the military acronym for
nuclear, biological, and chemical
(warfare or weapons), all of which are
considered "weapons of mass destruction" (WMDs). None of these fall under
the term conventional weapons which are primarily effective due to their
Operation Ranch Hand
herbicidal warfare program during the war called
"Operation Trail Dust". Ranch Hand involved spraying an estimated 20
million U.S. gallons (76,000 m3) of defoliants and herbicides over rural
areas of South Vietnam in an attempt to deprive the Viet Cong of
vegetation cover. Areas of Laos and Cambodia were also sprayed to a lesser
extent. Nearly 20,000 sorties were flown between 1961 and 1971.
is the use of substances primarily designed to
destroy the plant-based ecosystem of an area.
Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons
is a government or corporate policy used as a military
strategy that targets anything that might be useful to people while
advancing through or withdrawing from an area. Any assets that could be
used by people may be targeted, for example food sources, transportation,
communications, industrial resources, and even the people in the area.
Protecting Food. Empowering
Governments signed agreements to end Crimes against Humanity
Toxins in Products
1.1 billion pounds of dangerous
are used in the U.S. annually.
Insecticide Runoff Maps and Charts
Slow Poisoning of India
Our Daily Poison (2011)
, food coloring, packaging.
Scientific studies that have been ignored, and
some studies they use are flawed
, no reasoning.
are chemicals that, at certain
doses, can interfere with endocrine
) systems. These disruptions can cause
cancerous tumors, birth defects, and other developmental disorders. Any
system in the body controlled by hormones can be derailed by hormone
are toxins that are poisonous or
destructive to nerve tissue
is when exposure to natural or artificial
toxic substances, which are called neurotoxins, alters the normal activity
of the nervous system in such a way as to cause damage to nervous tissue.
This can eventually disrupt or even kill
, key cells that transmit and process signals in the brain and
other parts of the nervous system
is a diverse group of poisonous substances including preservatives,
insecticides, disinfectants, and pesticides used for the control of
organisms that are harmful to human or animal health or that cause damage
to natural or manufactured products. A chemical substance or microorganism
intended to destroy, deter, render harmless, or exert a controlling effect
on any harmful organism by chemical or biological means.
Horizontal Gene Transfer
is the movement of genetic
material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by
the ("vertical") transmission of
from parent to
offspring. HGT is an important factor in the evolution of many organisms.
Chronic Kidney Disease
is progressive loss in kidney
function over a period of months or years.
is a long term
primarily affecting the small intestine that occurs in people who are
is a group of blood cancers
that includes all types of lymphoma except Hodgkin's lymphomas. Symptoms
include enlarged lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, weight loss, and
tiredness. Other symptoms may include bone pain, chest pain, or itchiness.
Some forms are slow growing while others are fast growing.
is a condition existing at or
before birth regardless of cause.
What is Natural
Chemical Exposure Linked to Health Care Costs
Body Burden Testing
is the measurement of the body burden
of toxic chemical compounds
or their metabolites, in biological substances.
What is a Body Burden
Damage to the Brain and Body
Years of Potential Life
Acceptable Daily Intake
is a measure of the
amount of a specific substance (originally applied for a food additive,
later also for a residue of a veterinary drug or pesticide) in food or
drinking water that can be ingested (orally) on a daily basis over a
lifetime without an appreciable health risk. ADIs are expressed usually in
milligrams (of the substance) per kilograms of body weight per day.
Metal Test Analysis
Infectious Diseases Emergency Preparedness Plan
Household Chemicals Cancer Concern
National Industrial Chemicals Notification and
is designed to help protect
workers, the public and the environment from the harmful effects of
industrial chemicals. It does so by making
information on chemicals widely available and providing recommendations
for their safe use. NICNAS also informs importers and manufacturers of
their legal responsibilities.
Toxins and Child Birth
Economic Injury Level (EIL)
The level of pest infestation below which the cost of
further reducing the pest population exceeds the
additional revenue or value of other benefits such
Environmental Protection Agency
Since 2004, the water provided to more
49 million Americans has contained illegal
concentrations of chemicals like arsenic or radioactive
substances like uranium, as well
as dangerous bacteria
often found in sewage.
But I still don't buy bottled water because that
adds to the problem. I use a water filter
and a reusable
water bottle. We definitely
have to make the
their failures if we want things to
Consumer Confidence Report
97% of water on earth is undrinkable.
Why are the Feds allowing industries to Pollute
the Nations Underground Water Supply
is a broad-based approach that
integrates practices for economic control of pests. IPM aims to suppress
pest populations below the economic injury level (EIL).
Integrated Pest Management
is a contraction of 'biological
pesticides', include several types of pest management intervention:
through predatory, parasitic, or chemical relationships. The term has been
associated historically with biological control - and by implication - the
manipulation of living organisms.
Organic Pest Control
Biological Pest Control
is a method of controlling pests
such as insects, mites, weeds and plant diseases using other organisms. It
relies on predation, parasitism, herbivory, or other natural mechanisms,
but typically also involves an active human management role. It can be an
important component of integrated pest management (IPM) programs.
A Guide to Organic Pest-Free Gardening
Organically Grown Food Pesticides
Learn to Grow Organic Food
pest-control techniques which do not rely on pesticides. It is used in
organic production of foodstuff, as well as in other situations in which
the introduction of toxins is undesirable. Instead of the use of synthetic
toxins, pest control is achieved by biological means.
Organic Weed Spray:
1 gallon of water, 2 cups of Epson salt,
1/4 cup of dish soap (original blue dawn)
This is as easy as filling a spray bottle with white
vinegar and adding a teaspoon of dish soap. Be careful
when spraying this solution because it can kill your
In a large pot, mix two heads of crushed garlic, 3 cups
of crushed mint leaves, 2 teaspoons of cayenne pepper
and 12 cups of water, and bring to a boil. Let the
mixture sit overnight and then strain it into a couple
of spray bottles, adding a few squirts of dish soap to
each. This should yield 12 cups of liquid..
Biodynamics Non-Chemical Agricultural
is a form of
alternative agriculture very similar to organic farming, but it includes
various esoteric concepts.
Electronic Pest Control
is the use of any of the several types of electrically powered devices
designed to repel or eliminate pests, usually rodents or insects.
Sound waves as a Pesticide
Flowers Instead of Pesticides
is a line of closely spaced shrubs and tree species, planted and trained
to form a barrier or to mark the boundary of an area, such as between
neighbouring properties.Crops that kill
pests by shutting off their genes.
Plants are among many eukaryotes
that can 'turn off' one or more of their
genes by using a process
called RNA interference
protein translation. Researchers are now weaponizing this by engineering
crops to produce specific RNA fragments that, upon ingestion by insects,
initiate RNA interference to shut down a target gene essential for life or
reproduction, killing or sterilizing the insects.
Films about Water
Blue Gold: World Water Wars
Frontline (2009 PBS)
Flow: For Love of Water
TROM - 2.11 Food and Water
Tapped the Film
Tap water costs 10,000 times less then
Bolivia Water Wars
The Great Culling: Our Water
FIRE WATER: Australia's Industrial Fluoridation Disgrace
Water Fluoridation Videos
Fluoride in Water
- Alexandra Cousteau - Connected by Water
12/01/2014 | 55 min
The nation of Bangladesh is prey to every threat from
water known to man.
Position Based Fluids Demonstration
Public Water System
refers to certain utilities and organizations providing drinking water.
Tap Water Executive Summary
is the provision of water by
public utilities commercial organisations, community endeavors or by
individuals, usually via a system of pumps and pipes. Irrigation is
History of Municipal Drinking Water
is a watercourse
constructed to convey water. In modern engineering, the term aqueduct is
used for any system of pipes, ditches, canals, tunnels, and other
structures used for this purpose. The term aqueduct also often refers
specifically to a bridge on an artificial watercourse.
is for conveying water, called aqueducts or water
bridges are constructed to convey watercourses across gaps such as valleys
is a bridge composed of several
small spans for crossing a valley, gorge, marshland or forming a flyover.
is an enlarged natural or
artificial lake, storage pond or impoundment created using a dam or lock
to store water. Reservoirs can be created by controlling a stream that
drains an existing body of water. They can also be constructed in river
valleys using a dam. Alternately, a reservoir can be built by excavating
flat ground and/or constructing retaining walls and levees.
Drinking Water Quality Alerts
is any process that makes water more acceptable for a specific end-use.
The end use may be drinking, industrial water supply, irrigation, river
flow maintenance, water recreation or many other uses, including being
safely returned to the environment. Water treatment removes contaminants
and undesirable components, or reduces their concentration so that the
water becomes fit for its desired end-use.
Drinking Water Treatment Plant
is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants,
suspended solids and gases from contaminated water. The goal is to produce
water fit for a specific purpose. Most water is disinfected for human
consumption (drinking water), but water purification may also be designed
for a variety of other purposes, including fulfilling the requirements of
medical, pharmacological, chemical and industrial applications. The
methods used include physical processes such as filtration, sedimentation,
and distillation; biological processes such as slow sand filters or
biologically active carbon; chemical processes such as flocculation and
chlorination and the use of electromagnetic radiation such as ultraviolet
light. Purifying water may reduce the concentration of particulate matter
including suspended particles, parasites, bacteria, algae, viruses, fungi,
as well as reducing the amount of a range of dissolved and particulate
material derived from the surfaces that come from runoff due to rain.
Water Works Association
Nebraska Water Center | University of Nebraska, Lincoln
Ebb and Flow
are two phases of the tide or any
similar movement of water. The ebb is the outgoing phase, when the tide
drains away from the shore; and the flow is the incoming phase when water
rises again. The terms are also common in figurative use.
is an excavation or structure
created in the ground by digging, driving, boring, or drilling to access
groundwater in underground aquifers. The well water is drawn by a pump, or
using containers, such as buckets, that are raised mechanically or by
hand. Wells were first constructed at least eight thousand years ago and
historically vary in construction from a simple scoop in the sediment of a
dry watercourse to the stepwells of India, the qanats of Iran, and the
shadoofs and sakiehs of India. Placing a lining in the well shaft helps
create stability and linings of wood or wickerwork date back at least as
far as the Iron Age.
Fresh Water Well
Private Water Wells
Human Powered Well Pumps
Well Water Contamination
Private Wells Diseases
is the movement of
saline water into freshwater aquifers, which can lead to contamination of
drinking water sources and other consequences. Saltwater intrusion occurs
naturally to some degree in most coastal aquifers, owing to the hydraulic
connection between groundwater and seawater. Because saline water has a
higher mineral content than freshwater, it is denser and has a higher
water pressure. As a result, saltwater can push inland beneath the
freshwater. Certain human activities, especially groundwater pumping from
coastal freshwater wells, have increased saltwater intrusion in many
coastal areas. Water extraction drops the level of fresh groundwater,
reducing its water pressure and allowing saltwater to flow further inland.
Other contributors to saltwater intrusion include navigation channels or
agricultural and drainage channels, which provide conduits for saltwater
to move inland, and it can also make sea level rise. Saltwater intrusion
can also be worsened by extreme events like hurricane storm surges.
Solar Pump for Water Wells
Pressurized Well Tank
Pressure Tank and
Well Pump System Basics
Water Storage Tanks
Water From Air
Fresh Water from the Air
Atmospheric Water Generator
is a device that
extracts water from humid ambient air. Water vapor in the air is condensed
by cooling the air below its dew point, exposing the air to desiccants, or
pressurizing the air. Unlike a dehumidifier, an AWG is designed to render
the water potable. AWGs are useful where pure drinking water is difficult
or impossible to obtain, because there is almost always a small amount of
water in the air that can be extracted. The two primary techniques in use
are cooling and desiccants.
Water Generation .
WaterSeer extracting Water from the Air
High Volume Water Making
300 Gallons a Day
DIY Water Generator
UTEC - Potable Water Generator
is a molecule or other molecular entity that is attracted to water
molecules and tends to be dissolved by water. In contrast, hydrophobes are
not attracted to water and may seem to be repelled by it.
Edward Linnacre's AirDrop Irrigation
can produce 0.5 quarts (0.5 liters) of water
in 1 hour between 86 degrees and 104 degrees Fahrenheit
(30 to 40 degrees Celsius) and
between 80 percent and 90 percent humidity.
(which functions like a cooler) that
is connected to a series of
surfaces that repel water. As the
takes in air, and these surfaces get cold, you're
left with condensation does not include a way to filter
out potentially harmful contaminants.
refers to the collection of water
from fog using large pieces of vertical canvas to make the fog condense
into droplets of water and flow down towards a trough below the canvas,
known as a fog fence.
Water from Fog
consists of visible cloud water droplets
or ice crystals suspended in the air at or near the Earth's surface. Fog
can be considered a type of low-lying cloud and is heavily influenced by
nearby bodies of water, topography, and wind conditions. In turn, fog has
affected many human activities, such as shipping, travel, and warfare.
Warka Water Tower
Device pulls Water from Dry Air, Powered only by the Sun
. Imagine a
future in which every home has an appliance that pulls all the water the
household needs out of the air, even in dry or desert climates, using only
the power of the sun. The prototype, under conditions of 20-30 percent
humidity, was able to pull 2.8 liters (3 quarts) of water from the air
over a 12-hour period, using one kilogram (2.2 pounds) of MOF. Rooftop
tests at MIT confirmed that the device works in real-world conditions.
are compounds consisting of metal ions or
clusters coordinated to organic ligands to form one-, two-, or
three-dimensional structures. They are a subclass of coordination
polymers, with the special feature that they are often porous. The organic
ligands included are sometimes referred to as "struts", one example being
1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (BDC). More formally, a metal–organic
framework is a coordination network with organic ligands containing
potential voids. A coordination network is a coordination compound
extending, through repeating coordination entities, in one dimension, but
with cross-links between two or more individual chains, loops, or
spiro-links, or a coordination compound extending through repeating
coordination entities in two or three dimensions; and finally a
coordination polymer is a coordination compound with repeating
coordination entities extending in one, two, or three dimensions. In some
cases, the pores are stable during elimination of the guest molecules
(often solvents) and could be used for the storage of gases such as
hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Other possible applications of MOFs are
in gas purification, in gas separation, in catalysis, as sensors and as
supercapacitors. Reticular Chemistry
concerned largely (but in principle, not exclusively) with the synthesis
and properties of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), particularly those in
which the components are linked by strong bonds such as occur in metal
Covalent Organic Framework
are two-dimensional and three-dimensional
organic solids with extended structures in which building blocks are
linked by strong covalent bonds. COFs are porous and crystalline and are
made entirely from light elements (H, B, C, N, and O) that are known to
form strong covalent bonds in well-established and useful materials such
as diamond, graphite, and boron nitride. Preparation of COF materials from
molecular building blocks would provide covalent frameworks that could be
functionalized into lightweight materials for diverse applications.
is the change of the physical
state of matter from gas phase
into liquid phase, and is the reverse of
evaporation. The word most often refers to the water cycle. It can also be
defined as the change in the state of water vapour to liquid water when in
contact with a liquid or solid surface or cloud condensation nuclei within
the atmosphere. When the transition happens from the gaseous phase into
the solid phase directly, the change is called deposition, or
(phase transition), which is the transition of a substance
directly from the solid to the gas phase without passing through the
intermediate liquid phase. Dew Point
Water from the Sea
is the removal of salts and minerals
from sea water to produce water suitable for human consumption or
is water from a sea or ocean has a salinity of about
3.5%, roughly one litre by volume of seawater has approximately 35 grams
(1.2 oz) of dissolved salts.
or salt water, is water that contains a
significant concentration of dissolved salts (mainly
distills water, using the heat of the
Sun to evaporate
, cool then collect the water. There are many types of
solar still, including large scale concentrated solar stills, and
condensation traps (better known as moisture traps amongst survivalists).
In a solar still, impure water is contained outside the collector, where
it is evaporated by sunlight shining through clear plastic or glass. The
pure water vapor
condenses on the cool inside surface and drips down,
where it is collected and removed. Distillation
replicates the way nature
. The sun's energy heats water to the point of evaporation. As
the water evaporates, water vapor rises, condensing into water again as it
cools and can then be collected. This process leaves behind impurities,
such as salts and heavy metals, and eliminates
The end result is pure distilled water
desalination technology energy
efficient tool for freshwater procurement and saline waste stream
Desalination Water Treatment Systems
Sea Clearwater Makers
Powered Personal Desolenator
Researchers make headway in Desalination Technology
. Desalination of
economically desirable and energy efficient.
Sodium-ion batteries theory states that by using electrodes that contain
sodium and chloride ions, salt is drawn out and held in a chamber
separate from the purified water.
Efficient High-Pressure Desalination
. Most desalination plants today
use a process called reverse osmosis (RO), which forces water through huge
rolls of membranes, leaving the salt behind. One of the most expensive
operational challenges for such plants is the fouling of these membranes
Wave-Energy and Desalinates
is a wave-powered
desalination system which uses the energy in
waves to access the nearly limitless supply of water found in our oceans.
Sahara Forest Project
aims to provide fresh water, food and renewable
energy in hot, arid regions as well as re-vegetating areas of uninhabited
desert. This proposal combines saltwater-cooled greenhouses with solar
power technologies, either directly using Photovoltaic (PV) or indirectly
using concentrated solar power (CSP) and technologies for desert
revegetation. It is claimed that these technologies together will create a
sustainable and profitable source of energy, food, vegetation and water.
Sahara Forest Project
Aquaporins Desalination Filter
Masdar Institute’s Innovative Wastewater Treatment Technologies to Help
Meet Growing Freshwater Demand
Graphene sieve turns seawater into drinking water
membranes developed at the National Graphene Institute have already
demonstrated the potential of filtering out small
molecules, and even large salts. Until now, however, they couldn’t be used
for sieving common salts used in desalination technologies, which require
even smaller sieves. Previous research at The University of Manchester
found that if immersed in water, graphene-oxide membranes become slightly
swollen and smaller salts flow through the membrane along with water, but
larger ions or molecules are blocked. The Manchester-based group have now
further developed these graphene membranes
and found a strategy to avoid
the swelling of the membrane when exposed to water. The pore size in the
membrane can be precisely controlled which can sieve common salts out of
salty water and make it safe to drink.
Ionic 'Solar Cell' could provide On-Demand Water Desalination
analog to the electronic pn-junction
device that would directly desalinate saltwater upon
exposure to sunlight
Bipolar-membrane design for ionic electricity generation. The transport of
oppositely charged protons and hydroxides obtained by dissociating water
Water from Trees:
Dry Land Farming
Agricultural Water Management
International Water Management Institute
Water User Association
is a group of water users, such as irrigators, who pool their financial,
technical, material, and human resources for the operation and maintenance
of a water system.
Riparian Water Rights
is a system for allocating
water among those who possess land along its path.
EPA Water Conservation Info
North American Water and Power Alliance
are agricultural techniques for non-irrigated cultivation of crops.
Dryland farming is associated with drylands - dry areas characterized by a
cool wet season followed by a warm dry season.
generally relies on irrigation, as it
is the easiest way to make a desert bloom. In California, the Imperial
Valley is a good example of what can be done. Australia and the Horn of
Africa are also places with interesting desert agriculture.
is a type of land degradation in which a relatively dry area of land
becomes increasingly arid, typically losing its bodies of water as well as
vegetation and wildlife.
common terms would include the
humid-tropics (rainforests); the arid-tropics (deserts and dry areas); or
monsoon zones (those areas that have well defined wet/dry seasons and
experience monsoons). Such labeling is very useful when discussing
agriculture, because what works in one area of the world will normally
work in a similar area somewhere else, even if that area is on the
opposite side of the globe.
Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas
Food Plants for Dry Regions
are native to the southwestern United States and Mexico
and has been grown there by the native peoples since pre-Columbian times.
It is more drought-resistant than the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and is grown in desert and semi-desert conditions from Arizona through
Mexico to Costa Rica. The water requirements are low and the crop will
grow in areas where annual rainfall is less than 400 mm (16 in).
35 Grams Have
: Dietary Fiber 15g, Sugars 1g, Protein 8g, Calcium 4%,
Desert “Soilization”: An Eco-Mechanical Solution to Desertification
in China turns desert into land rich with crops
(youtube) Paste made
from plant cell walls that retains water transforming deserts into
Garden Thorn: water saving technology
Farming without Water
Crop Water Needs
Farming Knowledge Base
is the process of water movement
through a plant and its evaporation from aerial parts, such as leaves,
stems and flowers. Water is necessary for plants but only a small amount
of water taken up by the roots is used for growth and metabolism. The
remaining 97–99.5% is lost by transpiration and guttation. Leaf surfaces
are dotted with pores called stomata, and in most plants they are more
numerous on the undersides of the foliage. The stomata are bordered by
guard cells and their stomatal accessory cells (together known as stomatal
complex) that open and close the pore. Transpiration occurs through the
stomatal apertures, and can be thought of as a necessary "cost" associated
with the opening of the stomata to allow the diffusion of carbon dioxide
gas from the air for
Transpiration also cools plants, changes osmotic pressure of cells, and
enables mass flow of mineral nutrients and water from roots to shoots. Two
major factors influence the rate of water flow from the soil to the roots:
the hydraulic conductivity of the soil and the magnitude of the pressure
gradient through the soil. Both of these factors influence the rate of
bulk flow of water moving from the roots to the stomatal pores in the
leaves via the xylem. Irrigation
is a type of vaporization
of a liquid
that occurs from the surface of a liquid into a gaseous phase that is not
saturated with the evaporating substance. The other type of vaporization
is boiling, which is characterized by bubbles of saturated vapor forming
in the liquid phase. Steam produced in a boiler is another example of
evaporation occurring in a saturated vapor phase. Evaporation that occurs
directly from the solid phase below the melting point, as commonly
observed with ice at or below freezing or moth crystals (napthalene or
paradichlorobenzene), is called
, which is the transition of a substance directly from the
solid to the gas phase without passing through the intermediate liquid
is the sum of evaporation and
plant transpiration from the Earth's land and ocean surface to the
atmosphere. Evaporation accounts for the movement of water to the air from
sources such as the soil, canopy interception, and waterbodies.
Transpiration accounts for the movement of water within a plant and the
subsequent loss of water as vapor through stomata in its leaves.
Evapotranspiration is an important part of the water cycle. An element
(such as a tree) that contributes to evapotranspiration can be called an
Desert Agriculture and Agroforestry
is the climate of a region that
receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not
extremely. There are different kinds of semi-arid climates, depending on
such variables as temperature, and they give rise to different classes of
Köppen Climate Zone Classification
is one of the most widely used
climate classification systems.
Food Chemistry Dangers
Dry Climate Agriculture
is a period of below-average precipitation
in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in its water supply,
whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water. A drought can last for
months or years, or may be declared after as few as 15 days. It can have a
substantial impact on the ecosystem and agriculture of the affected region
and harm to the local economy. Annual dry seasons in the tropics
significantly increase the chances of a drought developing and subsequent
bush fires. Periods of heat can significantly worsen drought conditions by
hastening evaporation of water vapour.
is a barren area of land where little
precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for
plant and animal life. The lack of vegetation exposes the unprotected
surface of the ground to the processes of denudation. About one third of
the land surface of the world is arid or semi-arid. This includes much of
the polar regions where little precipitation occurs and which are
sometimes called polar deserts or "cold deserts". Deserts can be
classified by the amount of precipitation that falls, by the temperature
that prevails, by the causes of desertification or by their geographical
is characterized by a severe lack of available
water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development
of plant and animal life. Environments subject to arid climates tend to
lack vegetation and are called xeric or desertic. Most "arid" climates
surround the equator; these places include most of Africa and parts of
South America, Central America and Australia.
is land capable of being ploughed and
used to grow crops. In Britain, it was traditionally contrasted with
pasturable lands such as heaths which could be used for sheep-rearing but
is the action of surface processes (such as
water flow, Rain
or wind) that remove
, rock, or dissolved material from one
location on the Earth's crust, then transport it away to another location.
The particulate breakdown of rock or soil into clastic sediment is
referred to as physical or mechanical erosion; this contrasts with
chemical erosion, where soil or rock material is removed from an area by
its dissolving into a solvent (typically water), followed by the flow away
of that solution. Eroded sediment or solutes may be transported just a few
millimetres, or for thousands of kilometres.
Soil Erosion Threats
. 6.9 billon tons of soil are
eroded each year in America. Soil
Expansion and SinkholesStorm Water Management
How we can make Crops Survive without Water
is any poikilohydric plant that
can survive extreme dehydration, even over months or years.
Back From the Brink
. Biologists explore the molecular underpinnings of
cells that recover from the verge of
Potential Involvement of Snail Members in Neuronal Survival and Astrocytic
Migration during the Gecko Spinal Cord Regeneration
the lack of ability (structural or functional mechanism) to maintain
and/or regulate water content to achieve homeostasis of cells and tissue
connected with quick equilibration of cell/tissue water content to that of
the environment. Frequently, it is coupled with the capacity to tolerate
dehydration to low cell or tissue water content and to recover from it
without physiological damage. This condition occurs in such organisms as
the lichens and bryophytes that lack mechanisms, such as a waterproofing
cuticle and stomata that can help to prevent desiccation. Poikilohydry is
also noted in many forms of algae, which may be able to survive
desiccation between successive high tides, or during occasional stranding
due to the drying of a lake or pond. Similarly, poikilohydry occurs in
land plants which survive environmental conditions when water supplies are
seasonal or intermittent, as in the liverwort genus Targionia, which lives
in Mediterranean habitats with hot dry summers.
is the state of extreme dryness, or the process of extreme
drying. A desiccant is a hygroscopic (attracts and holds water) substance
that induces or sustains such a state in its local vicinity in a
moderately sealed container.
are sealable enclosures containing desiccants used for
preserving moisture-sensitive items such as cobalt chloride paper for
another use. A common use for desiccators is to protect chemicals which
are hygroscopic or which react with water from humidity.
Activation of the NaCl- and drought-induced RD29A and
RD29B promoters by constitutively active Arabidopsis
MAPKK or MAPK proteins
is the set of all messenger
molecules in one cell or a
population of cells. It differs from the exome in that it includes only
those RNA molecules found in a specified cell population, and usually
includes the amount or concentration of each RNA molecule in addition to
the molecular identities.
is the entire set of
expressed by a genome, cell,
tissue, or organism at a certain time. More specifically, it is the set of
expressed proteins in a given type of cell or organism, at a given time,
under defined conditions. The term is a blend of proteins and genome.
Proteomics is the study of the proteome.
refers to the totality of lipids in cells.
Lipids are one of the four major molecular components of biological
organisms, along with proteins, sugars and nucleic acids.
is a region of
that initiates transcription of a
particular gene. Promoters are located near the transcription start sites
of genes, on the same strand and upstream on the DNA (towards the 5'
region of the sense strand). Promoters can be about 100–1000 base pairs
lays an important part in plant responses to
environmental stress in response to decreased soil water potential
is the potential energy of water per unit volume
relative to pure water in reference conditions. Water potential quantifies
the tendency of water to move from one area to another due to osmosis,
gravity, mechanical pressure, or matrix effects such as capillary action
(which is caused by surface tension).
On-Farm Flood Capture could Reduce Groundwater Overdraft in Kings River
Hydrogeologist – Groundwater Hydrologist
specializes in atmospheric and surface/subsurface
interactions. Hydrogeologists typically train in departments of geology
whereas groundwater hydrologists usually study within engineering
departments, although interdisciplinary programs are becoming more common.
Hydrogeologists and groundwater hydrologists and engineers evaluate
the quantity, quality, reliability, and sustainability of all aspects of
groundwater assessment, management, and development.
is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and
quality of water on Earth
and other planets, including the water cycle,
water resources and environmental watershed sustainability. A practitioner
of hydrology is a hydrologist, working within the fields of earth or
environmental science, physical geography, geology or civil and
. Hydrology subdivides into surface water
hydrology, groundwater hydrology (hydrogeology), and marine hydrology.
Domains of hydrology include hydrometeorology, surface hydrology,
hydrogeology, drainage-basin management and water quality, where water
plays the central role. Oceanography and meteorology are not included
because water is only one of many important aspects within those fields.
Hydrological research can inform environmental engineering, policy and
is the process by which water on the ground
surface enters the soil. Infiltration rate in soil science is a measure of
the rate at which soil is able to absorb rainfall or irrigation. It is
measured in inches per hour or millimeters per hour. The rate decreases as
the soil becomes saturated. If the precipitation rate exceeds the
infiltration rate, runoff will usually occur unless there is some physical
barrier. It is related to the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the
near-surface soil. The rate of infiltration can be measured using an
, which is a device used to measure the rate of water
infiltration into soil or other porous media. Commonly used infiltrometers
are single ring or double ring infiltrometer, and also
r, which is a field instrument used for measuring water
infiltration in the soil, which is characterized by in situ saturated and
unsaturated soil hydraulic properties. It is mainly used to provide
estimates of the hydraulic conductivity of the soil near saturation.
Growing Food in Space
- Water From Air
is a type of land degradation in
which relatively dry area of land becomes increasingly arid, typically
losing its bodies of water as well as vegetation and wildlife.
is the study of the topographic relief of
mountains, and can more broadly include hills, and any part of a region's
elevated terrain. Orography (also known as oreography, orology or oreology)
falls within the broader discipline of geomorphology.
Allan Savory: Make Deserts Green
Green Gold: Reversing Deserts
A forgotten Ancient Grain that could help Africa Prosper
the term for two cultivated grains in the Digitaria genus which are
notable crops in parts of West Africa. The grains are very small. The
crops have C4 metabolisms and are medium in height. The number of
chromosomes for the species can be diploid (2n), tetraploid (4n), or
hexaploid (6n). also called "hungry rice," is the most important of a
diverse group of wild and domesticated Digitaria species that are
harvested in the savannas of West Africa. Fonio has the smallest seeds of
all species of millet. It has potential to improve nutrition, boost food
security, foster rural development, and support sustainable use of the
land.Fonio has continued to be important locally because it is both
nutritious and one of the world's fastest-growing cereals, reaching
maturity in as little as six to eight weeks. It is a crop that can be
relied on in semi-arid areas with poor soils, where rains are brief and
unreliable. The grains are used in porridge and couscous, for bread, and
for beer. The small grains make it difficult and time-consuming to remove
the husk. Traditional methods include pounding it in a mortar with sand
(then separating the grains and sand) or "popping" it over a flame and
then pounding it (which yields a toasted-color grain; this technique is
used among the Akposso). The invention of a simple fonio husking machine
offers an easier mechanical way to dehusk.
A Cereal Survives Heat and Drought
genome sequence provides a resource to improve agronomic traits
in extreme environments.
is the most widely grown type of millet. It has been grown in
Africa and the Indian
subcontinent since prehistoric times.
are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, widely grown around
the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food. Millets are
important crops in the semiarid tropics of Asia and Africa (especially in
India, Mali, Nigeria, and Niger), with 97% of millet production in
developing countries. The crop is favored due to its productivity and
short growing season under dry, high-temperature conditions.
What if we Change
Africa Centre For Holistic Management
is a systems thinking approach
to managing resources that was originally developed by Allan Savory for
are grasslands, shrublands, woodlands,
wetlands, and deserts that are grazed by domestic livestock or wild
animals. Types of rangelands include tallgrass and shortgrass prairies,
desert grasslands and shrublands, woodlands, savannas, chaparrals,
steppes, and tundras. Rangelands do not include forests lacking grazable
understory vegetation, barren desert, farmland, or land covered by solid
rock, concrete and/or glaciers.
is a method of feeding in which a herbivore
feeds on plants such as grasses, or other multicellular organisms such as
algae. In agriculture, grazing is one method used whereby domestic
livestock are used to convert grass and other forage into meat, milk and
Natural Sequence Farming
is a method of landscape regeneration that involves
implementing major earthworks on a given area of land that has been
devastated by deforestation and general agricultural activities, to
emulate the role of natural watercourses in an effort to reverse salinity,
slow erosion and increase soil and water quality to enable native
vegetation to regenerate and restore the riparian zone. The method does
not require the use of artificial fertilisers or herbicides.
Natural Sequence Farming
Natural Sequence Farming
is a form of irrigation that saves
water and fertilizer by allowing water to drip slowly to the roots of many
different plants, either onto the soil surface or directly onto the root
zone, through a network of valves, pipes, tubing, and emitters. It is done
through narrow tubes that deliver water directly to the base of the plant.
It is chosen instead of surface irrigation for various reasons, often
including concern about minimizing evaporation.
Water for Farming Use
is the method in which a controlled amount of water is supplied to plants
at regular intervals for agriculture. It is used to assist in the growing
of agricultural crops, maintenance of landscapes, and revegetation of
disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall.
Additionally, irrigation also has a few other uses in crop production,
which include protecting plants against frost, suppressing weed growth in
grain fields and preventing soil consolidation. In contrast, agriculture
that relies only on direct rainfall
is referred to as rain-fed or
. Irrigation systems are also used for dust suppression, disposal
of sewage, and in mining. Irrigation is often studied together with
drainage, which is the natural or artificial removal of surface and
sub-surface water from a given area.
is water committed for use in the production of food and
fiber. On average, 80 percent of the fresh water
withdrawn from rivers and groundwater is used to produce food and other
agricultural products. Farm water may include water used in the irrigation
of crops or the watering of livestock. Water Use Stats
is a low tract of land, especially
one that is moist or marshy. The term can refer to a natural landscape
feature or a human-created one. Artificial swales are often designed to
manage water runoff, filter pollutants, and increase rainwater
is a farming technique
to dig pits (20-30 cm long and deep and 90 cm apart) in the soil during
the preseason to catch water and concentrate compost. The technique is
traditionally used in western Sahel (Burkina Faso, Niger, Mali) to restore
degraded drylands and increase soil fertility. Zaï holes were reintroduced
since the 1980s by Yacouba Sawadogo, a farmer from Burkina Faso, who
introduced the innovation of filling them with manure and compost to
provide plant nutrients. The manure attracts termites, whose tunnels help
further break up the soil. He also slightly increased the size of the
holes over the traditional models. Zaï holes help by improving the yields
of trees, sorghum, and millet by up to 500 percent. As an alternative to
the zaï-technique some agricultural engineers suggest a diking technique,
especially in the case of very light soils.(tassa
is the use of earth's gravity to move something (usually a liquid) from
one place to another. It is a simple means of moving a liquid without the
use of a pump. A common application is the supply of fuel to an internal
combustion engine by placing the fuel tank above the engine, e.g. in
motorcycles, lawn mowers, etc. A non-liquid application is the carton flow
Irritrol PC Control
Irrigation Management Systems
Rob Harmon: How to keep streams flowing
North of the 49th parallel of latitude
. Productive farming, therefore,
depends on crops that ripen early, if they are spring sown, or are winter
hardy, if they are winter annuals, biennials or perennials.
be classified in several ways. By growth habit they are annual, biennial
or perennial, depending on whether they complete their life cycle in one
or two years, or persist for over two years. The special term "winter
annuals" is used for crops that are planted and germinate in fall, spend
winter in a dormant state, renew growth in spring and are harvested in
July or August,
Climate Categories in Viticulture
are categorised based on the overall
characteristics of the area's climate during the growing season.
are geographic and climate zones located roughly between
the tropics at latitude
Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and temperate zones (normally
referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator.
common terms would include the humid-tropics
(rainforests); the arid-tropics (deserts and dry areas); or monsoon zones
(those areas that have well defined wet/dry seasons and experience
monsoons). Such labeling is very useful when discussing agriculture,
because what works in one area of the world will normally work in a
similar area somewhere else, even if that area is on the opposite side of
the globe. Most temperate zone agricultural techniques are inappropriate
for tropical areas.
Climate-Related Threats to Global Food Production
include risks to
grain, vegetable, and fruit crops, livestock, and fisheries.
Climate change and Food Security
United Nations Environment
(UNEP) says that crops such as wheat and maize are
generating more potential toxins
as a reaction to protect themselves from
. These chemical compounds are harmful to people and
animals if consumed for a prolonged period of time. Under normal
conditions, for instance, plants convert nitrates they absorb into
nutritious amino acids and proteins. But prolonged
slows or prevents this
conversion, leading to more potentially problematic nitrate accumulating
in the plant. If people eat
too much nitrate in their diets
, it can
interfere with the ability of red blood cells to transport oxygen in the
body, Crops susceptible to accumulating too much nitrate in times of
stress include maize, wheat, barley, soybeans, millet and sorghum. Some
drought-stressed crops, when then exposed to sudden large amounts of rain
that lead to rapid growth, in turn accumulate
, more commonly known as prussic acid. Prussic acid -
one of the ingredients used in some types of chemical warfare - interferes
with oxygen flow in humans. Plants such as cassava, flax, maize and
sorghum are most vulnerable to dangerous prussic acid accumulation. Cases
or hydrogen cyanide poisoning in humans were reported in Kenya in 2013 and
in the Philippines in 2005. Aflatoxins, molds that can affect plant crops
and raise the risk of liver damage, cancer and blindness, as well as
stunting foetuses and infants
About 4.5 billion people in developing countries are exposed to
each year Toxic crops can lead to neurological diseases
among humans but the greatest challenge is the incidence of cancer.
Research centers with the Consultative Group on International Agricultural
Research are developing seeds that are suitable in various regions that
have been hit by
is liquid water in the form of droplets that
have condensed from atmospheric
water vapor and then precipitated—that is,
become heavy enough to fall under gravity. Rain is a major component of
the water cycle and is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water
on the Earth. It provides suitable conditions for many types of
ecosystems, as well as water for hydroelectric power plants and crop
is the flow of water that occurs when
excess storm water, meltwater, or other sources flows over the Earth's
surface. This might occur because soil is saturated to full capacity,
because rain arrives more quickly than soil
can absorb it, or because
impervious areas (roofs and pavement) send their runoff to surrounding
soil that cannot absorb all of it. Surface runoff is a major component of
the water cycle. It is the primary agent in soil erosion
Storm Water Management
is the quantity and quality of stormwater
manage using Best Management Practice (BMP) or stormwater control measure
(SCM). Often used to refer to both structural or engineered control
devices and systems (e.g. retention ponds) to treat or store
, as well as operational or
procedural practices (e.g. street sweeping). Stormwater management
includes both technical and institutional aspects, including: Control of
; Control of hazardous materials to prevent release of
pollutants into the environment (source control); Planning and
construction of stormwater systems so contaminants are removed before they
pollute surface waters or groundwater resources; Acquisition and
protection of natural waterways or rehabilitation; Building "soft"
structures such as ponds, swales, wetlands or green infrastructure
solutions to work with existing or "hard" drainage structures, such as
pipes and concrete channels; Development of funding approaches to
stormwater programs potentially including stormwater user fees and the
creation of a stormwater utility; Development of long-term asset
management programs to repair and replace aging infrastructure; Revision
of current stormwater regulations to address comprehensive stormwater
needs; Enhancement and enforcement of existing ordinances to make sure
property owners consider the effects of stormwater before, during and
after development of their land; Education of a community about how its
actions affect water quality, and about what it can do to improve water
quality; and planning carefully to create solutions before problems become
EPA Facility Stormwater Management
area of land adjacent to a stream or river which stretches from the banks
of its channel to the base of the enclosing valley walls and which
experiences flooding during periods of high discharge. The soils usually
consist of levees, silts, and sands deposited during floods. Levees are
the heaviest materials (usually pebble-size) and they are deposited first;
silts and sands are finer materials.
is used to manage stormwater runoff to prevent
and downstream erosion, and
improve water quality in an adjacent river, stream, lake or bay. Sometimes
called a wet pond or wet detention basin or stormwater management pond, it
is an artificial lake with vegetation around the perimeter, and includes a
permanent pool of water in its design.
is an excavated area installed on, or adjacent to,
tributaries of rivers, streams, lakes or bays to protect against flooding
and, in some cases, downstream erosion by storing water for a limited
period of time. A detention basin, sometimes called a "dry pond", which
temporarily stores water after a storm, but eventually empties out at a
controlled rate to a downstream water body. It also differs from an
infiltration basin which is designed to direct stormwater to groundwater
through permeable soils.
Catchers (saving some of the rain to use at a later time)
Harvesting Barrels (amazon)
Saving Rain Tools
forms from layers of snow that accumulate
in geographic regions and high altitudes where the climate includes cold
weather for extended periods during the year. Snowpacks are an important
water resource that feed streams and rivers as they melt. Therefore,
snowpacks are both the drinking water source for many communities and a
potential source of flooding (in case of sudden melting). Snowpacks also
contribute mass to glaciers in their accumulation zone.
is surface runoff produced from melting
snow. It can also be used to describe the period or season during which
such runoff is produced. Water produced by snowmelt is an important part
of the annual water cycle in many parts of the world, in some cases
contributing high fractions of the annual runoff in a watershed.
Predicting snowmelt runoff from a drainage basin may be a part of
designing water control projects. Rapid snowmelt can cause flooding. If
the snowmelt is then frozen, very dangerous conditions and accidents can
occur, introducing the need for salt to melt the Ice
is water released by the melting of
snow or ice, including glacial ice, tabular icebergs and ice shelves over
oceans. Meltwater is often found in the ablation zone of glaciers, where
the rate of snow cover is reducing. Meltwater can be produced during
volcanic eruptions, in a similar way in which the more dangerous lahars
is a phenomenon in which blood is
perceived to fall from the sky in the form of rain.
is a freshwater species of
Chlorophyta from the family Haematococcaceae. This species is well known
for its high content of the strong antioxidant astaxanthin, which is
important in aquaculture, and cosmetics. Often responsible for the
blood-red colour seen in the bottom of dried out rock pools and bird
How much Water do I use?
'You can’t manage what you don’t
Water Use Today
Water Home Use
by State Info-Graph
Average Water Use
Water Consumption Calculator
Water Use it Wisely
includes all the policies,
strategies and activities made to sustainably manage the natural resource
fresh water, to protect the water environment, and to meet current and
future human demand. Population, household size, and growth and affluence
all affect how much water is used. Factors such as climate change have
increased pressures on natural water resources especially in manufacturing
and agricultural irrigation
. Many US cities have already implemented
policies aimed at water conservation, with much success. The goals of
water conservation efforts include: Ensuring availability of water for
future generations where the withdrawal of freshwater from an ecosystem
does not exceed its natural replacement rate. Energy conservation as water
pumping, delivery and wastewater treatment facilities consume a
significant amount of energy. In some regions of the world over 15% of
total electricity consumption is devoted to water management. Habitat
conservation where minimizing human water use helps to preserve freshwater
habitats for local wildlife and migrating waterfowl, but also water
quality. The key activities that benefit water conservation are as follows: Any beneficial reduction in water loss, use and waste of resources.
Avoiding any damage to water quality. Improving water management practices
that reduce the use or enhance the beneficial use of water.
Soft Water Path
is the activity of planning, developing, distributing
and managing the optimum use of water resources. It is a sub-set of water
cycle management. Ideally, water resource management planning has regard
to all the competing demands for water and seeks to allocate water on an
equitable basis to satisfy all uses and demands. As with other resource
management, this is rarely possible in practice.
is the study of the relevant characteristics of a
watershed aimed at the sustainable
distribution of its resources and the
process of creating and implementing plans, programs, and projects to
sustain and enhance watershed functions that affect the plant, animal, and
human communities within a watershed boundary. Features of a watershed
that agencies seek to manage include water supply
drainage, stormwater runoff, water rights, and the overall planning and
utilization of watersheds. Landowners, land use agencies, storm water
experts, environmental specialists, water use surveyors and
communities all play an integral part in watershed management.
is a ridge of land that separates two adjacent river
systems. The entire geographical area drained by a river and its
tributaries; an area characterized by all runoff being conveyed to the
same outlet. Rain
refers to the hidden flow of water if food or other commodities are traded
from one place to another. For instance, it takes 1,340 cubic meters of
water (based on the world average) to produce one metric tonne of wheat.
The precise volume can be more or less depending on climatic conditions
and agricultural practice. Hoekstra and Chapagain have defined the
virtual-water content of a product (a commodity, good or service) as "the
volume of freshwater used to produce the product, measured at the place
where the product was actually produced". It refers to the sum of the
water use in the various steps of the production chain.
80 percent of the Fresh Water
from rivers and groundwater is used to produce food and other agricultural
products.Water for Farming Use
- Vertical Farming uses 90%
Did you know that it takes almost 2,000 gallons of water to
produce 1 pound of meat?
It takes around 1 gallon of water to produce one almond.
It takes almost 25 gallons of water to produce 1 pound of wheat.
It takes around 16 gallons water to make a single cup of beer.
Did you know that a
causes less pollution?
How much water is needed to make your Food (calculator)
8-minute shower runs through about 20 gallons of water on
Nebia Shower Head uses 70% Less Water
Teaching people about
is extremely important.
Nearly one person in six lives
without regular access to safe drinking water
, and more than
twice that many lack access to
Water-related diseases kill a child every eight seconds, and are
responsible for 80 percent of all easily
and deaths in the developing world.
Droppler: Know your Habits. Save Water
"Things that are widely used by many life forms can have an
impact to the health of our earth and it's inhabitants. Please
don't hurt the water, it has given us life for millions of
Drought Shame AppDrought Information
Power Plants draw more Fresh Water than any other consumer in the United
, accounting for more
than 50 percent of the nation's
freshwater use at about 500 billion gallons daily. To help save this
water, researchers have developed a new silica filter for power plant
cooling waters that decreases the amount of freshwater power plants
consume by increasing the number of times cooling tower water can be
reused and recycled.
Recycling Water - Water Saving Tools
form of ecological sewage treatment
designed to mimic the cleansing functions of wetlands.
Grey Water People
Grey Water Action
Grey Water Sustainable Sources
helps to absorb rainwater, but also functions as a waste
management system for organic waste.
Rain Water Collection (Tank Town)
Harvesting Barrels (amazon)
Water Storage Tanks
Water Storage Tanks
is a container for storing water. The need for a water tank is as old as
civilization, to provide storage of water for use in many applications,
drinking water, irrigation agriculture, fire suppression, agricultural
farming, both for plants and livestock, chemical manufacturing, food
preparation as well as many other uses. Water tank parameters include the
general design of the tank, and choice of construction materials, linings.
Various materials are used for making a water tank: plastics
(polyethylene, polypropylene), fiberglass, concrete, stone, steel (welded
or bolted, carbon, or stainless). Earthen pots also function as water
storages. Water tanks are an efficient way to help developing countries to
store clean water.
Groasis Aquapro Water Box
Water Saving Toilets
Eva Smart Shower
1.6 GPM Showerhead (amazon)
Nebia Shower System
uses 75 percent less water.
changes your existing faucet saving 98% water.
Water 2 Save
water management service.
Water Saving Tools
for home and yard.
Water Saver Technologies
Slow Growing Grass needs less water
Energy Saving Tools
is the intentional movement by water over large distances. Methods of
transportation fall into three categories: Aqueducts, which include
pipelines, canals, and tunnels, container shipment, which includes
transport by tank truck, tank car, and tank ship, and towing, where a
tugboat is used to pull an iceberg or a large water bag along behind it.
15 Methods for Transporting Water
Ionized Swimming Pool
Chlorine Free Swimming Pools.
Chemical Free Swimming Pools
Very Low Energy Consumption & Healthy.
Biological and Natural Swimming Pools using no chemicals.
Hidden Dual Purpose Pools
Swim in Place Pool
is a resistance swimming apparatus,
often self-contained, enabling the swimmer to swim in place. This may be
accomplished either by accelerating the water past the swimmer or by
supporting the swimmer, either in water or on dry land.
in Uccle, Belgium is the deepest indoor
swimming pool in the world.
World's Largest Outdoor Pool
At Chile's San Alfonso
del Mar Resort.
Flowavett Wave Pool
wave generator that is capable of
producing waves as tall as five meters the world's
largest artificial waves.
In one of every eight pools
inspected, the violations were so serious the
pools were forced to close immediately. Improperly
maintained pools have been linked to a variety of
accidents and illnesses, from drowning to intestinal
parasites, the CDC said. About 4,000 people drown in
pools and elsewhere each year in the United States, and
there were nearly 350 disease outbreaks linked to pools
from 2003 to 2012.
Automatic Watering Systems
CONTINENTAL AWS-10 Automatic Watering System for containers
Single-Dial Water Timer
Drip Irrigation Spikes
Tree I.V.® Portable Watering System 6-pack
How to install an automated drip irrigation system video with
Thompson & Morgan
Automatic Drip Irrigation Kit
Potted Plants Watering System Kit
Automatic drip irrigation system for
large size ( 10-inch pots or bigger) potted plants
Waters directly into plant roots avoiding evaporation Equipped
with 4 color-coded drippers with daily water release: 3.4
ounce-20 days, 5.1 ounce-13 days, 6.8 ounce-10 days, 10.1
Water Purification Process (City)
The first step of water purification is called
. Like blood forming a scab, the alum helps to
chunk up the organic material in the water, so it can fall to
the bottom of the tank. It works because alum—also known as
—has a positive charge, whereas the organic
gunk floating in the water tends to be negatively charged. They
stick together and form a solid, which falls out of the water in
a process called
. Then the now clear water goes through the
step, where it wends its way through several layers of sand,
gravel, and charcoal. This removes much of the smaller
particles. In the last step, it’s treated with
to kill bacteria and other microorganisms,
giving the water its faintly stinky swimming pool smell. The
techniques to treat its drinking water are used around the
world, and those methods have proven successful so far.
EPA Water Treatment Guidelines
Pharmaceutical Drugs in Public Drinking Water
Sanitary Sewer Overflow
is a condition in which untreated
sewage is discharged from a sanitary sewer into the environment prior to
reaching sewage treatment facilities. When caused by rainfall it is also
known as wet weather overflow
. It is primarily meaningful in developed
countries, which have extensive treatment facilities. Frequent causes of SSO spills include: Blockage of sewer lines. Infiltration/Inflow of
excessive stormwater into sewer lines during heavy rainfall. Malfunction
of pumping station lifts or electrical power failure. Broken sewer lines.
EPAStorm Water Management
is a sewage collection system of pipes and
tunnels designed to also collect surface runoff. Combined sewers can cause
serious water pollution problems during combined sewer overflow (CSO)
events when wet weather flows exceed the sewage treatment plant capacity.
This type of sewer design is no longer used in building new communities
(because current design separates sanitary sewers from runoff), but many
older cities continue to operate combined sewers.
Combined Sewage Overflows (CSO's)
City Water Infrastructure
They are supposed to test for a wide gamut of potentially
harmful contaminants. Some of these include naturally occurring
microorganisms, such as
; metals such as
such as atrazine. Drinking water treatment plants in the U.S.
are supposed to publish a water quality report every year,
noting contaminates that were present above the detection level.
In total, the EPA requires drinking water treatment plants to
test for almost 90 different contaminants. But noticeably absent
from this list are any type of
Drinking Water Treatment Plant
visualization and mapping of the water infrastructure of San
2.5 billion people around the world currently lack access to
improved sanitation, and 27 percent of urban dwellers in
developing nations do not have access to piped water in their
homes. Every day, around
2 million tons of human waste are disposed of
The World Health Organization reports that
3.4 million people—mainly children—die each year from
like cholera, dysentery, or typhoid.
The EPA estimates anywhere from
23,000 to 75,000 overflows of sanitary-sewer systems each year
in the U.S
The right infrastructure becomes critical in preserving water
quality and preventing a shortage of clean drinking water.
Unfortunately, most of the technology employed by cities today
lags behind the latest innovations.
H2O - There are 3 Atoms in a
(H), and 1
combined mass of water found on, under, and above the
surface of a planet
, minor planet or
natural satellite. It has been estimated that there are 1386 million cubic
kilometers of water on Earth. This includes water in liquid and frozen
forms in groundwater, oceans, lakes and streams. Saltwater accounts for
97.5% of this amount. Fresh water accounts for only 2.5%. Of this fresh
water, 68.9% is in the form of ice and permanent snow cover in the Arctic,
the Antarctic, and mountain glaciers. 30.8% is in the form of fresh
groundwater. Only 0.3% of the fresh water on Earth is in easily accessible
lakes, reservoirs and river systems. The total mass of the Earth's
hydrosphere is about 1.4 × 1018 tonnes, which is about 0.023% of Earth's
total mass. About 20 × 1012 tonnes of this is in Earth's
practical purposes, 1 cubic metre of water weighs one tonne).
Approximately 75% of Earth's surface, an area of some 361 million square
kilometers (139.5 million square miles), is covered by ocean. The average
salinity of Earth's oceans is about 35 grams of salt per kilogram of sea
is the change of the physical
state of matter
from gas phase into liquid
phase, and is the reverse of evaporation. The word most often refers to
the water cycle. It can also be defined as the change in the state of
water vapour to liquid water when in contact with a liquid or solid
surface or cloud condensation nuclei within the
. When the
transition happens from the gaseous phase into the solid phase directly,
the change is called deposition.
is the temperature
at which a given
concentration of water vapor in air will form dew. More specifically it is
a measure of atmospheric moisture. It is the temperature to which air must
be cooled at constant pressure and water content to reach saturation. A
higher dew point indicates more moisture in the air; a dew point greater
than 20 °C (68 °F) is considered uncomfortable and greater than 22 °C (72
°F) is considered to be extremely humid. Frost point is the dew point when
temperatures are below freezing. Weather
water content of an animal body that is contained in the tissues, the
blood, the bones and elsewhere. This water makes up a significant fraction
of the human body, both by weight and by volume. Ensuring the right amount
of body water is part of fluid balance, an aspect of homeostasis.
The average human adult male is approximately 69%
water, by weight
The average human being consists of about 7 x 1027
atoms (7,000 trillion trillion atoms) — 65 percent oxygen, 18
percent carbon, 10 percent hydrogen, 3 percent nitrogen, 1.4
percent calcium, 1.1 percent phosphorous, and traces of 54 other
Composition of the Human Body
an abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the brain.
(CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in
the brain and spine. It is produced in the choroid plexuses of the
ventricles of the brain. It acts as a cushion or buffer for the brain's
cortex, providing basic mechanical and immunological protection to the
brain inside the skull. The CSF also serves a vital function in cerebral
autoregulation of cerebral blood flow.
fluids or biofluids are liquids originating from inside the bodies of
living people. They include fluids that are excreted or secreted from the
body as well as body water that normally is not. (Drool
) The dominating content of
body fluids is body water. Approximately 60-65% of body water is contained
within the cells (in intracellular fluid) with the other 35-40% of body
water contained outside the cells (in extracellular fluid). This fluid
component outside the cells includes the fluid between the cells
(interstitial fluid), lymph and blood. There are approximately 6 to 10
liters of lymph in the body, compared to 3.5 to 5 liters of blood.
is a deficit of total body water, with
an accompanying disruption of
Dehydration can also cause
, which is a high
ion level in
the blood. Dehydration is distinct from hypovolemia (loss of blood volume,
particularly plasma). Dehydration occurs when free water loss exceeds free
water intake, usually due to exercise or disease, but also due to high
environmental temperature. Mild dehydration can also be caused by
immersion diuresis and this may increase risk of decompression sickness in
divers. Most people can tolerate a three to four percent decrease in total
body water without difficulty or adverse health effects. A five to eight
percent decrease can cause fatigue and dizziness. Loss of over ten percent
of total body water can cause physical and mental deterioration,
accompanied by severe thirst. Death occurs at a loss of between fifteen
and twenty-five percent of the body water. Mild dehydration is
characterized by thirst and general discomfort and is usually resolved
with oral rehydration. Electrolytes
Mouth is dry
. The darker the
, the more dehydrated you are. Test the elasticity of your skin by
pinching the back of your hand and hold it for a few seconds. Let go and
if the little "tent" stays pinched and takes more than 5 seconds to go
back to normal, it's usually a sign of moderate dehydration.
cause you to lose more body
fluid. Sugary drinks create an acidic environment that can impair enzyme
function and decrease your body’s water storage capacity, which is
necessary to metabolize all the extra sugar.
intake causes the body has to use more water to
metabolize the naturally occurring nitrogen in protein, and cells can
become water-depleted. Salty Foods
fluid loss in your body because water is needed to eliminate all the extra
sodium naturally present in salt.
On average, you lose about one liter (approx 34 ounces) of fluid per hour
is any substance that promotes diuresis, that is, the
increased production of urine
This includes forced diuresis. There are several categories of diuretics.
All diuretics increase the excretion of water from bodies, although each
class does so in a distinct way. Alternatively, an antidiuretic such as
vasopressin, or antidiuretic hormone, is an agent or drug which reduces
the excretion of water in urine.
Transepidermal Water Loss
is defined as the measurement of the
quantity of water that passes from inside a body (animal or plant) through
the epidermal layer (skin
to the surrounding atmosphere via diffusion and evaporation processes.
Shenu: Hydrolemic System
SIPPO: Smart Cup Hydration made Easy
is the gaseous phase of water. It is one state
of water within the hydrosphere. Water vapor can be produced from the
evaporation or boiling of liquid water
or from the sublimation of
Unlike other forms of water, water vapor is invisible. Under typical
atmospheric conditions, water vapor is continuously generated by
evaporation and removed by condensation
. It is lighter than air and
triggers convection currents
that can lead to
is a type of vaporization of a liquid
that occurs from the
surface of a liquid into a gaseous phase that is not saturated with the
evaporating substance. The other type of vaporization is boiling
, which is
characterized by bubbles of saturated vapor forming in the liquid phase.
produced in a boiler is another example of evaporation occurring in
a saturated vapor phase. Evaporation that occurs directly from the solid
phase below the melting point, as commonly observed with ice
at or below
freezing or moth crystals (napthalene or paradichlorobenzene), is called
which is the phase transition of a substance directly from the solid to
the gas phase without passing through the intermediate liquid phase
Sublimation is an endothermic process that occurs at temperatures and
pressures below a substance's triple point in its phase diagram. The
reverse process of sublimation is
deposition or desublimation
, in which a substance passes directly from
a gas to a solid phase. Sublimation has also been used as a generic term
to describe a solid-to-gas transition (sublimation) followed by a
gas-to-solid transition (deposition).
is produced from
, which is
composed of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Syngas is a useful product but
requires careful handling due to its flammability and the risk of carbon
monoxide poisoning. The Water gas shift reaction can be used to reduce the
carbon monoxide while producing additional hydrogen, resulting in Water
also known as water poisoning or
hyperhydration, is a potentially fatal disturbance in brain functions that
results when the normal balance of electrolytes in the body is pushed
outside safe limits by overhydration.
is a low sodium level in the blood
Symptoms can vary from none to severe. Mild symptoms include a decreased
ability to think, headaches, nausea, and poor balance. Severe symptoms
include confusion, seizures, and coma. Normal serum sodium levels are
135–145 mmol/L (135–145 mEq/L). Hyponatremia is generally defined as a
serum sodium level of less than 135 mmol/L and is considered severe when
the level is below 120 mmol/L.
. Electrolytes play a vital
role in maintaining homeostasis within the body. They help to regulate
heart and neurological function, fluid balance, oxygen delivery, acid–base
balance and much more. Electrolyte imbalances can develop by the following
mechanisms: excessive ingestion; diminished elimination of an electrolyte;
diminished ingestion or excessive elimination of an electrolyte. The most
serious electrolyte disturbances involve abnormalities in the levels of
. Other electrolyte imbalances are less
common, and often occur in conjunction with major electrolyte changes.
Chronic laxative abuse or severe diarrhea or vomiting (gastroenteritis)
can lead to electrolyte disturbances along with dehydration. People
suffering from bulimia or anorexia nervosa are at especially high risk for
an electrolyte imbalance.
380 mg -
200-210 mg -
20 mg - Calcium:
: 80 mg - 15 grams of
Sugar (vegan), Dried Fruit Powder, Sodium Citrate, Citric Acid, Potassium
Citrate, Potassium Chloride, Magnesium Citrate, Calcium Citrate.
is a substance that produces an electrically conducting
solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water. The dissolved
electrolyte separates into cations and anions, which disperse uniformly
through the solvent. Electrically, such a solution is neutral. If an
electric potential is applied to such a solution, the cations of the
solution are drawn to the electrode that has an abundance of electrons,
while the anions are drawn to the electrode that has a deficit of
electrons. The movement of anions and cations in opposite directions
within the solution amounts to a current. This includes most soluble
salts, acids, and bases. Some gases, such as hydrogen chloride, under
conditions of high temperature or low pressure can also function as
electrolytes. Electrolyte solutions can also result from the dissolution
of some biological (e.g., DNA, polypeptides) and synthetic polymers (e.g.,
polystyrene sulfonate), termed "polyelectrolytes", which contain charged
functional groups. A substance that dissociates into ions in solution
acquires the capacity to conduct electricity. Sodium, potassium, chloride,
calcium, magnesium, and phosphate are examples of electrolytes, informally
known as "lytes." In medicine, electrolyte replacement is needed when a
patient has prolonged vomiting or diarrhea, and as a response to strenuous
athletic activity. Commercial electrolyte solutions are available,
particularly for sick children (oral rehydration solutions) and athletes
(sports drinks). Electrolyte monitoring is important in the treatment of
anorexia and bulimia.
is an aspect of the homeostasis of
living organisms in which the amount of water in the organism needs to be
controlled, via osmoregulation and behavior, such that the concentrations
of electrolytes (salts in solution) in the various body fluids are kept
within healthy ranges. The core principle of fluid balance is that the
amount of water lost from the body must equal the amount of water taken
in; for example, in human homeostasis, the output (via respiration,
perspiration, urination, defecation, and expectoration) must equal the
input (via eating, drinking, and parenteral intake). Euvolemia is the
state of normal body fluid volume, including blood volume, interstitial
fluid volume, and intracellular fluid volume; hypovolemia and hypervolemia
are imbalances. Water is necessary for all life on Earth. Humans can
survive for 4 to 6 weeks without food but only for a few days without
can increase the
need for electrolyte replacement. Water-electrolyte imbalance produces
headache and fatigue if mild; illness if moderate, and sometimes even
death if severe. For example, water intoxication (which results in
hyponatremia), the process of consuming too much water too quickly, can be
fatal. Deficits to body water result in volume contraction and
dehydration. Diarrhea is a threat to both body water volume and
electrolyte levels, which is why diseases that cause diarrhea are great
threats to fluid balance.
is the craving for fluids, resulting in the basic
instinct of animals to drink. It is an essential mechanism involved in
fluid balance. It arises from a lack of fluids or an increase in the
concentration of certain osmolites, such as salt. If the water volume of
the body falls below a certain threshold or the osmolite concentration
becomes too high, the brain signals thirst. Continuous
can cause many problems, but is
most often associated with renal problems and neurological problems such
as seizures. Excessive thirst, known as polydipsia, along with excessive
urination, known as polyuria, may be an indication of diabetes mellitus or
diabetes insipidus. There are receptors and other systems in the body that
detect a decreased volume or an increased osmolite concentration. They
signal to the central nervous system, where central processing succeeds.
Some sources, therefore, distinguish "extracellular thirst" from
"intracellular thirst", where extracellular thirst is thirst generated by
decreased volume and intracellular thirst is thirst generated by increased
osmolite concentration. Nevertheless, the craving itself is something
generated from central processing in the brain, no matter how it is
is about the size of a soft ball: When your bladder is full,
holding up to 800 cubic centimeters
of fluid, or
27.0512 Fluid Ounces.
There are about 5
in a single drop
of water. (1 with 21 zeros).
One drop of water has the volume
of about 0.05 mL.
There are more atoms in a glass of water than glasses of water
in all the oceans on Earth.
in a Grain of Sand. (50 with 18
is about the
width of 2 Silicon Atoms?
Nanometer is 1 Millionth of a Millimeter.
2 Trillion Hydrogen Atoms
lined side by
side to cross the head of a pin that is 1 mm in diameter?
(1 Million *
1 Million = 1 Trillion) - (mm is 0.0393701 inches or 25.4 mm in 1 inch).
Because the density of water is 1, the mass is
The molar mass of water (H2O) is 18.0 grams/mol (1.008 + 1.008 +
How many molecules in a drop of water
This means there is one mole of water in 18.0 grams.
One mole is
6.02 × 1023 molecules. (10²³)
Then you can convert grams to number of atoms:
0.05 grams ÷ 18.0
grams × (6.02 × 1023 molecules) = 1.67 × 1021 molecule.
How Water conducts electricity, A watershed moment in understanding
is a nearly
incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but
retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of
. As such, it is
one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, gas,
and plasma), and is the only state with a definite volume but no fixed
shape. A liquid is made up of tiny vibrating particles of matter, such as
atoms, held together by intermolecular bonds. Water is, by far, the most
common liquid on Earth. Like a gas, a liquid is able to flow and take the
shape of a container. Most liquids resist compression, although others can
be compressed. Unlike a gas, a liquid does not disperse to fill every
space of a container, and maintains a fairly constant density. A
distinctive property of the liquid state is surface tension, leading to
wetting phenomena. The density of a liquid is usually close to that of a
solid, and much higher than in a gas. Therefore, liquid and solid are both
termed condensed matter. On the other hand, as liquids and gases share the
ability to flow, they are both called fluids. Although liquid water is
abundant on Earth, this state of matter is actually the least common in
the known universe, because liquids require a relatively narrow
temperature/pressure range to exist. Most known matter in the universe is
in gaseous form (with traces of detectable solid matter) as interstellar
clouds or in plasma form within stars
is the elastic tendency of a fluid surface which makes it
acquire the least surface area possible. Surface tension allows insects
(e.g. water striders), usually denser than water, to float and stride on a
water surface. At liquid–air interfaces, surface tension results from the
greater attraction of liquid molecules to each other (due to cohesion)
than to the molecules in the air (due to adhesion). The net effect is an
surface that causes the liquid to behave as if its surface were covered
with a stretched elastic membrane. Thus, the surface becomes under tension
from the imbalanced forces, which is probably where the term "surface
tension" came from. Because of the relatively high attraction of water
molecules for each other through a web of hydrogen bonds, water has a
higher surface tension (72.8 millinewtons per meter at 20 °C) compared to
that of most other liquids. Surface tension is an important factor in the
phenomenon of capillarity. Surface tension has the dimension of force per
unit length, or of energy per unit area. The two are equivalent, but when
referring to energy per unit of area, it is common to use the term surface
energy, which is a more general term in the sense that it applies also to
solids. In materials science, surface tension is used for either
or surface free energy.
is a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that deals with fluid flow.
Volumetric image of a helical vortex leapfrogging through a vortex ring in
, with dye-blob tracks overlaid in warm colors.
is the branch of physics that studies the mechanics of fluids (liquids,
gases, and plasmas) and the forces on them. Fluid mechanics has a wide
range of applications, including for mechanical engineering, chemical
engineering, geophysics, astrophysics, and biology. Fluid mechanics can be
divided into fluid statics, the study of fluids at rest; and fluid
dynamics, the study of the effect of forces on fluid motion
the branch of fluid mechanics that studies incompressible fluids at rest.
It encompasses the study of the conditions under which fluids are at rest
in stable equilibrium as opposed to fluid dynamics, the study of fluids in
motion. Hydrostatics are categorized as a part of the fluid statics, which
is the study of all fluids, incompressible or not, at rest.
sometimes capillarity, capillary motion, or wicking, is the ability of a
liquid to flow in narrow spaces without the assistance of, or even in
opposition to, external forces like gravity. The effect can be seen in the
drawing up of liquids between the hairs of a paint-brush, in a thin tube,
in porous materials such as paper and plaster, in some non-porous
materials such as sand and liquefied carbon fiber, or in a cell. It occurs
because of intermolecular forces between the liquid and surrounding solid
surfaces. If the diameter of the tube is sufficiently small, then the
combination of surface tension (which is caused by cohesion within the
liquid) and adhesive forces between the liquid and container wall act to
lift the liquid.
is a state of matter in which the matter behaves like a fluid with zero
viscosity; where it appears to exhibit the ability to self-propel and
travel in a way that defies the forces of gravity and surface tension.
Superfluidity is found in astrophysics, high-energy physics
theories of quantum gravity. The phenomenon is related to
Bose–Einstein condensation, but neither is a specific type of the other:
not all Bose-Einstein condensates can be regarded as superfluids, and
not all superfluids are Bose–Einstein condensates.
fluid is a measure of its
to gradual deformation by shear
stress or tensile stress
. For liquids, it corresponds to the informal
concept of "thickness"; for example, honey has a much higher viscosity
than water. Heat.
Rain has that certain smell, so why does rain have an odor?
How Much Does One Ml Of Water Weigh At 4
Pure water has the highest density at the temperature of 3.98
degrees Celsius. The density is then 999.975 kg/m3 or 0.9999750
g/cm3 or 0.9999750 g/mL.
At 4°C pure water has a density (weight or mass) of about 1 g/cu.cm,
1 g/ml, 1 kg/litre, 1000 kg/cu.m, 1 tonne/cu.m
Water was used as the basis for establishing the
metric unit of mass
, however, so it is easier to remember
of it has a mass of 1 gm. Knowing that
there are 1000 cubic centi-meters in a
, you can also use 1
kilogram (1000 grams) per liter for water's
Properties of Water
is a polar inorganic compound that is at
room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, nearly colorless with a
hint of blue. The simplest hydrogen chalcogenide, it is by far the most
studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal
solvent" for its ability to dissolve many
substances. This allows it to be the "solvent of life". It is the only
common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas in nature.
The magnetic fluctuations
of the tides
depend on the
of the water -- and the
electrical conductivity of the water depends on its temperature
than 90 percent of the excess heat in the Earth system goes into the
Water is the second most abundant substance in the universe
dissolves more materials than any other solvent. It stores
incredible amounts of energy. Life as we know it would not be
possible without it. And although it covers more than 70% of the
Earth’s surface, many parts of the world are in dire straits for
lack of it. Water makes up 75% of
. Every day we drink
it, bathe in it, clean with it and use it to dispose of our
wastes. Two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen. The hydrogen
bonds that continually form and reform between its slightly
negatively charged oxygen and slightly positively charged
hydrogen components. Thanks to these bonds, water molecules
attract one another far more strongly than those of almost any
other substance. As it cools from its liquid to solid state,
actually expands. Virtually every other substance becomes denser
as it “freezes,” but thanks to this remarkable property, ice
cubes float in our drinks. More importantly for living
organisms, lakes and other bodies of water freeze from the top
down. The average snow crystal contains about 10 quintillion (10
followed by 18 zeroes) water molecules,
it is easy to see why the number of possible combinations is
unimaginably large. Water has a cycle of evaporation,
condensation, precipitation and runoff back to seas and lakes.
The same is true among living organisms, where the hydrogen and
oxygen constituents of water are continually combining and
recombining through the processes of photosynthesis and
respiration. Each time we break down a molecule of glucose, we
produce six molecules of water, a reaction that takes place in
the typical human body about six septillion (6 followed by 24
zeroes) times per day. Even so, we still don’t produce enough
water to meet our own needs. 3% of the Earth’s water is fresh
water, the other 97% being found in the oceans. And about 70% of
this fresh water is found in glaciers and the ice caps of
Antarctica. Earth holds enough water to make a sphere about 860
miles in diameter.
Why does heating water make it a better solvent?
Adding energy (heating
molecular motion competes with the attraction between solute molecules
tends to make them come apart more easily. Increased
causes more solvent molecules to contact solute molecules and pull on them
with more force, usually resulting in more dissolving. Since different
substances are made from different atoms, ions, or molecules, increased
temperature will affect their dissolving to different extents.
At a low temperature
a gas molecule travels, on the average,
at a slower speed
than than it would at a high
. So, at a low
temperature the molecules have, on the average, less
they do at a high temperature. Lower speeds, lower
is added to a substance, the molecules
atoms vibrate faster
As atoms vibrate faster, the space between atoms increases. The motion and
spacing of the particles determines the state of
of the substance.
The end result of increased molecular motion is that the object expands
and takes up more space
of the object remains the same,
however. Solids, liquids and gases all expand when heat is added. When
heat leaves all substances, the molecules vibrate slower. The atoms can
get closer which results in the matter contracting
. Again, the mass is not
changed.Why does Hot Air Rise?
When an object or substance heats
up, the atoms which compose it start to move and vibrate more quickly.
This vibration pushes them apart, causing them to take up more space. That
means that a given volume of air (or water, or whatever) will have fewer
atoms in it, because some of them were pushed out as it expanded. Fewer
atoms means less mass
, means less weight per volume. Less weight per
volume means less density.
of a substance is its mass
is a small hot air balloon made of paper, with an opening at
the bottom where a small fire is suspended. They can be dangerous because
they could land and start a fire.
Hot Air Balloon
is a lighter than air aircraft consisting of a bag,
called an envelope, which contains heated air. Suspended beneath is a
gondola or wicker basket (in some long-distance or high-altitude balloons,
a capsule), which carries passengers and (usually) a source of heat, in
most cases an open flame. The heated air inside the envelope makes it
buoyant since it has a lower density than the colder air outside the
envelope. As with all aircraft, hot air balloons cannot fly beyond the
atmosphere. Unlike gas balloons, the envelope does not have to be sealed
at the bottom, since the air near the bottom of the envelope is at the
same pressure as the surrounding air. In modern sport balloons the
envelope is generally made from nylon fabric and the inlet of the balloon
(closest to the burner flame) is made from a fire resistant material such
as Nomex. Modern balloons have been made in all kinds of shapes, such as
rocket ships and the shapes of various commercial products, though the
traditional shape is used for most non-commercial, and many commercial,
is the property of a solid, liquid, or
gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid,
or gaseous solvent. The solubility of a substance fundamentally depends on
the physical and chemical properties of the solute and solvent as well as
of the solution. The extent of the
solubility of a substance in a specific solvent is measured as the
saturation concentration, where adding more solute does not increase the
concentration of the solution and begins to precipitate the excess amount
of solute. The solubility of a substance is an entirely different property
from the rate of solution, which is how fast it dissolves. Solvents
composed of polar molecules, such as water, dissolve other polar
molecules, such as table salt, while nonpolar solvents, such as gasoline,
dissolve nonpolar substances such as wax. The degree that a solvent
dissolves a given solute is known as its solubility.
is a molecule that's
"The probability of you drinking a glass of water that contains a
molecule of water that also passed through a dinosaur is almost
Does water take longer to boil at
A common misconception is that it takes longer to boil water at
. As explained, it is the exact opposite.
Increased elevation = decreased
. Thus this lower boiling point actually takes
less time to reach, so water starts to boil at a lower
temperature. The confusion is created by the fact that because of this lower
boiling point, it actually takes longer to cook food in or over
water. Because less
, it will take longer to cook a pot of
Pasta at 10,000 feet than at 1,000 feet elevation.
Other factors not related to
gain, such as colder
, can also increase the
food over a stove
. These factors can be combated using a
stove windscreen. Altitude affects cooking in
three different ways: As elevation increases, the boiling point
of water decreases – When water boils at lower
takes longer for foods to cook in or over water because less
heat is being transferred. As water’s boiling point decreases
and cooking times increase, the quicker liquid will evaporate –
Because water is boiling at a lower temperature, water will
sooner. As elevation increases,
decreases and the faster leavening gases (air,
) expand – This mostly only
affects baking at high altitudes where the amount of
should be reduced. For water to increase in
temperature, water molecules must be made to move faster within the water;
this requires breaking hydrogen bonds, and the breaking of hydrogen bonds
absorbs heat. Heat Capacity
is the capability of water to absorb heat without undergoing an increase
High Altitude Cooking
of a substance is the
at which the vapor
pressure of the liquid equals the
surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor. The boiling
point of a liquid varies depending upon the surrounding environmental
Boil Water with No
Heat! - Hydrostatics
is the observation that, in some circumstances, warmer
water can freeze faster than colder water. there is disagreement on
exactly what the effect is and under what circumstances it occurs.
is any one of a number of substances used in doughs and batters that cause
a foaming action (gas bubbles) that lightens and softens. An alternative
or supplement to leavening agents is a mechanical action by which air is
incorporated. Leavening agents can be biological or synthetic chemical
compounds. The gas produced is often carbon dioxide, or occasionally
hydrogen. When a dough or batter is mixed, the starch in the flour and the
water in the dough form a matrix (often supported further by proteins like
gluten or polysaccharides, such as pentosans or xanthan gum). Then the
starch gelatinizes and sets, leaving gas bubbles that remain.
is the branch of physics
that studies the mechanics of fluids (liquids, gases, and plasmas) and the
forces on them.
is the branch of fluid mechanics that studies
states that an increase in the speed of a fluid
occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in the
fluid's potential energy
is the Force
applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit
area over which that force is distributed force divided by area.
is a scientific instrument used in meteorology to measure
is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the
sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the
pressure exerted by the weight of air in the atmosphere of Earth
atmospheric pressure is closely approximated by the
caused by the weight of air above the measurement
is water frozen into a solid state. Depending on the presence of
impurities such as particles of soil or bubbles of air, it can appear
transparent or a more or less opaque bluish-white color.
are solid ice exhibiting atomic ordering
various length scales and include hexagonal columns, hexagonal plates,
dendritic crystals, and diamond dust. The highly symmetric shapes are due
to depositional growth, namely, direct deposition of water vapour onto the
ice-phase-one is the hexagonal crystal form of
ordinary ice, or frozen water. Virtually all ice in the biosphere is ice
Ih, with the exception only of a small amount of ice Ic that is
occasionally present in the upper atmosphere. Ice Ih exhibits many
peculiar properties that are relevant to the existence of life and
regulation of global climate.
is a metastable cubic crystalline variant of ice.
is a rhombohedral crystalline form of ice with a
highly ordered structure. It is formed from ice Ih by compressing it at
temperature of 198 K at 300 MPa or by decompressing ice V. When heated it
undergoes transformation to ice III. Ordinary water ice is known as ice Ih.
is a form of solid matter which consists of
tetragonal crystalline ice, formed by cooling water down to 250 K at 300
MPa. It is the least dense of the high-pressure water phases, with a
density of 1160 kg/m3 (at 350 MPa). The proton-ordered form of ice III is
Spinning ice disk in Michigan's Pine River
. An ice disc forms when a
section of ice on a partially frozen river breaks off and is pushed in
circular rotation by an eddy current, smoothing the ice disc into a
also known as a nimbus, icebow or gloriole)
is an optical phenomenon
produced by light interacting with
suspended in the atmosphere
resulting in a wide variety of colored or white rings, arcs and spots in
the sky. Many halos are near the Sun or Moon, but others occur elsewhere
or even in the opposite part of the sky. Halo types are the circular halo
(properly called the 22° halo), light pillars and sun dogs, but there are
many more; some of them fairly common, others (extremely) rare.
Ice Core Laboratory
: Analizing Earths History by
that go back thousands of years.
Molecules Arranged in a Lattice of Squares Between 2 Sheets of
Beautiful Glaciers and Ice Photos
Some of Earth’s water may have existed before the Sun was born
is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen. The nucleus of deuterium,
called a deuteron, contains one proton and one neutron, whereas the far
more common hydrogen isotope, protium, has no neutron in the nucleus.
Deuterium has a natural abundance in Earth's oceans of about one atom in
6420 of hydrogen.
What does a snowflake look like in zero gravity?
is a single ice crystal that has achieved a
sufficient size, and may have amalgamated with others, then falls through
the Earth's atmosphere as snow. Each flake nucleates around a dust
particle in supersaturated air masses by attracting supercooled cloud
water droplets, which freeze and accrete in crystal form.
emerge as the flake moves through differing temperature and
in the atmosphere, such that
individual snowflakes differ in detail from one another, but may be
categorized in eight broad classifications and at least 80 individual
variants. The main constituent shapes for ice crystals, from which
combinations may occur, are needle, column, plate and rime. Snowflakes
appear white in color despite being made of clear ice. This is due to
diffuse reflection of the whole spectrum of light
by the small crystal
facets. Once snowflakes land and accumulate, they undergo metamorphosis
with changes in temperature and coalesce into a snowpack. The
characteristics of the snowpack reflect the changed nature of the
constituent snow crystals.
material whose constituents (such
as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic
, forming a
extends in all directions. In addition, macroscopic single crystals are
usually identifiable by their geometrical shape, consisting of flat faces
with specific, characteristic orientations. The scientific study of
crystals and crystal formation is known as
. The process of crystal formation via mechanisms of
crystal growth is called
is a phase
transition in which a liquid
turns into a solid
when its temperature is lowered below its freezing point. For most
substances, the melting and freezing points are the same temperature;
however, certain substances possess differing solid–liquid transition
What does Ice Crystals look like in Space
Pattern Formation during Ice Crystal Growth
What happens to
Water in Space
Water in the
Vacuum of SpaceFractals
Water Encapsulated in a Double
(E-401) from the brown algae and
(E-509) in a concrete proportions in order to
generate a gelification on the exterior of the liquid. The final
package is simple, cheap (2ct/unit), resistant, hygienic,
biodegradable and even eatable.
(youtube) The Illumination' is a large ferrofluid display
with a light in the base and reflective colored ferrofluid.
Stand Like a Mountain, Flow Like Water
“Be like water making its way through
cracks. Do not be assertive, but adjust to the object, and you
shall find a way around or through it. If nothing within you
stays rigid, outward things will disclose themselves.
Empty your mind, be formless. Shapeless, like water. If you put
water into a cup, it becomes the cup. You put water into a
bottle and it becomes the bottle. You put it in a teapot, it
becomes the teapot. Now, water can flow or it can crash. Be like
water, my friend.” (Bruce
"Everyone should experience water,
and know what it feels like to swim like a fish. Either by
snorkeling or by scuba diving
. After all, we all were born in
water, whether in the womb, or in the sea. Water is Life."